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Thesaurus Literaturae Buddhicae
ā ī ū
ś ź
š č ǰ γ    
Note on the transliteration:
The transliteration system of the BP/TLB is based on the Unicode/UTF-8 system. However, there may be difficulties with some of the letters – particularly on PC/Windows-based systems, but not so much on the Mac. We have chosen the most accepted older and traditional systems of transliteration against, e.g, Wylie for Tibetan, since with Unicode it is possible, in Sanskrit and Tibetan, etc., to represent one sound with one letter in almost all the cases (excepting Sanskrit and Tibetan aspirated letters, and Tibetan tsa, tsha, dza). We thus do not use the Wylie system which widely employs two letters for one sound (ng, ny, sh, zh etc.).
We ask you in particular to note the use of the ’ apostrophe and not the ' representing the avagrāha in Sanskrit, and most important the ’a-chuṅ in Tibetan. On the Mac the ’ is Alt-M.
If you cannot find the letters on your key-board, you may click on the link "Diacritica" to access it for your search.
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Abbreviations for TLB
A -

Tabo MS fragments (Ta p(h)o / rTa po)

Anon. -


β -

hyparchetype based on G, N and Q.


Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit


Buddhist Manuscripts in the Schøyen Collection, see Braarvig (2000-2006)

Bnn -

Buddhanāmanirdeśa, Buddhāvataṃsaka chapter 11 (also known as (Proto-Buddhāvataṃsaka)

B -

Berlin MS Kanjur (catalogued by Hermann Beckh 1914)

Bspṭ -

Bodhisatvapiṭakasūtra (Sūtra)

Bśv -

Brahmaśrīvyākaraṇa (sūtra)


Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association (

Chi -


Cīv-v -

Cīvaravastu (MSV 1,07)

com. -


C -

Cone (Co ne) Kanjur (catalogued by Taishun Mibu 1959) and Tanjur

D -

Derge (sDe dge) Kanjur and Tanjur (catalogued by Hakuju Ui et al., 1934)

δ -

hyparchetype based on D, C and T.

Dūn -

Dūnhuáng; city in the Gansu province of China home to a major cave complex where a large number of manuscripts and artifacts have been retrieved; see St. and The International Dunhuang Project.

Dvr -

Drāmiḍāvidyārājā (sūtra)

E -

Newark MS Kanjur

ed. -


Eng -


F -

Phug brag MS Kanjur (catalogued by Jampa Samten, 1992)

G -

Ganden (dGa' ldan) or "Golden Manuscript" Tanjur

Gān -


Ger -


H -

Lhasa (lHa sa) Kanjur (catalogued by Jikidō Takasaki, 1965)


India Office Library

J -

Lithang (Li thaṅ) or 'Jaṅ Sa tham Kanjur (catalogued by Yoshiro Imaeda, 1982-84)

JK -

Johnston, E.H. and A. Kunst (1978)

Kg -

bKa’ ’gyur (Tibetan Buddhist canon of the Buddha's words), Derge edition, references to volume (Tibetan class and syllable numbering), page and line.

K -

Peking edition of the Kanjur prepared in 1684/92 under the Kangxi emperor

Khvs -

Khaḍgaviṣāṇasūtra (Khaggavisāṇasutta)

Kuṣ -


Lat -


L -

London MS Kanjur (listed by Eric. D Grinestead, 1967)

M -

Peking edition of the Mongolian Kanjur (catalogued by Louis Ligeti, 1942-44)

Ma -

Madhyamakāvatāra (Entering the Middle Way) by Candrakīrti (7th century)

Mabh -

Madhyamakāvatārabhāṣya (Auto-Commentary to Entering the Middle Way) by Candrakīrti (7th century)

Mon -


MonT -

Mongolian Tanǰur, Peking, 1748.

MS -


Msa -

Mahāyānasūtrālaṃkāra by Asaṅga/Maitreya and Bhāṣya by Vasubandhu.



MVy -


N -

Narthang (sNar thaṅ) Kanjur (listed by Shōdō Nagashima, 1975) and Tanjur (listed by Taishun Mibu, 1967)

O -

O rgyan gliṅ or Tawang MS Kanjur

p -

pañjikā (commentary)

Pāl -


Pro -

Proto-Buddhāvataṃsaka (also known as Buddhanāmanirdeśa, BA chapter 11)


Pali Text Society

Q -

Peking edition of Kanjur and Tanjur prepared in 1737 under the Qianlong emperor; also the modern photographic reprint of teh Peking edition, which is based on a combination of the 1717/20 and 1737 issues (reprinted and catalogued in The Tibetan Tripitaka, 1955-1961)

rec -


S -

Stog (sTog) Palace MS Kanjur (catalogued by Tadeusz Skorupski, 1985)

Ś -

reconstructed from Śong stons’s Tibetan translation.

San -




Śpś -

Śatapañcāśatka (= Prasādapratibhodhava) of Mātṛceṭa

St. -


Manuscripts retreived from Dūnhuáng by Auriel Stein; catalogued in La Vallée Poussin (1962).





ṭīkā (commentary)

T -

Tokyo or Kawaguchi MS Kanjur

T. -

大正新修大藏經, Taishō Shinshū Daizōkyō, Tokyo 1926-34, references to text no., page and line.

tegin -

tegin (TYKYN) - "the prince", Uighur abbreviated title of the History of the Princes Kalyāṇaṃkara and Pāpaṃkara

Tg -

bsTan ’gyur (Tibetan Buddhist canon of secondary litterature), Derge edition, references to volume (Tibetan class and syllable numbering), page and line.

Tib -


Toh -

Tohoku Catalogue number; see Ui, Suzuki, Kanakura and Tada (1934), A Complete Catalogue of The Tibetan Buddhist Canons (Bkaḥ-ḥgyur and Bstan-ḥgyur).

tr. -


U -

Urga Kanjur (catalogued by Géza Bethlenfalvy, 1982)

Uigh -


Uv -

Udānavarga, compiled by Dharmatrāta

v. -


W -

Edition of Kanjur and Kanjur Supplement (Yoshiro Imaeda, 1977) prepared under the Wanli emperor

Y -

Edition of Kanjur prepared under the Yongle emperor (Silk 1996)

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