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    Click to Expand/Collapse Option Complete text
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionTitle
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionPreface
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionDramatis Personae
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionIntroduction
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionSpeech of Timaeus
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionThe soul of the world
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionTime
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionGods visible and generated
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionCreation of the souls
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionBody and sense perceptions
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionNecessity
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionThe triangles
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionThe forth genera
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionMovement and stillness
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionForms of the genera
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionThe forms of the earth
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionSense perceptions
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionPleasure and weaknesses
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionPowers of the soul
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionOn the rest of the body
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionIllnesses of the body
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionIllnesses of the soul
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionOrigination of the other living beings
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionConcluding remarks
ΤΙΜΑΙΟΣ 
Timaeus 
CALCIDIUS: TIMAEI PLATO 
TIMAEVS PLATONIS 
TIMAEUS 
TIMAIOS 
 
Marci Tullii Ciceronis: Timaeus
I Multa sunt a nobis et in Academicis conscripta contra physicos et saepe cum P. Nigidio Carneadeo more et modo disputata. Fuit enim vir ille cum ceteris artibus, quae quidem dignae libero essent, ornatus omnibus, tum acer investigator et diligens earum rerum quae a natura involutae videntur; denique sic iudico, post illos nobiles Pythagoreos, quorum disciplina extincta est quodam modo, cum aliquot saecla in Italia Siciliaque viguisset, hunc extitisse qui illam renovaret. Qui cum me in Ciliciam proficiscentem Ephesi exspectavisset Romam ex legatione ipse decedens, venissetque eodem Mytilenis mei salutandi et visendi causa Cratippus Peripateticorum omnium, quos quidem ego audierim, meo iudicio facile princeps, perlibenter et Nigidium vidi et cognovi Cratippum. Ac primum quidem tempus salutationis in percunctatione consumpsimus ... 
PRAEFATIO
Isocrates in exhortationibus suis uirtutem laudans, cum omnium bonorum totiusque prosperitatis consistere causam penes eam diceret, addidit solam esse quae res impossibiles redigeret ad possibilem facilitatem. Praeclare; quid enim generosam magnanimitatem uel aggredi pigeat uel coeptum fatiget, ut tamquam uicta difficultatibus temperet a labore? Eadem est, opinor, uis amicitiae parque impossibilium paene rerum extricatio, cum alter ex amicis iubendi religione, alter parendi uoto complaciti operis adminiculentur effectui. Conceperas animo florente omnibus studiis humanitatis excellentique ingenio tuo dignam spem prouenturi operis intemptati ad hoc tempus eiusque usum a Graecis Latio statueras mutuandum. Et quamquam ipse hoc cum facilius tum commodius facere posses, credo propter admirabilem uerecundiam, ei potius malueris iniungere quem te esse alterum iudicares. Possemne, oro te, quamuis res esset ardua, tanto honore habito de quo ita senseras iniunctum excusare munus et, qui numquam ne in sollemnibus quidem et usitatis uoluntatibus ullum officium recusassem, huic tanto tamque honesto desiderio contradicere, in quo declinatio speciosi muneris excusatione ignorationis callida esset scientiae futura simulatio? Itaque parui certus non sine diuino instinctu id mihi a te munus iniungi proptereaque alacriore mente speque confirmatiore primas partes Timaei Platonis aggressus non solum transtuli sed etiam partis eiusdem commentarium feci putans reconditae rei simulacrum sine interpretationis explanatione aliquanto obscurius ipso exemplo futurum. Causa uero in partes diuidendi libri fuit operis prolixitas, simul quia cautius uidebatur esse, si tamquam libamen aliquod ad degustandum auribus atque animo tuo mitterem; quod cum non displicuisse rescriberetur, faceret audendi maiorem fiduciam.
PARS PRIMA TIMAEI PLATONIS 
 
ּ 
 
ΣΟΚΡΑΤΗΣ. ΤΙΜΑΙΟΣ. ΚΡΙΤΙΑΣ. ΗΡΜΟΚΡΑΤΗΣ. 
 
SOCRATES TIMAEUS HERMOCRATES CRITIAS 
SOCRATES. TIMAEVS. CRITIAS. HERMOCRATES. 
Persons of the dialogue. Socrates. Timaeus. Critias. Hermocrates. 
SOKRATES. TIMAIOS. KRITIAS. HERMOKRATES. 
(Πολιτεία) ΣΩ. Εἷς, δύο, τρεῖς·  ὁ δὲ δὴ τέταρτος ἡμῖν, ὦ φίλε Τίμαιε, ποῦ τῶν χθὲς μὲν δαιτυμόνων, τὰ νῦν δὲ ἑστιατόρων; 
   
SOCRATES. Unus duo tres;  quartum e numero, Timaee, uestro requiro, ut, qui hesterni quidem epuli conuiuae fueritis, hodierni praebitores inuitatoresque ex condicto resideatis. 
(703,38) Vnus, duo tres,  Quartus autem o amice Timaie eorum qui a me heri (39) conuiuio accepti, uicissim me accipiunt nunc, ubinam est. 
Timaeus. The appointed meeting. One, two, three;  but where, my dear Timaeus, is the fourth of those who were yesterday my guests and are to be my entertainers to-day? 
[17 St.] SOKRATES: Eins, Zwei, Drei sind da,  wo aber bleibt uns denn der Vierte, mein lieber Timaios, von denen, welche gestern bewirtet wurden, jetzt aber selber bewirten sollen? 
ΤΙ. Ἀσθένειά τις αὐτῷ συνέπεσεν, ὦ Σώκρατες·  οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἑκὼν τῆσδε ἀπελείπετο τῆς συνουσίας. 
   
TIMAEUS. Languor eum repente, ut fit, ortus moratur.  Nec enim sponte se tali coetu tantaeque rei tractatu et communicatione fraudaret. 
TI. Aduersa (40) aliqua ualetudine laborat o Socrates.  Non enim sponte ab hoc caetu et (41) disputatione absinuisset. 
He has been taken ill, Socrates;  for he would not willingly have been absent from this gathering. 
TIMAIOS: Es hat ihn gewiß irgend eine Unpäßlichkeit befallen, lieber Sokrates,  denn aus freien Stücken würde er wohl nicht aus dieser Gesellschaft wegbleiben. 
ΣΩ. Οὐκοῦν σὸν τῶνδέ τε ἔργον καὶ τὸ ὑπὲρ τοῦ ἀπόντος ἀναπληροῦν μέρος; 
 
SOCRATES. Ergo tui et item horum erit officii complere id quod deest participis absentia. 
SO. Ergo tuum o Timaie, et horum erit offi(42)cium, quarti illius absentis partes implere. 
Soc. Then, if he is not coming, you and the two others must supply his place. 
SOKRATES: Demnach dürfte es denn deine Aufgabe und die der Übrigen hier sein, auch die Stelle des Abwesenden auszufüllen? 
ΤΙ. Πάνυ μὲν οὖν, καὶ κατὰ δύναμίν γε οὐδὲν ἐλλείψομεν·  οὐδὲ γὰρ ἂν εἴη δίκαιον, χθὲς ὑπὸ σοῦ ξενισθέντας οἷς ἦν πρέπον ξενίοις, μὴ οὐ προθύμως σὲ τοὺς λοιποὺς ἡμῶν ἀνταφεστιᾶν. 
   
TIMAEUS. Aequum postulas. Denique enitemur omnes pro uiribus;  neque enim fas est laute acceptos heri minoris tibi apparatus repraesentare conuiuium. 
TI. Ita prorsus. Sane nihil (43) quoad fieri poterit, praetermittemus.  Nam cum laute abs te heri accepti (44) fuerimus, haud aequum sit, si non pari alacritate qui hic sumus uicissim (45) accipiamus. 
Tim. Certainly, and we will do all that we can;  having been handsomely entertained by you yesterday, those of us who remain should be only too glad to return your hospitality. 
TIMAIOS: Gewiß, und wir werden es in Nichts daran fehlen lassen, so weit es in unseren Kräften steht.  Denn nachdem wir gestern von dir mit Allem, was sich geziemt, gastfreundlich bewirtet worden sind, wäre es nicht recht, wenn wir Anderen dich nicht bereitwillig wiederbewirten wollten. 
ΣΩ. Ἆρ’ οὖν μέμνησθε ὅσα ὑμῖν καὶ περὶ ὧν ἐπέταξα εἰπεῖν; 
 
SOCRATES. Tenetis certe memoria praescriptam uobis a me tractatus normulam. 
SO. Non recordamini quae uobis et qua multa tractanda proposuis. 
Soc. The chief points in the Republic: — Do you remember what were the points of which I required you to speak? 
SOKRATES: Nun denn, erinnert ihr euch noch, wie viel und worüber ich euch zu sprechen aufgab? 
ΤΙ. Τὰ μὲν μεμνήμεθα, ὅσα δὲ μή, σὺ παρὼν ὑπομνήσεις·  μᾶλλον δέ, εἰ μή τί σοι χαλεπόν, ἐξ ἀρχῆς διὰ βραχέων πάλιν ἐπάνελθε αὐτά,  ἵνα βεβαιωθῇ μᾶλλον παρ’ ἡμῖν. 
     
TIMAEUS. Partim tenemus; in quibus porro nutabit memoria, praesens ipse in tempore suggeres.  Immo, nisi erit molestum, breuiter ab exordio dicta demum retexe,  quo digestus ordo solidetur. 
TI. Partim (46) quidem recordamur, partim uero tu, si exciderent suggeres.  Imo uero nisi molestum sit brevi(47)ter illa ab exordio repete,  quo magis ea nobis constent. 
Tim. We remember some of them, and you will be here to remind us of anything which we have forgotten:  or rather, if we are not troubling you, will you briefly recapitulate the whole,  and then the particulars will be more firmly fixed in our memories? 
TIMAIOS: Zum Teil erinnern wir uns dessen noch.  Was uns aber entfallen ist, an das uns wieder zu erinnern bist du ja da.  Oder lieber, wenn es dir nicht lästig ist, wiederhole es uns von Anfang an in der Kürze noch einmal, damit es sich besser in uns befestige. 
ΣΩ. Ταῦτ’ ἔσται.  χθές που τῶν ὑπ’ ἐμοῦ ῥηθέντων λόγων περὶ πολιτείας ἦν τὸ κεφάλαιον οἵα τε καὶ ἐξ οἵων ἀνδρῶν ἀρίστη κατεφαίνετ’ ἄν μοι γενέσθαι. 
   
SOCRATES. Ita fiet.  Cardo, nisi fallor, disputationis hesternae res erat publica, qualis mihi quibusque institutis et moribus ciuium uideretur optima. 
SO. Faciam equidem.  Summa disputa(48)tionis hesterne erat, Resp. qualis mihi, et ex qualibus uiris optima posse fieri uideret. 
Soc. To be sure I will:  the chief theme of my yesterday’s discourse was the State — how constituted and of what citizens composed it would seem likely to be most perfect. 
SOKRATES: Das soll geschehen.  Der Hauptinhalt meiner gestrigen Erörterungen über den Staat war ungefähr dieser, wie und aus was für Männern sich derselbe nach meiner Meinung am Besten gestalten würde. 
ΤΙ. Καὶ μάλα γε ἡμῖν, ὦ Σώκρατες, ῥηθεῖσα πᾶσιν κατὰ νοῦν. 
 
TIMAEUS. Nobis certe qui audiebamus, o Socrate, ad arbitrium probata. 
TI. (49) Nobis certe omnibus valde probata sunt o Socrates qae dixisti. 
Tim. Yes, Socrates; and what you said of it was very much to our mind. 
TIMAIOS: Ja, und zwar ganz nach unser Aller Sinne stelltest du ihn dar. 
ΣΩ. Ἆρ’ οὖν οὐ τὸ τῶν γεωργῶν ὅσαι τε ἄλλαι τέχναι πρῶτον ἐν αὐτῇ χωρὶς διειλόμεθα ἀπὸ τοῦ γένους τοῦ τῶν προπολεμησόντων; 
 
SOCRATES. Quid illud? Nonne inter initia cultores agrorum caeterarumque artium professores a destinata bellicis negotiis iuuentute secreuimus? 
SO. Principio agricolas (50) caeterosque artifices a militibus seperavimus. 
Soc. [1. Separation of classes.] Did we not begin by separating the husbandmen and the artisans from the class of defenders of the State? 
SOKRATES: Schieden wir nun nicht zuerst in ihm den Beruf der Landbauer und alle andern Gewerbe von der Klasse derer, denen die Kriegführung für Alle obliegen sollte? 
ΤΙ. Ναί. 
 
TIMAEUS. Sic factum est. 
TI. Certe. 
Tim. Yes. 
TIMAIOS: Ja. 
ΣΩ. Καὶ κατὰ φύσιν δὴ δόντες τὸ καθ’ αὑτὸν ἑκάστῳ πρόσφορον ἓν μόνον ἐπιτήδευμα, μίαν ἑκάστῳ τέχνην, τούτους οὓς πρὸ πάντων ἔδει πολεμεῖν, εἴπομεν ὡς ἄρ’ αὐτοὺς δέοι φύλακας εἶναι μόνον τῆς πόλεως, εἴτε τις ἔξωθεν ἢ καὶ τῶν ἔνδοθεν ἴοι κακουργήσων,  δικάζοντας μὲν πρᾴως τοῖς ἀρχομένοις ὑπ’ αὐτῶν καὶ φύσει φίλοις οὖσιν, χαλεποὺς δὲ ἐν ταῖς μάχαις τοῖς ἐντυγχάνουσιν τῶν ἐχθρῶν γιγνομένους. 
   
SOCRATES. Tributo nempe caeteris quod cuique eximium a natura datum est solis his qui pro salute omnium bella tractarent unum hoc munus iniunximus protegendae ciuitatis uel aduersum externos uel aduersum intestinos ac domesticos hostes, mitibus quidem iudiciis erga oboedientes,  utpote consanguineos naturaque amicos, asperis autem contra armatas acies in congressionibus Martiis, biformi siquidem natura praeditos, in tutela patriae ciuiumque ferociores, porro in pacis officiis religione sapientes proptereaque mites suis, aduersum alienigenas feroces. 
SO. Cum uero cuique quod pro na(50)turae instinctu paecipue suum est, et singula tantum singulis artibus officia tribuerimus, illis (50) quoque quos prae caeteris bella gerere oporteret, id unum dumtaxat, protegemdae scilicet ciuitatis (704,1) munus iniunximus, et aduersus externos hoster, et aduersus ciues reipu.euersores:  ita ut (2) erga subiectos tanque natura amicos mites sint, contra hostes uero praelio ferossimi. 
Soc. [2. Division of labour.] And when we had given to each one that single employment and particular art which was suited to his nature, we spoke of those who were intended to be our warriors, and said that they were to be guardians of the city against attacks from within as well as from without, and to have no other employment;  they were to be merciful in judging their subjects, of whom they were by nature friends, but fierce to their enemies, when they came across them in battle. 
SOKRATES: Und indem wir je nach seiner Naturbeschaffenheit einem Jeden nur die eine, ihm allein angemessene Beschäftigung und einem Jeden nach seiner Art sein Gewerbe zuerteilten, erklärten wir, daß diejenigen, welche für alle in den Krieg ziehen sollten, auch Nichts weiter als Wächter des Staates sein dürften, wenn etwa Einer von außen her oder auch Einer von den Einwohnenden käme, um ihm zu schaden,  und zwar so, [18 St.] daß sie die von ihnen Beherrschten als ihre natürlichen Freunde milde richten, denen aber, welche ihnen in den Schlachten als Feinde begegneten, hart zusetzen sollten. 
ΤΙ. Παντάπασι μὲν οὖν. 
 
TIMAEUS. Memini. 
TI. (3) Ita prorsus. 
Tim. Exactly. 
TIMAIOS: Allerdings. 
ΣΩ. Φύσιν γὰρ οἶμαί τινα τῶν φυλάκων τῆς ψυχῆς ἐλέγομεν ἅμα μὲν θυμοειδῆ, ἅμα δὲ φιλόσοφον δεῖν εἶναι διαφερόντως, ἵνα πρὸς ἑκατέρους δύναιντο ὀρθῶς πρᾷοι καὶ χαλεποὶ γίγνεσθαι. 
 
SOCRATES. Quid? Huius ipsius ancipitis naturae magisterium et quasi quandam nutricationem nonne in exercitio corporum gymnasiorumque luctamine, animorum item placiditatem constituebamus in delinimentis et affabilitate musicae caeterarumque institutionum quas adulescentes ingenuos scire par est? 
SO. Duplicaem sane naturam in custodum animis esse debere diximus, et ira(4)cundam, et philosophica ingenio praecipue accommodatam, ut recte in suos mansueti sint, in alienos autem feroces. 
Soc. [3. The double character of the guardians.] We said, if I am not mistaken, that the guardians should be gifted with a temperament in a high degree both passionate and philosophical; and that then they would be as they ought to be, gentle to their friends and fierce with their enemies. 
SOKRATES: Denn die Seelen der Wächter müßten, so denke ich, sagten wir, eine gewisse zugleich willenskräftige, zugleich aber auch ganz vorzüglich zur richtigen Erkenntnis hinstrebende Natur besitzen, damit sie gegen jeden von beiden Teilen mild oder hart zu sein vermöchten. 
ΤΙ. Ναί. 
 
TIMAEUS. Ita. 
TI. Procul dubio. 
Tim. Certainly. 
TIMAIOS: Ja wohl. 
ΣΩ. Τί δὲ τροφήν;  ἆρ’ οὐ γυμναστικῇ καὶ μουσικῇ μαθήμασίν τε ὅσα προσήκει τούτοις, ἐν ἅπασι τεθράφθαι; 
   
   
SO. Quid autem de educatione dicemus:  (6) Nonne gymnicis exercitationibus, et musica, caeterisque decentibus disicplinis, eos a no(7)bis institutts fuisse? 
Soc. [4 Their education.]And what did we say of their education?  Were they not to be trained in gymnastic, and music, and all other sorts of knowledge which were proper for them? 
SOKRATES: Und dann was ihre Erziehung anlangte,  sagten wir da nicht, daß sie im Turnen und in der Tonkunst und in allen für sie erforderlichen Zweigen des Wissens gebildet werden müßten? 
ΤΙ. Πάνυ μὲν οὖν. 
 
 
TI. Valde quidem. 
Tim. Very true. 
TIMAIOS: Freilich. 
ΣΩ. Τοὺς δέ γε οὕτω τραφέντας ἐλέχθη που μήτε χρυσὸν μήτε ἄργυρον μήτε ἄλλο ποτὲ μηδὲν κτῆμα ἑαυτῶν ἴδιον νομίζειν δεῖν,  ἀλλ’ ὡς ἐπικούρους μισθὸν λαμβάνοντας τῆς φυλακῆς παρὰ τῶν σῳζομένων ὑπ’ αὐτῶν, ὅσος σώφροσιν μέτριος,  ἀναλίσκειν τε δὴ κοινῇ καὶ συνδιαιτωμένους μετὰ ἀλλήλων ζῆν, ἐπιμέλειαν ἔχοντας ἀρετῆς διὰ παντός, τῶν ἄλλων ἐπιτηδευμάτων ἄγοντας σχολήν. 
     
SOCRATES. At uero hac educatione altis auri argentique et supellectilis caeterae possessionem cuiusque propriam nullam esse aut existimari licere praediximus  sed sola mercede contentos, exhibentibus quorum salutem tuerentur,  uti communiter tanta quae satis sit occupatis erga custodiam communis salutis et a caetera functione operis cessantibus. 
SO. Ita educatos homines neque aurum, neque argen(8)tum, neque aliud quisque proprium, aut habere, aut putare statuimus,  sed tanque adiutores pu(9)blicosque ministros sola mercede contentos esse, tanta ab his quos tuentur exhibita, quan(10)ta moderate viventibus sufficere videatur.  Stipendio praetera publico in commune uti (11) voluimus, et ad communem inter se victum impendere, ut caeteris posthabitis omnibus (12) solius virtutis et custodiae curam habeant. 
Soc. [5. Community of goods] And being thus trained they were not to consider gold or silver or anything else to be their own private property;  they were to be like hired troops, receiving pay for keeping guard from those who were protected by them — the pay was to be no more than would suffice for men of simple life;  and they were to spend in common, and to live together in the continual practice of virtue, which was to be their sole pursuit. 
SOKRATES: Und wenn sie dann so gebildet wären, so etwa fuhren wir fort, sollten sie weder Gold noch Silber noch überhaupt irgend etwas Anderes jemals als ihr ausschließliches Eigentum ansehen dürfen,  sondern als Beschützer von ihren Schützlingen für deren Bewachung einen Sold von der Größe empfangen, wie sie zu einem mäßigen Leben hinreicht,  und sollten denselben dann gemeinsam mit einander verzehren und zusammenspeisend mit einander leben und ihr Streben durchaus allein auf die Tugend richten, von allen andern Geschäften aber befreit sein. 
ΤΙ. Ἐλέχθη καὶ ταῦτα ταύτῃ. 
 
TIMAEUS. Dicta haec omnia in istum modum sunt. 
TI. Haec quoque ita abs te dicta fuerunt. 
Tim. That was also said. 
TIMAIOS: Auch das ward so festgesetzt. 
ΣΩ. Καὶ μὲν δὴ καὶ περὶ γυναικῶν ἐπεμνήσθημεν,  ὡς τὰς φύσεις τοῖς ἀνδράσιν παραπλησίας εἴη συναρμοστέον,  καὶ τὰ ἐπιτηδεύματα πάντα κοινὰ κατά τε πόλεμον καὶ κατὰ τὴν ἄλλην δίαιταν δοτέον πάσαις. 
     
SOCRATES. De feminis quoque opinor habitam mentionem,  quod similes eiusdemque naturae maribus conueniat effingi sine ulla mo rum differentia,  quo uterque sexus isdem et communibus institutis regatur. 
SO. Na(13)turam praeterea mulierum  non aliter quam virorum effingi praecepimus,  studiaque omnia (14) tam belli quam pacis mulieribus cum viris esse communia. 
Soc. [6 The women to share in the pursuits of the men.] Neither did we forget the women;  of whom we declared, that their natures should be assimilated and brought into harmony with those of the men,  and that common pursuits should be assigned to them both in time of war and in their ordinary life. 
SOKRATES: Und was dann ferner ihre Frauen anbetrifft, so gedachten wir doch auch dessen,  daß man nur solche von ähnlicher Beschaffenheit ihnen zugesellen dürfe  und daß man denselben in Bezug auf den Krieg so wie auf die übrige Lebensweise allen ganz die nämlichen Beschäftigungen zuerteilen müßte. 
ΤΙ. Ταύτῃ καὶ ταῦτα ἐλέγετο. 
 
 
TI. Id quo dictum. 
Tim. That, again, was as you say. 
TIMAIOS: In dieser Weise ward auch dieses ausgemacht. 
ΣΩ. Τί δὲ δὴ τὸ περὶ τῆς παιδοποιίας;  ἢ τοῦτο μὲν διὰ τὴν ἀήθειαν τῶν λεχθέντων εὐμνημόνευτον,  ὅτι κοινὰ τὰ τῶν γάμων καὶ τὰ τῶν παίδων πᾶσιν ἁπάντων ἐτίθεμεν,  μηχανωμένους ὅπως μηδείς ποτε τὸ γεγενημένον αὐτῶν ἰδίᾳ γνώσοιτο,  νομιοῦσιν δὲ πάντες πάντας αὐτοὺς ὁμογενεῖς,  ἀδελφὰς μὲν καὶ ἀδελφοὺς ὅσοιπερ ἂν τῆς πρεπούσης ἐντὸς ἡλικίας γίγνωνται,  τοὺς δ’ ἔμπροσθεν καὶ ἄνωθεν γονέας τε καὶ γονέων προγόνους,  τοὺς δ’ εἰς τὸ κάτωθεν ἐκγόνους παῖδάς τε ἐκγόνων; 
               
Quid de procreandis suscipiendisque liberis?  An uero hoc ita ut caetera, quae praeter opinionem hominum consuetudinemque uitae dici uidentur,  memorabile uiuaciorisque tenacitatis de existimandis communibus nuptiis communique prole,  si suos quisque minime internoscat affectus proptereaque  omnes omnibus religionem consanguinitatis exhibeant,  dum aequales quidem fratrum et sororum caritate benivolentiaque ducantur,  maioribus vero parentum religio eorumque antiquioribus auorum exhibeatur atque atavorum reverentia  infraque filiis et nepotibus debita caritas atque indulgentia conualescat? 
SO. Ante (15) netis memoria quae de procreandis liberis diximus?  Forte vero ob rei ipsius novitatem fir(16)miter tenuistis.  Communes quippe nuptias liberosque statuimus,  ut nemo natos suos dis(17)cernat,  sed omnes ab omnibus consanguinei existimentur,  dum aequales ferme natu fra(18)tres sororesque vicissim se iudicant,  maioribus vero patrum vel aurum reverentiam exhi(19)bent,  erga minores autem tanquam filios et nepotes afficiuntur. 
Soc. [7. Community of wives and children.] And what about the procreation of children?  Or rather was not the proposal too singular to be forgotten?  for all wives and children were to be in common,  to the intent that no one should ever know his own child,  but they were to imagine that they were all one family;  those who were within a suitable limit of age were to be brothers and sisters,  those who were of an elder generation parents and grandparents,  and those of a younger, children and grandchildren. 
SOKRATES: Was stellten wir denn ferner hinsichtlich der Kinderzeugung fest?  Doch das ist wohl schon wegen der Ungewöhnlichkeit dessen, was darüber angeordnet ward, leicht zu behalten,  daß wir nämlich Alles, was Ehen und Kinder anlangt, Allen insgesamt gemeinschaftlich machten,  indem wir Anstalten dafür treffen ließen, daß Keiner jemals seine Abkömmlinge vor denen der Andern heraus erkennen könnte,  sondern Alle sie insgesamt als von gleicher Abkunft betrachten würden,  nämlich als Schwestern und Brüder, so weit sie innerhalb des passenden Alters geboren wären,  die aber ein Menschenalter vorher und noch weiter zurück Geborenen als Eltern und Großeltern,  und die in absteigender Linie Geborenen als Kinder und Kindeskinder. 
ΤΙ. Ναί, καὶ ταῦτα εὐμνημόνευτα ᾗ λέγεις. 
 
TIMAEUS. Haec quoque facilia memoratu et a nobis retinentur optime. 
TI. Haec quoque memora (20) tu facilia sunt. 
Tim. Yes, and the proposal is easy to remember, as you say. 
TIMAIOS: Ja, und es ist dies, wie du sagst, leicht zu behalten. 
ΣΩ. Ὅπως δὲ δὴ κατὰ δύναμιν εὐθὺς γίγνοιντο ὡς ἄριστοι τὰς φύσεις,  ἆρ’ οὐ μεμνήμεθα ὡς τοὺς ἄρχοντας ἔφαμεν καὶ τὰς ἀρχούσας δεῖν εἰς τὴν τῶν γάμων σύνερξιν λάθρᾳ μηχανᾶσθαι κλήροις τισὶν  ὅπως οἱ κακοὶ χωρὶς οἵ τ’ ἀγαθοὶ ταῖς ὁμοίαις ἑκάτεροι συλλήξονται, καὶ μή τις αὐτοῖς ἔχθρα διὰ ταῦτα γίγνηται, τύχην ἡγουμένοις αἰτίαν τῆς συλλήξεως; 
     
SOCRATES. Quid illud, quod sine odio atque aemulatione nubentium melioribus procis melius moratae uirgines sortito obueniant, inferiores porro inferioribus?  Non tenetis saluberrimam sortis fraudem curantibus in utroque sexu praefectis nuptiarum,  quo suam quisque fortunam sortis improsperam culpet nec praelationem doleat alterius? 
SO. Ut autem quem optimi ab ipso initio pro viribus gignerentur,  magistratus (21) utriusque sexus nuptius praeposuimus, qui clam fortibus quibusdam operam darent,  ut pra(22)vi pravis, boni contra bonis mulieribus miscerentur, neque ulla ob hoc discordia oriretur,(23) cum in congressu minus prospero quisque fortunam potius sit quem consilium principium cul(24)paturus 
Soc. [8. The nuptial lots.] And do you also remember how, with a view of securing as far as we could the best breed,  we said that the chief magistrates, male and female, should contrive secretly, by the use of certain lots, so to arrange the nuptial meeting,  that the bad of either sex and the good of either sex might pair with their like; and there was to be no quarrelling on this account, for they would imagine that the union was a mere accident, and was to be attributed to the lot? 
SOKRATES: Damit sie nun aber gleich mit so vortrefflicher Naturanlage als möglich geboren würden,  erinnern wir uns nicht, daß wir festsetzten, es müßten die Vorsteher und Vorsteherinnen des Staates für die Schließung der Ehen vermittelst gewisser Lose die Einrichtung treffen,  daß die Guten und die Schlechten gesondert von einander beide mit Weibern von gleicher Beschaffenheit zusammenkämen und daß so deswegen keine Feindschaft unter ihnen entstände, indem sie vielmehr den Zufall als die Ursache der jedesmaligen Verbindung ansähen? 
ΤΙ. Μεμνήμεθα. 
 
TIMAEUS. Hoc quoque memoria tenemus. 
TI. Recordamur. 
Tim. I remember. 
TIMAIOS: Wir erinnern uns dessen. 
ΣΩ. Καὶ μὴν ὅτι γε τὰ μὲν τῶν ἀγαθῶν θρεπτέον ἔφαμεν εἶναι,  τὰ δὲ τῶν κακῶν εἰς τὴν ἄλλην λάθρᾳ διαδοτέον πόλιν·  ἐπαυξανομένων δὲ σκοποῦντας ἀεὶ τοὺς ἀξίους πάλιν ἀνάγειν δεῖν,  τοὺς δὲ παρὰ σφίσιν ἀναξίους εἰς τὴν τῶν ἐπανιόντων χώραν μεταλλάττειν; 
       
SOCRATES. Illud etiam promulgatum puto, lectorum fetus parentum summa cura, utpote naturale bonitatis priuilegium praeferentes, alendos.  See 4 records below  See 3 records below  See 2 records below 
SO. Praetera sanximus bonorum faetus in patria alendos esse,  (25)aliorum vero alios alio clam mittendos.  Adultos demum utrosque diligenter consideran(26)dos: ut si qui inter relegatos bonae indolis sint, in patriam revocentur:  si qui vero interdo(27)mesticos contra videantur affecti, similiter relegentur. 
Soc. [9. Transposition of good and bad citizens.] And you remember how we said that the children of the good parents were to be educated,  and the children of the bad secretly dispersed among the inferior citizens;  and while they were all growing up the rulers were to be on the look-out, and to bring up from below in their turn those who were worthy,  and those among themselves who were unworthy were to take the places of those who came up? 
[19 St.] SOKRATES: Und doch wohl auch dessen, daß wir feststellten, daß die Kinder der Guten aufgezogen,  die der Schlechten aber heimlich unter die übrigen Angehörigen des Staates verteilt werden müßten,  und wie die Staatsvorsteher dann die Heranwachsenden zu beobachten und die Würdigen von ihnen wieder in ihren Geburtsstand zurückzuversetzen,  die Unwürdigen innerhalb dieses letzteren selbst aber in den Platz dieser Wiederhinaufgerückten einzustellen hätten? 
ΤΙ. Οὕτως. 
 
TIMAEUS. Id ipsum. 
TI. Ita statutum est. 
Tim. True. 
TIMAIOS: Freilich. 
ΣΩ. Ἆρ’ οὖν δὴ διεληλύθαμεν ἤδη καθάπερ χθές, ὡς ἐν κεφαλαίοις πάλιν ἐπανελθεῖν,  ἢ ποθοῦμεν ἔτι τι τῶν ῥηθέντων, ὦ φίλε Tίμαιε, ὡς ἀπολειπόμενον; 
   
SOCRATES. Caeteros alii cuidam usui patriae futuros processuque aetatis eorum nihilo remissiore cura notanda pueritiae et item adulescentiae merita, quo tam ex secundi ordinis populo prouehantur ad primum ordinem propugnatorum qui merebuntur quam ex his qui a parentum uirtute degenerauerint ad secundae dignitatis ordinem relegentur.  Ecquid ergo, Timaee, satis uidetur factum recepto cunctis partibus orationis hesternae strictim licet compendioque decursis an aliquid etiam uultis addi? 
SO. Num fatis (28) iam hesternam disputationem quantum compendio licet, narravimus?  an aliquid etiam (29) a me praetermissum o amice Timaee recenseri desideras? 
Soc. Then have I now given you all the heads of our yesterday’s discussion?  Or is there anything more, my dear Timaeus, which has been omitted? 
SOKRATES: Nun hätten wir denn wohl Alles eben so, wie gestern bereits wieder durchgegangen, so weit dies für eine Wiederholung in den Hauptzügen erforderlich,  oder vermissen wir, mein lieber Timaios, noch irgend Etwas von dem Gesagten, was wir etwa übergangen hätten? 
ΤΙ. Οὐδαμῶς, ἀλλὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτ’ ἦν τὰ λεχθέντα, ὦ Σώκρατες. 
 
TIMAEUS. Nihil sane. 
TI. Nihil sane; haec enim ferme (30) sunt quae tractabas. 
Tim. Nothing, Socrates; it was just as you have said. 
TIMAIOS: Nein, sondern gerade dies war der Inhalt desselben. 
ΣΩ. Ἀκούοιτ’ ἂν ἤδη τὰ μετὰ ταῦτα περὶ τῆς πολιτείας ἣν διήλθομεν, οἷόν τι πρὸς αὐτὴν πεπονθὼς τυγχάνω.  προσέοικεν δὲ δή τινί μοι τοιῷδε τὸ πάθος,  οἷον εἴ τις ζῷα καλά που θεασάμενος,  εἴτε ὑπὸ γραφῆς εἰργασμένα εἴτε καὶ ζῶντα ἀληθινῶς ἡσυχίαν δὲ ἄγοντα,  εἰς ἐπιθυμίαν ἀφίκοιτο θεάσασθαι κινούμενά τε αὐτὰ καί τι τῶν τοῖς σώμασιν δοκούντων προσήκειν κατὰ τὴν ἀγωνίαν ἀθλοῦντα·  ταὐτὸν καὶ ἐγὼ πέπονθα πρὸς τὴν πόλιν ἣν διήλθομεν.  ἡδέως γὰρ ἄν του λόγῳ διεξιόντος ἀκούσαιμ’ ἂν ἄθλους οὓς πόλις ἀθλεῖ,  τούτους αὐτὴν ἀγωνιζομένην πρὸς πόλεις ἄλλας,  πρεπόντως εἴς τε πόλεμον ἀφικομένην καὶ ἐν τῷ πολεμεῖν τὰ προσήκοντα ἀποδιδοῦσαν τῇ παιδείᾳ καὶ τροφῇ κατά τε τὰς ἐν τοῖς ἔργοις πράξεις καὶ κατὰ τὰς ἐν τοῖς λόγοις διερμηνεύσεις πρὸς ἑκάστας τῶν πόλεων.  ταῦτ’ οὖν, ὦ Κριτία καὶ Ἑρμόκρατες, ἐμαυτοῦ μὲν αὐτὸς κατέγνωκα μή ποτ’ ἂν δυνατὸς γενέσθαι τοὺς ἄνδρας καὶ τὴν πόλιν ἱκανῶς ἐγκωμιάσαι.  καὶ τὸ μὲν ἐμὸν οὐδὲν θαυμαστόν·  ἀλλὰ τὴν αὐτὴν δόξαν εἴληφα καὶ περὶ τῶν πάλαι γεγονότων καὶ περὶ τῶν νῦν ὄντων ποιητῶν,  οὔτι τὸ ποιητικὸν ἀτιμάζων γένος,  ἀλλὰ παντὶ δῆλον ὡς τὸ μιμητικὸν ἔθνος, οἷς ἂν ἐντραφῇ, ταῦτα μιμήσεται ῥᾷστα καὶ ἄριστα,  τὸ δ’ ἐκτὸς τῆς τροφῆς ἑκάστοις γιγνόμενον χαλεπὸν μὲν ἔργοις, ἔτι δὲ χαλεπώτερον λόγοις εὖ μιμεῖσθαι.  τὸ δὲ τῶν σοφιστῶν γένος αὖ πολλῶν μὲν λόγων καὶ καλῶν ἄλλων μάλ’ ἔμπειρον ἥγημαι,  φοβοῦμαι δὲ μή πως, ἅτε πλανητὸν ὂν κατὰ πόλεις οἰκήσεις τε ἰδίας οὐδαμῇ διῳκηκός,  ἄστοχον ἅμα φιλοσόφων ἀνδρῶν ᾖ καὶ πολιτικῶν,  ὅσ’ ἂν οἷά τε ἐν πολέμῳ καὶ μάχαις πράττοντες ἔργῳ καὶ λόγῳ προσομιλοῦντες ἑκάστοις πράττοιεν καὶ λέγοιεν.  καταλέλειπται δὴ τὸ τῆς ὑμετέρας ἕξεως γένος, ἅμα ἀμφοτέρων φύσει καὶ τροφῇ μετέχον.  Τίμαιός τε γὰρ ὅδε, εὐνομωτάτης ὢν πόλεως τῆς ἐν Ἰταλίᾳ Λοκρίδος,  οὐσίᾳ καὶ γένει οὐδενὸς ὕστερος ὢν τῶν ἐκεῖ,  τὰς μεγίστας μὲν ἀρχάς τε καὶ τιμὰς τῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει μετακεχείρισται,  φιλοσοφίας δ’ αὖ κατ’ ἐμὴν δόξαν ἐπ’ ἄκρον ἁπάσης ἐλήλυθεν·  Κριτίαν δέ που πάντες οἱ τῇδε ἴσμεν οὐδενὸς ἰδιώτην ὄντα ὧν λέγομεν.  τῆς δὲ Ἑρμοκράτους αὖ περὶ φύσεως καὶ τροφῆς, πρὸς ἅπαντα ταῦτ’ εἶναι ἱκανὴν πολλῶν μαρτυρούντων πιστευτέον.  διὸ καὶ χθὲς ἐγὼ διανοούμενος, ὑμῶν δεομένων τὰ περὶ τῆς πολιτείας διελθεῖν, προθύμως ἐχαριζόμην,  εἰδὼς ὅτι τὸν ἑξῆς λόγον οὐδένες ἂν ὑμῶν ἐθελόντων ἱκανώτερον ἀποδοῖεν -  εἰς γὰρ πόλεμον πρέποντα καταστήσαντες τὴν πόλιν ἅπαντ’ αὐτῇ τὰ προσήκοντα ἀποδοῖτ’ ἂν μόνοι τῶν νῦν -  εἰπὼν δὴ τἀπιταχθέντα ἀντεπέταξα ὑμῖν ἃ καὶ νῦν λέγω.  συνωμολογήσατ’ οὖν κοινῇ σκεψάμενοι πρὸς ὑμᾶς αὐτοὺς εἰς νῦν ἀνταποδώσειν μοι τὰ τῶν λόγων ξένια,  πάρειμί τε οὖν δὴ κεκοσμημένος ἐπ’ αὐτὰ καὶ πάντων ἑτοιμότατος ὢν δέχεσθαι. 
                                                               
SOCRATES. Scisne igitur, quid ego de ista re publica sentiam quodue et quantum animi desiderium feram?  TIMAEUS. Quid illud?  SOCRATES. Ut si quis uisis eximiae pulchritudinis ac uenustatis animalibus  pictis uel etiam uiuentibus quidem sed immobiliter quiescentibus  motus actusque et certamen aliquod eorum spectare desideret,  sic ego nunc informatae urbis adumbrataeque  sermone populum agentem aliquid    cum finitimis ciuitatibus in pace aut bello dignum tanta fama et educatione magna quadam expectatione deposco.  Quippe fateor, o Critia et Hermocrate, non eum esse me qui tantam indolem digne laudare possim.  Nec mirum non posse me,  quando nec veteres quidem auctores uel praesentis saeculi poetas posse confidam,  non quo contemnam poeticam nationem,  sed quod euidens perspicuumque sit imitandi peritos ea demum aemulari posse perfecte  quorum ab ineunte aetate habeant usum experientiamque et in quibus propemodum sint educati, at vero incogniti moris peregrinaeque institutionis imitationem effictam, praesertim oratione seu versibus, praeclaris licet praestantibusque ingeniis esse difficilem.  Sophistas quoque uerborum agmine atque inundatione sermonis beatos iudico,  vereor tamen ne, ut sunt vagi palantesque nec certis propriis que sedibus ac domiciliis,  philosophorum mores et instituta ciuilis prudentiae ne coniectura quidem assequi valeant nec demonstrare caeteris,  cuius modi esse debeant officia pacata et item in bellis fides provecti ad sapientiam populi.  Superest igitur solum vestrae eruditionis ingenium nutritum cura publica philosophiaeque naturali studio flagrans,  siquidem Timaeus iste ex Locris, quae urbs Italiae flos est,  nobilitate diuitiis  rerum gestarum gloria facile princeps  idemque ad hoc tempus arcem obtineat amoris sapientiae;  Critiam vero, utpote civem, sciamus in studiis humanitatis omnibus apprime vigere;  de Hermocratis porro natura educationeque facta et accommodata rebus his de quibus agimus explicandis dubitare nullum puto.  Ideoque iubentibus vobis hesterno die facile parvi quaeque mihi visa sunt de publicis disserenda esse impigre sum executus illud  cogitans reliquas partes instituti operis a nullo commodius posse explicari.  Denique impleto competenter officio finitoque sermone contendi a vobis quoque mutuum fieri  uosque imperatum munus recepistis;    et adsum, ut videtis, paratus ad desponsam dapem. 
SO. Audite deinceps quo pacto erga hanc quam descriptimus remp. (31) sim affectus.  Comparatione plane vobis asperiam.  Quemadmodum si quis animalia exi(32)miae pulchritudinis intuitus seu picta,  seu uiua quidem, sed torpentia,  motus gestusque vi(33)ventium et certamen aliquod eorum spectare desideret:    sic ego nunc libenter aliquem nar(34)rantem audirem,  quo pacto supra descripta civitas cum finitimis civitatibus decertaret,  (35)quidue tanta eius educatione disciplinaque dignum, vel bello vel pace, tam dicendo quem agen(36)do erga civitates fingulas demonstraret.  Equidem o Critia et Hermocrates mihi conscius(37)sum non posse me eam urbem virosque pro dignate laudare.  Me quidem non posse nihil (38) mirum,  sed de veteribus quoque et huius seculi poetis idem existimo:  non quo poeticum ge(39)nus contemnam,  sed quod euidens unicui sit, imitationis studiosos ea facile et optime (40) imitari, in quibus fuerint educati:  aliena vero longeque ab eorum educatione remota, ope(41)ribus quidem difficile, verbis etiam difficilius posse prout convenit aemulari.  Sophistas uti(42)que et dicendi et aliarum ferme praeclarissimarum artium peritos esse arbitror:  sed quia (43) multa quotidie civitatis pererrant, nec proprias sedas ullas habent, vereor ne coniectura (44) quidem affequi nequeant,  quem multa et qualia viri philosophiatque civiles,  tam bello quam (45) pace erga fingulos verbis et operibus agant.  Sola igitur vestra professio superest, tum na(46)tura, tum disciplina philosophiae, et rerum gerendarum studio pollens.  Timaeus quidem (47) hic ex Locris, quae urbs in Italia iustissime gubernator,  nobilitate et opibus praestantissi(48)mus,  summis magistratibus et honoribus functus est,  et ad summa totius philosophiae fa(49)stigia, ut opinor, ascendit.  Critiam qouque scimus haec utraque consecutum.  Hermocratis (50) etiam naturam educationemque his omnibus quae diximus tractandis esse accommoda(51)tam, cum multis testimonis moneamur, dubitare non licet.  Quapropter rogantibus vo(52)bis heri de republica disputari,  libentissime parvi, cum cogitarem, quod deinde instituto (53)operi superforet, a nemine commodius quam a vobis modo velitis, posse tractari.  Cum (54) enim civitatem ad bellum idoneam constitueritis, foli omnium vos quae eam decent,  vicissim (705,1) omnia tribuetis.  Cum vero in superioribus quae mihi iniunctia fuerant perfetissem, quae (2) modo retuli vobis tractada commisi: vos autem consensu imperatum munus (3) muruo mihi parandi nunc sermonum convivi recepistis.  Ego igitur adsum ad promissas (4) epulas paratissimus 
Soc. [Socrates desires to breathe life into his state; he would like to describe its infant struggles. But he has not the gift of description himself, and he finds the poets equally incapable. The Sophists have no state of their own, and therefore are not politicians. He turns to Timaeus, Critias, and Hermocrates.] I should like, before proceeding further, to tell you how I feel about the State which we have described.  I might compare myself to a person who,  on beholding beautiful animals either created by the painter’s art,  or, better still, alive but at rest,  is seized with a desire of seeing them in motion or engaged in some struggle or conflict to which their forms appear suited;  this is my feeling about the State which we have been describing.  There are conflicts which all cities undergo,  and I should like to hear some one tell of our own city carrying on a struggle against her neighbours,  and how she went out to war in a becoming manner, and when at war showed by the greatness of her actions and the magnanimity of her words in dealing with other cities a result worthy of her training and education.  Now I, Critias and Hermocrates, am conscious that I myself should never be able to celebrate the city and her citizens in a befitting manner,  and I am not surprised at my own incapacity;  to me the wonder is rather that the poets present as well as past are no better —  not that I mean to depreciate them;  but every one can see that they are a tribe of imitators, and will imitate best and most easily the life in which they have been brought up;  while that which is beyond the range of a man’s education he finds hard to carry out in action, and still harder adequately to represent in language.  I am aware that the Sophists have plenty of brave words and fair conceits,  but I am afraid that being only wanderers from one city to another, and having never had habitations of their own,  they may fail in their conception of philosophers and statesmen,  and may not know what they do and say in time of war, when they are fighting or holding parley with their enemies.  And thus people of your class are the only ones remaining who are fitted by nature and education to take part at once both in politics and philosophy.  Here is Timaeus, of Locris in Italy,  a city which has admirable laws, and who is himself in wealth and rank the equal of any of his fellow-citizens;  he has held the most important and honourable offices in his own state,  and, as I believe, has scaled the heights of all philosophy;  and here is Critias, whom every Athenian knows to be no novice in the matters of which we are speaking;  and as to Hermocrates, I am assured by many witnesses that his genius and education qualify him to take part in any speculation of the kind.  And therefore yesterday when I saw that you wanted me to describe the formation of the State,  I readily assented, being very well aware, that, if you only would, none were better qualified to carry the discussion further,  and that when you had engaged our city in a suitable war,  you of all men living could best exhibit her playing a fitting part.  When I had completed my task, I in return imposed this other task upon you. You conferred together and agreed to entertain me to-day, as I had entertained you, with a feast of discourse.  Here am I in festive array, and no man can be more ready for the promised banquet. 
SOKRATES: Hört nun ferner, wie es mir in bezug auf diesen Staat, wie wir ihn entwickelt haben, geht.  Ich habe nämlich ungefähr dieselbe Empfindung dabei,  wie wenn Einer schöne Tiere sieht, sei es gemalte,  sei es auch wirklich lebende, die sich aber in Ruhe verhalten,  und ihn dann das Verlangen ankommt, sie auch in Bewegung zu erblicken und Etwas von den Eigenschaften, welche belebten Körpern zukommen, im Kampfe erproben zu sehen.  Eben so also geht es mir mit dem von uns entwickelten Staate.  Denn gerne möchte ich Jemanden darstellen hören, wie er diejenigen Kämpfe, welche einem Staate zukommen,  gegen andere Staaten bestehen würde,  indem er auf eine würdige Weise zum Kriege geschritten wäre und nunmehr während desselben das der in ihm herrschenden Erziehung und Bildung Entsprechende sowohl in der Ausführung durch Taten, als in der Verhandlung in Worten dem jedesmaligen anderen Staate gegenüber leisten würde.  Hierin nun, mein Kritias und Hermokrates, bin ich mir selber bewußt, daß ich niemals im Stande sein werde, den Staat und die Männer gebührend zu verherrlichen.  Und was mich betrifft, so ist das kein Wunder,  aber ich habe dieselbe Meinung auch von den vormaligen, so wie von den jetzt lebenden Dichtern gewonnen,  nicht als ob ich damit das Geschlecht der Dichter herabsetzen wollte,  vielmehr ist es Jedem klar, daß Alles, was zu der Klasse der nachahmenden Künstler gehört, dasjenige am Leichtesten und Besten nachahmen wird,  worin ein Jeder auferzogen ward, und daß es dagegen für einen jeden schwer ist, dasjenige, was außerhalb seines Bildungskreises liegt, in den Taten, noch schwerer aber in den Worten gut nachzuahmen.  Das Geschlecht der Sophisten aber wiederum halte ich zwar für sehr erfahren in Reden und vielen anderen schönen Dingen,  fürchte aber, weil es in den Staaten umherzieht und nirgends eigene Wohnsitze hat, daß es unfähig sei, das Richtige zu treffen,  wenn es sich darum handelt, wie viel und welcherlei wissenschaftliche und zugleich staatskluge Männer in Kampf und Schlachten,  so wie in der jedesmaligen Unterhandlung, in Tat und Wort zur Ausführung bringen dürften.  So bleiben denn nur noch die Leute eures Schlages übrig welche Beides zugleich, [20 St.] und zwar durch Anlage und durch Bildung, sind.  Denn Timaios hier ist aus dem italischen Lokris gebürtig, welches sich der vortrefflichsten Verfassung erfreut,  steht keinem von seinen Landsleuten an Vermögen und Herkunft nach,  und hat dabei einerseits die höchsten Ämter und Ehrenstellen im Staate bekleidet,  andererseits in Allem, was nur wissenschaftliches Streben heißt, nach meinem Dafürhalten das Höchste erreicht.  Von dem Kritias aber wissen wir Athener es ja alle, daß ihn Nichts von den Dingen, um welche es hier sich handelt, fremd ist,  und eben so darf man es von der Naturanlage wie der Bildung des Hermokrates glauben, daß sie ihnen allen gewachsen sei, da dies von so vielen Seiten bezeugt wird.  Dies erwog ich auch schon gestern, und als ihr mich daher batet, das Wesen des Staates zu erörtern, so ging ich gerne darauf ein,  weil ich wußte, daß Niemand geschickter als ihr, wenn ihr wolltet, dazu sein würde, die Fortsetzung hiezu zu liefern,  denn darzustellen, wie der Staat zu einem seiner würdigen Kriege schreiten und sodann in Allem auf die ihm zukommende Weise handeln würde, dürftet ihr allein von Allen, die jetzt leben, geeignet sein.  Nachdem ich mich daher dessen entledigt, was ihr mir aufgetragen, trug ich euch denn hinwiederum das eben Erwähnte auf.  Ihr nun setztet nach gemeinschaftlicher Beratung auf heute meine Gegenbewirtung durch Reden fest,  und da bin ich denn nun, gerüstet und ganz gewärtig sie zu empfangen. 
ΕΡ. Καὶ μὲν δή, καθάπερ εἶπεν Τίμαιος ὅδε, ὦ Σώκρατες, οὔτε ἐλλείψομεν προθυμίας οὐδὲν οὔτε ἔστιν οὐδεμία πρόφασις ἡμῖν τοῦ μὴ δρᾶν ταῦτα·  ὥστε καὶ χθές, εὐθὺς ἐνθένδε ἐπειδὴ παρὰ Κριτίαν πρὸς τὸν ξενῶνα οὗ καὶ καταλύομεν ἀφικόμεθα,  καὶ ἔτι πρότερον καθ’ ὁδὸν αὐτὰ ταῦτ’ ἐσκοποῦμεν.  ὅδε οὖν ἡμῖν λόγον εἰσηγήσατο ἐκ παλαιᾶς ἀκοῆς·  ὃν καὶ νῦν λέγε, ὦ Κριτία, τῷδε, ἵνα συνδοκιμάσῃ πρὸς τὴν ἐπίταξιν εἴτ’ ἐπιτήδειος εἴτε ἀνεπιτήδειός ἐστι. 
         
HERMOCRATES. Nos quoque omnes, ut pollicitus est modo Timaeus, iniunctum nobis a te munus pro viribus exequemur, praesertim cum nulla excusandi competat ratio;  namque et praeterito die mox conventu soluto cum ad hospitium rediremus quo suscepti a Critia sumus  et ibidem postea de ipsa re habuimus tractatum non otiosum.  Hic igitur nobis ex historia vetere narrationem recensuit  quam velim, Critia, repetas, ut, cum cognouerit Socrates, aestimet sitne futura utilis ad imperatae remunerationis effectum. 
HER. Nos quoque omnes o Sokrates ut pollicitus est modo Timaeus, (5) quod iubes pro viribus exequemur, praesertim cum nulla excusandi sit ratio, quo minus (6) id facere debeamus.  Nam praeterito die cum disputatione peracta mox ad hospitium quo (7) apud Critiam suscepti sumus, rediremus,  et inter eundum primo, et domi rursus de his (8) his rebus verba fecimus.  Hic igitur nobis veterem narravit historiam,  quam velim o Critia (9) Socrati modo recenseas, ut cum audiverit, iudicet nunquid ad eam rem quam nos exe(10)qui iussit, conducere videatur. 
Her. [Socrates, Timaeus, Hermocrates, Critias. Hermocrates tells Socrates how Critias had narrated a story which may satisfy his demands.] And we too, Socrates, as Timaeus says, will not be wanting in enthusiasm; and there is no excuse for not complying with your request.  As soon as we arrived yesterday at the guest-chamber of Critias, with whom we are staying,  or rather on our way thither, we talked the matter over,  and he told us an ancient tradition,  which I wish, Critias, that you would repeat to Socrates, so that he may help us to judge whether it will satisfy his requirements or not. 
HERMOKRATES: Und wir unsererseits, lieber Sokrates, wie es schon unser Timaios hier sagte, werden es gewiß an gutem Willen nicht fehlen lassen, auch haben wir so wenig einen Vorwand, uns dem zu entziehen,  daß wir schon gestern, gleich als wir von hier in das Gastzimmer beim Kritias, wo wir wohnen, eingetreten waren, und noch vorher auf dem Wege dahin,  eben den betreffenden Gegenstand mit einander betrachtet haben.  Da trug uns denn nun unser Wirt eine Geschichte aus alter Leberlieferung vor,  und dieselbe, lieber Kritias, könntest du nun auch dem Sokrates mitteilen, auf daß auch er mit uns prüfe, ob sie zur Erfüllung des uns Aufgetragenen etwas Geeignetes enthält oder nicht. 
ΚΡ. Ταῦτα χρὴ δρᾶν, εἰ καὶ τῷ τρίτῳ κοινωνῷ Τιμαίῳ συνδοκεῖ. 
 
SOCRATES. Sic fieri conuenit, si tertio consorti muneris Timaeo non aliter videtur. 
CRI. Faciundum est, ita Timaeo quoque videtur, tertio dis(11)putationis huius partipici. 
Crit. I will, if Timaeus, who is our other partner, approves. 
KRITIAS: Das mag geschehen, wenn es auch den Timaios, als unsern dritten Gesprächsgenossen, also gut dünkt. 
ΤΙ. Δοκεῖ μήν. 
 
 
TIM. Videtur sane. 
Tim. I quite approve. 
TIMAIOS: Ich bin damit einverstanden. 
ΚΡ. Ἄκουε δή, ὦ Σώκρατες, λόγου μάλα μὲν ἀτόπου, παντάπασί γε μὴν ἀληθοῦς,  ὡς ὁ τῶν ἑπτὰ σοφώτατος Σόλων ποτ’ ἔφη.  ἦν μὲν οὖν οἰκεῖος καὶ σφόδρα φίλος ἡμῖν Δρωπίδου τοῦ προπάππου,  καθάπερ λέγει πολλαχοῦ καὶ αὐτὸς ἐν τῇ ποιήσει·  πρὸς δὲ Κριτίαν τὸν ἡμέτερον πάππον εἶπεν,  ὡς ἀπεμνημόνευεν αὖ πρὸς ἡμᾶς ὁ γέρων,  ὅτι μεγάλα καὶ θαυμαστὰ τῆσδ’ εἴη παλαιὰ ἔργα τῆς πόλεως ὑπὸ χρόνου καὶ φθορᾶς ἀνθρώπων ἠφανισμένα,  πάντων δὲ ἓν μέγιστον, οὗ νῦν ἐπιμνησθεῖσιν πρέπον ἂν ἡμῖν εἴη σοί τε ἀποδοῦναι χάριν καὶ τὴν θεὸν ἅμα ἐν τῇ πανηγύρει δικαίως τε καὶ ἀληθῶς οἷόνπερ ὑμνοῦντας ἐγκωμιάζειν. 
               
Audi, o Socrate, miram quidem sed plenam fidei veritatisque rem,  ut e numero septem sapientium primarius Solo recensebat,  quem avi mei et consortis in nomine Critiae fuisse aiunt admodum familiarem.      Quo referente puer ego accepi  res gestas huius urbis memorabiles diuturnitate interituque hominum annullatas euanuisse,  inter quas unam prae caeteris illustrem, cuius fiet commemoratio, quo tam penes te gratia collocetur quam debita deae, cuius hodierna pompa est, instauretur veneratio. 
CRI. Audi Socrates miram quidem, sed (12) plenam veritatis historiam,  quam Solo septem sapientum sapientissimus recensebat.  (13) Erat enim domestiscus admodum amicusque Dropidus proavi nostri, quod in carminib.  suis (14) ipsernet saepe testatur.  Auo autem nostro Critiae,  ut ipse nobis senex postea referebat,  (15)quandoque narravit res gestas huius urbis memorabilis, diuturnitate temporis homi(16)umque interitu obliteratas.  Vnum vero facinus insigne recemsuit, quod vobis (17) nunc narrandum censeo, ut et tibi morem geramus, et deam cui hodierna pompa dicata (18) est hac narratione quasi quodam hymnorum cantu, ut par est, honoremus. 
Crit. [Critias consents to repeat it. He had heard the tale from his grandfather, who received it from Solon. It told of the glories of ancient Athens.] Then listen, Socrates, to a tale which, though strange, is certainly true,  having been attested by Solon, who was the wisest of the seven sages.  He was a relative and a dear friend of my great-grandfather, Dropides,  as he himself says in many passages of his poems;  and he told the story to Critias, my grandfather,  who remembered and repeated it to us.  There were of old, he said, great and marvellous actions of the Athenian city, which have passed into oblivion through lapse of time and the destruction of mankind,  and one in particular, greater than all the rest. This we will now rehearse. It will be a fitting monument of our gratitude to you, and a hymn of praise true and worthy of the goddess, on this her day of festival. 
KRITIAS: So höre denn, Sokrates, eine gar seltsame, aber durchaus wahre Geschichte,  wie sie einst Solon, der Weiseste unter den Sieben, erzählt hat.  Er war nämlich, wie bekannt, ein Verwandter und vertrauter Freund meines Urgroßvaters Dropides,  wie er auch selber wiederholt in seinen Gedichten sagt.  Meinem Großvater Kritias aber erzählte er bei irgend einer Gelegenheit,  wie es dieser als Greis wiederum mir mitteilte,  daß es viele vor Alters von unserem Staat vollbrachte bewunderungswürdige Taten gäbe, welche durch die Länge der Zeit und den Untergang der Menschen in Vergessenheit geraten wären, [21 St.]  von allen aber sei eine die größte, deren Andenken mir jetzt zu erneuern geziemt, um sowohl dir meinen Dank abzutragen, als auch zugleich die Göttin an ihrem gegenwärtigen Feste auf eine echte und gebührende Weise wie durch einen Lobgesang zu verherrlichen. 
ΣΩ. Εὖ λέγεις.  ἀλλὰ δὴ ποῖον ἔργον τοῦτο Κριτίας οὐ λεγόμενον μέν, ὡς δὲ πραχθὲν ὄντως ὑπὸ τῆσδε τῆς πόλεως ἀρχαῖον διηγεῖτο κατὰ τὴν Σόλωνος ἀκοήν; 
   
   
SOC. Recte (19) loqueris,  sed quid istud tandem est, quod Critias non quasi verbis descriptum, sed quasi (20) ab hoc civitate quondam gestum ex Solonis narratione vobis apervit? 
Soc. Very good.  And what is this ancient famous action of the Athenians, which Critias declared, on the authority of Solon, to be not a mere legend, but an actual fact? 
SOKRATES: Wohl gesprochen.  Aber was für eine Tat ist denn das, die Kritias, obgleich sie der Überlieferung unbekannt ist, dir dennoch als eine in Wahrheit vor Alters von dieser Stadt vollbrachte nach dem Berichte des Solon mitteilte? 
(Ἀτλαντὶς κατὰ Ἀθηνῶν) ΚΡ. Ἐγὼ φράσω, παλαιὸν ἀκηκοὼς λόγον οὐ νέου ἀνδρός.  ἦν μὲν γὰρ δὴ τότε Κριτίας, ὡς ἔφη, σχεδὸν ἐγγὺς ἤδη τῶν ἐνενήκοντα ἐτῶν, ἐγὼ δέ πῃ μάλιστα δεκέτης·  ἡ δὲ Κουρεῶτις ἡμῖν οὖσα ἐτύγχανεν Ἀπατουρίων.  τὸ δὴ τῆς ἑορτῆς σύνηθες ἑκάστοτε καὶ τότε συνέβη τοῖς παισίν· ἆθλα γὰρ ἡμῖν οἱ πατέρες ἔθεσαν ῥαψῳδίας.  πολλῶν μὲν οὖν δὴ καὶ πολλὰ ἐλέχθη ποιητῶν ποιήματα,  ἅτε δὲ νέα κατ’ ἐκεῖνον τὸν χρόνον ὄντα τὰ Σόλωνος πολλοὶ τῶν παίδων ᾔσαμεν.  εἶπεν οὖν τις τῶν φρατέρων, εἴτε δὴ δοκοῦν αὐτῷ τότε εἴτε καὶ χάριν τινὰ τῷ Κριτίᾳ φέρων,  δοκεῖν οἱ τά τε ἄλλα σοφώτατον γεγονέναι Σόλωνα καὶ κατὰ τὴν ποίησιν αὖ τῶν ποιητῶν πάντων ἐλευθεριώτατον.  ὁ δὴ γέρων - σφόδρα γὰρ οὖν μέμνημαι - μάλα τε ἥσθη καὶ διαμειδιάσας εἶπεν·  Εἴ γε, ὦ Ἀμύνανδρε, μὴ παρέργῳ τῇ ποιήσει κατεχρήσατο, ἀλλ’ ἐσπουδάκει καθάπερ ἄλλοι,  τόν τε λόγον ὃν ἀπ’ Αἰγύπτου δεῦρο ἠνέγκατο ἀπετέλεσεν,  καὶ μὴ διὰ τὰς στάσεις ὑπὸ κακῶν τε ἄλλων ὅσα ηὗρεν ἐνθάδε ἥκων ἠναγκάσθη καταμελῆσαι,  κατά γε ἐμὴν δόξαν οὔτε Ἡσίοδος οὔτε Ὅμηρος οὔτε ἄλλος οὐδεὶς ποιητὴς εὐδοκιμώτερος ἐγένετο ἄν ποτε αὐτοῦ. 
                         
Narrabat ergo grandis natu,  ut qui ad nonagesimum iam propmquaret annum, me tunc agente annos decem,  publicis caerimoniis celebri die orta causa commemorationis ex Solonis versuum cantilena;  erat enim sollemne familiae nostrae festis diebus nos pueros ad certamen memoriae propositis invitare praemiis puerilibus.  Multis ergo carminibus tam veterum quam novorum poetarum memoriter pronuntiatis,  inter quae Solonis aliquanto pluribus, ut quae nouitas commendaret ad gratiam, memini quendam,  siue quod ita iudicaret seu quod vellet Critiam promereri,  dixisse plane Solonem videri sibi non solum prudentia caeteris laude dignis, sed etiam carminibus praestitisse.  Igitur senex, valde enim memini, laetatus eximie,  "Quid, si non perfunctorie sed dedita opera poeticam fuisset," inquit, "executus Solo, mi Amynander,  vel sermonem quem ab Aegypto reuersus instituerat implesset,  a quo quidem seditionibus caeteraque intemperie civilis dissensionis irnpediente descivit?  Non opinor minorem Hesiodo uel Homero futurum fuisse." 
CRI. Referam (21) priscam mihi puero traditam ab avo historiam.  Cum ageret Critias annos, ut ipse dice(22)bat, circiter nonaginta, ego vero decem,  celebraturque solennis ille dies  in quo ad canen(23)dum carmina pueri convocati solent, congregati sumus et nos una cum proximis no(24)tisque pueris, nobisque a parentibus carminum canendorum certamen est iniunctum.  Ubi (25) multorum poetarum carmina non pauca memoriter pronunciata sunt,  et Solonis ver(26)sus a plurimus puerorum utpote novitatem poematis admirantibus decantati.  tum con(27)tribulis quidam, seu quod ita iudicaret, sive quod Kritiae blanditi vellet,  videri sibi inquit, (28) eum in caeteris sapientissimum suisse Solonem, tum in carminibus poetarum omnium (29) genorosissimum.  His verbis, ut recte memini, valde laetatus est senex. atque ita ridens, in(30)quit:  Si Solo o Amynander non tantum relaxandi animi gratia, sed dedita opera serioque (31) sicut alii poesim esset secutus,  vel historiam quam ab Aegypto reversus instituerat absol(32)visse,  a quia quidem seditionubus caeterisque civitatis fluctibus deturbatus medio in cursu (33) destitit,  nec Homero nec Hesiodo, nec alio quoquam poetarum, ut opinor, inferior exti(34)sisset. 
Crit. [Critias. Solon brought it from Egypt, —] I will tell an old-world story which I heard from an aged man;  for Critias, at the time of telling it, was, as he said, nearly ninety years of age, and I was about ten.  Now the day was that day of the Apaturia which is called the Registration of Youth,  at which, according to custom, our parents gave prizes for recitations,  and the poems of several poets were recited by us boys,  and many of us sang the poems of Solon, which at that time had not gone out of fashion.  One of our tribe, either because he thought so or to please Critias,  said that in his judgment Solon was not only the wisest of men, but also the noblest of poets.  The old man, as I very well remember, brightened up at hearing this and said, smiling:  Yes, Amynander, if Solon had only, like other poets, made poetry the business of his life,  and had completed the tale which he brought with him from Egypt,  and had not been compelled, by reason of the factions and troubles which he found stirring in his own country when he came home, to attend to other matters,  in my opinion he would have been as famous as Homer or Hesiod, or any poet. 
KRITIAS: So will ich denn diese alte Geschichte erzählen, die ich von einem nicht mehr jungen Manne vernommen.  Es war nämlich damals Kritias, wie er sagte, schon beinahe neunzig Jahre, ich aber so ungefähr zehn alt.  Nun war gerade der Knabentag der Apaturien,  und was sonst jedesmal an diesem Feste gebräuchlich ist, geschah auch diesmal mit den Kindern: Preise setzten uns nämlich die Väter für den besten Vortrag von Gedichten aus.  So wurden denn viele Gedichte von vielen anderen Dichtern hergesagt,  namentlich aber trugen viele von uns Kindern manche von denen des Solon vor, weil diese zu jener Zeit noch etwas Neues waren.  Da äußerte nun einer von den Genossen unserer Phratrie, sei es, daß dies damals wirklich seine Ansicht war, sei es, um dem Kritias etwas Angenehmes zu sagen,  es scheine ihm Solon sowohl in allen anderen Stücken der Weiseste als auch in bezug auf die Dichtkunst unter allen Dichtern der edelste zu sein.  Der Greis nun, denn ich erinnere mich dessen noch sehr wohl, ward sehr erfreut und erwiderte lächelnd:  wenigstens, Amynandros, wenn er die Dichtkunst nicht bloß als Nebensache betrieben, sondern, wie Andere seinen ganzen Fleiß auf dieselbe verwandt und die Erzählung,  welche er aus Ägypten mit hierher brachte, vollendet  und nicht wegen der Unruhen und durch alle anderen Schäden, welche er hier bei seiner Rückkehr vorfand, sich gezwungen gesehen hätte sie liegen zu lassen,  dann wäre, wenigstens nach meinem Dafürhalten, weder Homer noch Hesiod noch irgend ein anderer Dichter je berühmter geworden als er. 
Τίς δ’ ἦν ὁ λόγος, ἦ δ’ ὅς, ὦ Κριτία;  ῏Η περὶ μεγίστης, ἔφη, καὶ ὀνομαστοτάτης πασῶν δικαιότατ’ ἂν πράξεως οὔσης, ἣν ἥδε ἡ πόλις ἔπραξε μέν,  διὰ δὲ χρόνον καὶ φθορὰν τῶν ἐργασαμένων οὐ διήρκεσε δεῦρο ὁ λόγος.  Λέγε ἐξ ἀρχῆς, ἦ δ’ ὅς, τί τε καὶ πῶς καὶ παρὰ τίνων ὡς ἀληθῆ διακηκοὼς ἔλεγεν ὁ Σόλων.  Ἔστιν τις κατ’ Αἴγυπτον, ἦ δ’ ὅς, ἐν τῷ Δέλτα, περὶ ὃν κατὰ κορυφὴν σχίζεται τὸ τοῦ Νείλου ῥεῦμα Σαϊτικὸς ἐπικαλούμενος νομός,  τούτου δὲ τοῦ νομοῦ μεγίστη πόλις Σάις - ὅθεν δὴ καὶ Ἄμασις ἦν ὁ βασιλεύς -  οἷς τῆς πόλεως θεὸς ἀρχηγός τίς ἐστιν,  Αἰγυπτιστὶ μὲν τοὔνομα Νηίθ, Ἑλληνιστὶ δέ, ὡς ὁ ἐκείνων λόγος, Ἀθηνᾶ·  μάλα δὲ φιλαθήναιοι καί τινα τρόπον οἰκεῖοι τῶνδ’ εἶναί φασιν.  οἷ δὴ Σόλων ἔφη πορευθεὶς σφόδρα τε γενέσθαι παρ’ αὐτοῖς ἔντιμος,  καὶ δὴ καὶ τὰ παλαιὰ ἀνερωτῶν ποτε τοὺς μάλιστα περὶ ταῦτα τῶν ἱερέων ἐμπείρους,  σχεδὸν οὔτε αὑτὸν οὔτε ἄλλον Ἕλληνα οὐδένα οὐδὲν ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν εἰδότα περὶ τῶν τοιούτων ἀνευρεῖν.  καί ποτε προαγαγεῖν βουληθεὶς αὐτοὺς περὶ τῶν ἀρχαίων εἰς λόγους,  τῶν τῇδε τὰ ἀρχαιότατα λέγειν ἐπιχειρεῖν,  περὶ Φορωνέως τε τοῦ πρώτου λεχθέντος καὶ Νιόβης,  καὶ μετὰ τὸν κατακλυσμὸν αὖ περὶ Δευκαλίωνος καὶ Πύρρας ὡς διεγένοντο μυθολογεῖν,  καὶ τοὺς ἐξ αὐτῶν γενεαλογεῖν, καὶ τὰ τῶν ἐτῶν ὅσα ἦν οἷς ἔλεγεν πειρᾶσθαι διαμνημονεύων τοὺς χρόνους ἀριθμεῖν· 
                                 
Et ille "Quinam iste fuit, o Critia, sermo uel qua de re institutus?"  "De maximo", inquit, "eximiae uirtutis et famosissimo titulo quem gessit haec ciuitas,  cuius extincta memoria est tam morte eorum qui gesserunt quam impendio temporis."  "Dic, quaeso" inquit, "o Critia, quod illud opus et quatenus actum et a quibus compertum Solo tuus recensebat."  "Est", inquit, "Aegypti regio Delta, cuius e uertice Nili scinduntur fluenta, iuxta quam Sais nomine ciuitas magna,  quam regit mos uetus lex Saitica nuncupatus. Ex hac urbe Amasis fuit imperator.  Conditor uero deus urbis  Aegyptia lingua censetur Neuth, Graeca dicitur Athena.  Ipsi porro homines amatores Atheniensium istiusque urbis cognatione se nobilitari prae se ferunt.  Quo Solo profectum se satis hospitaliter honoratum esse referebat expertumque liquido,  quod de uetustatis memoria  nullus nostrae nationis uir ne tenuem quidem habeat scientiam.  Denique cum in conuentu sacerdotum, penes quos praecipua sit memoria uetustatis eliciendi studio  quae scirent uerba faceret de antiquissimis historiis Athenarum,  Phoroneo et Nioba,  postque inundationem mundi de Pyrrha et Deucalione,  studioseque prosequi pergeret prosapiam renouatae gentis humanae usque ad memoriam parentum annorumque numerum recenseret, 
Ad haec ille: Qua de re o Critia tractare Solo instituit?  De maximis, inquit, rebus ab (35) hac civitate quondam gestis,  quarum memoria, apud nos temporis diuturnitate et interi(36)tu hominum extincta est  Dic quaeso, inquit, o Critia, quid illud opus, et quomodo actum (37) et a quibus habitum tanque verum Solo narrabat.  Est, inquit, Aegyptio regio Delta, cuius (38) e vertice scinduntur fluenta Nili. Eius campi, Saitica preafectut nominantur.  In quibus (39) maxima civitatis est. unde Amasis fuit rex.  Urbis eius fundatrix dea (40) fuit,  quam Aegyptii Neithen, Graeci Athenan nominant.  Ipsi porro homines Athenien(41)sium amici sunt, eisque genere quodam coninuctos esse se praedicant.  Quo Solo profe(42)ctum se honorofice acceptum suisse referebat.  Et cum de verustatis memoria ab ille sacer(43)dotibus qui in hac re caeterorum peritissimi erant, quaesisser, expertum se esse dicebat  expertum se esse dicebat ne(44)que seipsum neque alium Graecorum quemquam cognitionem antiquitatis ullam habere.  (45)quandoque vero coram sacerdotibus, ut eos ad sua narranda provocaret,  de antiquissimis (46)illis Athenarum gestis rebus verba fecisse,  Phoroneo primo et Niobe,  postque inundatio(47)nem mundi de Pyrrha et Deucalione,  eorum posterirate, et de temporibus quibus sin(48)gula contingerut. 
And what was the tale about, Critias? said Amynander.  About the greatest action which the Athenians ever did, and which ought to have been the most famous,  but, through the lapse of time and the destruction of the actors, it has not come down to us.  Tell us, said the other, the whole story, and how and from whom Solon heard this veritable tradition.  From Sais, a city founded by Neith, the Greek Athene. The priests of Sais declared the traditions of Egypt to be far older than those of Hellas, because Greek history had been frequently interrupted by deluges. Athens one thousand years more ancient than Sais. The goddess Athene was the foundress of both: this explains the similarity of their institutions. He replied: — In the Egyptian Delta, at the head of which the river Nile divides, there is a certain district which is called the district of Sais,  and the great city of the district is also called Sais, and is the city from which King Amasis came.  The citizens have a deity for their foundress;  she is called in the Egyptian tongue Neith, and is asserted by them to be the same whom the Hellenes call Athene;  they are great lovers of the Athenians, and say that they are in some way related to them.  To this city came Solon, and was received there with great honour;  he asked the priests who were most skilful in such matters, about antiquity,  and made the discovery that neither he nor any other Hellene knew anything worth mentioning about the times of old.  On one occasion, wishing to draw them on to speak of antiquity,  he began to tell about the most ancient things in our part of the world —  about Phoroneus, who is called ‘the first man,’ and about Niobe;  and after the Deluge, of the survival of Deucalion and Pyrrha;  and he traced the genealogy of their descendants, and reckoning up the dates, tried to compute how many years ago the events of which he was speaking happened. 
Aber was für eine Geschichte war denn dies, fragte jener.  Nun, von der größten und mit vollem Rechte ruhmwürdigsten Tat von allen, welche diese Stadt vollbracht,  von welcher aber wegen der Länge der Zeit und des Unterganges derer, die sie vollbracht haben, die Überlieferung sich nicht bis auf uns erhalten hat.  So erzähle mir denn vom Anfange an, versetzte der Andere, was und wie und von wem Solon hierüber Beglaubigtes gehört und es darnach berichtet hat.  Es gibt in Ägypten, versetzte Kritias, in dem Delta, um dessen Spitze herum der Nilstrom sich spaltet, einen Gau, welcher der saitische heißt,  und die größte Stadt dieses Gau's ist Sais, von wo ja auch der König Amasis gebürtig war.  Die Einwohner nun halten für die Gründerin ihrer Stadt eine Gottheit,  deren Name auf ägyptisch Neith, auf griechisch aber, wie sie angeben, Athene ist,  sie behaupten daher große Freunde der Athener und gewissermaßen mit ihnen stammverwandt zu sein.  Als daher Solon dorthin kam, so wurde er, wie er erzählte, von ihnen mit Ehren überhäuft, [22 St.]  und da er Erkundigungen über die Vorzeit bei denjenigen Priestern einzog, welche hierin vorzugsweise erfahren waren,  so war er nahe daran zu finden, daß weder er selbst noch irgend ein anderer Grieche, fast möchte man sagen, auch nur irgend Etwas von diesen Dingen wisse.  Und einst habe er, um sie zu einer Mitteilung über die Urzeit zu veranlassen, begonnen,  ihnen die ältesten Geschichten Griechenlands zu erzählen,  ihnen vom Phoroneus, welcher für den ersten gilt, und von der Niobe,  und wie nach der Flut Deukalion und Pyrra übrig blieben, zu berichten  und das Geschlechtsregister ihrer Abkömmlinge aufzuzählen und habe versucht, mit Anführung der Jahre, welche auf jedes Einzelne kamen, wovon er sprach, die Zeiten zu bestimmen. 
καί τινα εἰπεῖν τῶν ἱερέων εὖ μάλα παλαιόν·  Ὦ Σόλων, Σόλων, Ἕλληνες ἀεὶ παῖδές ἐστε, γέρων δὲ Ἕλλην οὐκ ἔστιν.  Ἀκούσας οὖν, Πῶς τί τοῦτο λέγεις;  φάναι. Νέοι ἐστέ, εἰπεῖν, τὰς ψυχὰς πάντες·  οὐδεμίαν γὰρ ἐν αὐταῖς ἔχετε δι’ ἀρχαίαν ἀκοὴν παλαιὰν δόξαν οὐδὲ μάθημα χρόνῳ πολιὸν οὐδέν.  τὸ δὲ τούτων αἴτιον τόδε.  πολλαὶ κατὰ πολλὰ φθοραὶ γεγόνασιν ἀνθρώπων καὶ ἔσονται,  πυρὶ μὲν καὶ ὕδατι μέγισται, μυρίοις δὲ ἄλλοις ἕτεραι βραχύτεραι.  τὸ γὰρ οὖν καὶ παρ’ ὑμῖν λεγόμενον, ὥς ποτε Φαέθων Ἡλίου παῖς τὸ τοῦ πατρὸς ἅρμα ζεύξας  διὰ τὸ μὴ δυνατὸς εἶναι κατὰ τὴν τοῦ πατρὸς ὁδὸν ἐλαύνειν  τά τ’ ἐπὶ γῆς συνέκαυσεν καὶ αὐτὸς κεραυνωθεὶς διεφθάρη,  τοῦτο μύθου μὲν σχῆμα ἔχον λέγεται,  τὸ δὲ ἀληθές ἐστι τῶν περὶ γῆν κατ’ οὐρανὸν ἰόντων παράλλαξις καὶ διὰ μακρῶν χρόνων γιγνομένη τῶν ἐπὶ γῆς πυρὶ πολλῷ φθορά.  τότε οὖν ὅσοι κατ’ ὄρη καὶ ἐν ὑψηλοῖς τόποις καὶ ἐν ξηροῖς οἰκοῦσιν μᾶλλον διόλλυνται τῶν ποταμοῖς καὶ θαλάττῃ προσοικούντων·  ἡμῖν δὲ ὁ Νεῖλος εἴς τε τἆλλα σωτὴρ καὶ τότε ἐκ ταύτης τῆς ἀπορίας σῴζει λυόμενος.  ὅταν δ’ αὖ θεοὶ τὴν γῆν ὕδασιν καθαίροντες κατακλύζωσιν,  οἱ μὲν ἐν τοῖς ὄρεσιν διασῴζονται βουκόλοι νομῆς τε,  οἱ δ’ ἐν ταῖς παρ’ ὑμῖν πόλεσιν εἰς τὴν θάλατταν ὑπὸ τῶν ποταμῶν φέρονται·  κατὰ δὲ τήνδε χώραν οὔτε τότε οὔτε ἄλλοτε ἄνωθεν ἐπὶ τὰς ἀρούρας ὕδωρ ἐπιρρεῖ,  τὸ δ’ ἐναντίον κάτωθεν πᾶν ἐπανιέναι πέφυκεν.  ὅθεν καὶ δι’ ἃς αἰτίας τἀνθάδε σῳζόμενα λέγεται παλαιότατα·  τὸ δὲ ἀληθές, ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς τόποις ὅπου μὴ χειμὼν ἐξαίσιος ἢ καῦμα ἀπείργει,  πλέον, τοτὲ δὲ ἔλαττον ἀεὶ γένος ἐστὶν ἀνθρώπων.  ὅσα δὲ ἢ παρ’ ὑμῖν ἢ τῇδε ἢ καὶ κατ’ ἄλλον τόπον ὧν ἀκοῇ ἴσμεν,  εἴ πού τι καλὸν ἢ μέγα γέγονεν ἢ καί τινα διαφορὰν ἄλλην ἔχον,  πάντα γεγραμμένα ἐκ παλαιοῦ τῇδ’ ἐστὶν ἐν τοῖς ἱεροῖς καὶ σεσωσμένα·  τὰ δὲ παρ’ ὑμῖν καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἄρτι κατεσκευασμένα ἑκάστοτε τυγχάνει γράμμασι καὶ ἅπασιν ὁπόσων πόλεις δέονται,  καὶ πάλιν δι’ εἰωθότων ἐτῶν ὥσπερ νόσημα ἥκει φερόμενον αὐτοῖς ῥεῦμα οὐράνιον καὶ τοὺς ἀγραμμάτους τε καὶ ἀμούσους ἔλιπεν ὑμῶν,  ὥστε πάλιν ἐξ ἀρχῆς οἷον νέοι γίγνεσθε, οὐδὲν εἰδότες οὔτε τῶν τῇδε οὔτε τῶν παρ’ ὑμῖν, ὅσα ἦν ἐν τοῖς παλαιοῖς χρόνοις.  τὰ γοῦν νυνδὴ γενεαλογηθέντα, ὦ Σόλων, περὶ τῶν παρ’ ὑμῖν ἃ διῆλθες, παίδων βραχύ τι διαφέρει μύθων,  οἳ πρῶτον μὲν ἕνα γῆς κατακλυσμὸν μέμνησθε πολλῶν ἔμπροσθεν γεγονότων,  ἔτι δὲ τὸ κάλλιστον καὶ ἄριστον γένος ἐπ’ ἀνθρώπους ἐν τῇ χώρᾳ παρ’ ὑμῖν οὐκ ἴστε γεγονός,  ἐξ ὧν σύ τε καὶ πᾶσα ἡ πόλις ἔστιν τὰ νῦν ὑμῶν, περιλειφθέντος ποτὲ σπέρματος βραχέος,  ἀλλ’ ὑμᾶς λέληθεν διὰ τὸ τοὺς περιγενομένους ἐπὶ πολλὰς γενεὰς γράμμασιν τελευτᾶν ἀφώνους.  ἦν γὰρ δή ποτε, ὦ Σόλων, ὑπὲρ τὴν μεγίστην φθορὰν ὕδασιν ἡ νῦν Ἀθηναίων οὖσα πόλις ἀρίστη πρός τε τὸν πόλεμον καὶ κατὰ πάντα εὐνομωτάτη διαφερόντως·  ᾗ κάλλιστα ἔργα καὶ πολιτεῖαι γενέσθαι λέγονται κάλλισται πασῶν ὁπόσων ὑπὸ τὸν οὐρανὸν ἡμεῖς ἀκοὴν παρεδεξάμεθα. 
                                                                       
inrisum se esse a quodam ex sacerdotibus qui diceret:  "O Solo, Graeci pueri semper estis nec quisquam e Graecia senex."  Cur istud diceret percontatum Solonem.  "Quia rudi nouellaque estis memoria semper nec est," inquit,  "ulla penes uos cana scientia.  Nec immerito;  multae quippe neces hominum  partim conflagratione partim inundationibus uastantibus acciderunt.  Denique illa etiam fama, quae uobis quoque comperta est, Phaethontem quondam, Solis filium, affectantem officium patris currus ascendisse luciferos  nec seruatis sollemnibus aurigationis orbitis  exussisse terrena ipsumque flammis caelestibus conflagrasse,  fabulosa quidem putatur,  sed est uera. Fit enim longo interuallo mundi circumactionis exorbitatio, quam inflammationis uastitas consequatur necesse est.  Tunc igitur hi qui in siccis et editis locis mansitant magis pereunt quam uicini litoribus et fluuiis;  nobis porro Nilus cum in plerisque rebus salutaris tum aduersum huius modi pericula meatu inriguo perennique gurgite obiectus arcet exitium.  Item cum terra erit humore abluenda,  pastores quidem uestri montium edita capessentes periculo non continguntur,  at uero ciuitates in planitie sitae cum populis suis rapiuntur ad maria;  quibus periculis regio ista minime contingetur, non enim ut in caeteris regionibus humor in planitiem superne manat,  sed ex imo per eandem planitiem tranquillo reditu stagnis detumescentibus remanat.  Quae causa monumentorum publicorum priuatorumque perseuerantiam nutrit studioseque      tam nostrae nationis rerum gestarum memoria quam caeterarum gentium,  quas uel fama nobis per cognitionem tradit,  descripta templorum custodiis continetur.  Apud uos et caeteros nunc plane et nuper refectae monumentorum aedes ictae caelesti demum liquore procumbunt  inuolutaeque litteris publicis cum antiquioris historiae memoria dissipantur,  ut necesse sit nouo initio uitae nouoque populo nouam condi memoriam litterarum. Qua ratione fit, ut neque uestras proprias res antiquas nec aliorum sciatis  eaque ipsa, quae recensere memoriter arbitrabare non multum distant a puerilibus fabulis,  principio quod unius modo memineris inundationis, cum infinitae praecesserint,  dehinc quod optimum uestrorum maiorum genus nesciatis  ex quo tu et Athenienses caeteri estis exiguo semine facti  tunc superstite publicae cladi.  Fuit enim olim Atheniensium ciuitas longe caeteris praestans morum bonitate ac potentia uirium belloque et pace memoranda  eiusque opera magnifica omnem, sicut nos accepimus, quamuis praeclarae gloriae illustrationem obumbrantia". 
Tunc ex sacerdotibus quendam grandem natu dixisse:  O Solo Solo, (49) graeci pueri, semper estis, nec quisquam e Graecia senex.  Cur istud diceret percontante (50) Solone.  respondisse sacerdotem: Quia iuvenis semper vobis est animus,  in quo nulla est (51) ex vetustatis commemeratione, prisca opinio, nulla cana scientia.  Quod ideo vobis con(52)tingit  quia multa et varia hominum exitia fuerunt, eruntque.  Maxima quidem ut ignis (53) conflagratione, aut aquae inundationibus provenire neccese est: minora vero aliis qui(54)bus libet calamitatibus fieri.  Nam quod apud vos fertur, Phaethontem quondam Solia (706.1)filium currus ascendisse paternos,    exussisse terrena, ipsumque (2) flammis caelestisbus conflagraffe,  quamuis fabulorum videatur,  vero quodammodo es(3)se putandum est. Fit enim longo temporum intervallo caelestis circuitus permutatio quae(4)dam quam inflammationis vastitas necessario sequitur  Tunc hi qui edita et arida inco(5)lunt loca, magis pereunt, quam mari fluviisque vicini.  Nobis porro Nilus cum in plerisque (6) rebus salutaris est, tum huiusmodo a nobisarcet exitium.  Quando vero dii aquarum col(7)luvione terrae sordes diluunt,  pastores ovium, atque bubulci qui iuga montium habitant.  (8)periculum illud euadunt, vestrae autem civitatis in planitie sitae impetu fluminum ad ma(9)ria rapiuntur.  Sed in hac nostra regione neque tunc, neque alias umquam aqua in agros super(10)ne descendit,  conta vero sursum e terrae visceribus scaturit.  Quamobrem antiquissimarum (11)rerum apud nos monimenta seruantur.  Proinde ubicunque nec imbrium tempestas nimia, (12) nec incendium ingens contingit,  licet alias pauciores, alias plures, semper tamen homi(13)nes sunt.  Quaecunque vero a nostris sive a vestris sive aliis nationibus gesta sunt memoratu (14)digna,  modo ad aures nostrorum pervenerint,  nostris in templis descripta seruantur.  Apud (15)vos quidem, et alias gentes res gestae nuper, literis montmentisque traduntur,  sed certis tem(16)porum curriculis illuvies immissa caelitus omnia populatur. Ideo qui succedunt, literis (17)et musis orbati sunt.  Quo sit ut quasi iuvenes iterum sitis et rudes, praeteritatum rerum (18) omnium prorsus ignari.  Nam et ea ipsa quae modo ex vestris historiis recensebas, a fabu(19)lis puerilibus o Solo parum distant.  Primo quod unius tantum inundationis memineri(20)tis, cum multae praecesserint  Deinde quod genus maiorum vestrorum in regione vestra (21) clarissimum et optimum ignoretis,  ex quo tu et Atheniensis caeteri nati estis, exiguo se(22)mine quondam publicae cladi superstite,  Quod proptera vos latuit, quia superstites ille (23) eorumque posteri literarum usu multis seculis carverunt.  Fuit enim exitalem illam ter(24)rae illuvionem o Solo Atheniensum civitas tam belli quam pacis officiis praestantissima,  (25)eiusque opera legesque omnibus quorum memoria ad nos pervenit, excelluerunt. 
Thereupon one of the priests, who was of a very great age, said:  O Solon, Solon, you Hellenes are never anything but children, and there is not an old man among you.  Solon in return asked him what he meant.  I mean to say, he replied, that in mind you are all young;  there is no old opinion handed down among you by ancient tradition, nor any science which is hoary with age.  And I will tell you why.  There have been, and will be again, many destructions of mankind arising out of many causes;  the greatest have been brought about by the agencies of fire and water, and other lesser ones by innumerable other causes.  There is a story, which even you have preserved, that once upon a time Phaëthon, the son of Helios, having yoked the steeds in his father’s chariot,  because he was not able to drive them in the path of his father,  burnt up all that was upon the earth, and was himself destroyed by a thunderbolt.  Now this has the form of a myth,  but really signifies a declination of the bodies moving in the heavens around the earth, and a great conflagration of things upon the earth, which recurs after long intervals;  at such times those who live upon the mountains and in dry and lofty places are more liable to destruction than those who dwell by rivers or on the seashore.  And from this calamity the Nile, who is our neverfailing saviour, delivers and preserves us.  When, on the other hand, the gods purge the earth with a deluge of water,  the survivors in your country are herdsmen and shepherds who dwell on the mountains,  but those who, like you, live in cities are carried by the rivers into the sea.  Whereas in this land, neither then nor at any other time, does the water come down from above on the fields,  having always a tendency to come up from below;  for which reason the traditions preserved here are the most ancient.  The fact is, that wherever the extremity of winter frost or of summer sun does not prevent,  mankind exist, sometimes in greater, sometimes in lesser numbers.  And whatever happened either in your country or in ours, or in any other region of which we are informed —  if there were any actions noble or great or in any other way remarkable,  they have all been written down by us of old, and are preserved in our temples.  Whereas just when you and other nations are beginning to be provided with letters and the other requisites of civilized life,  after the usual interval, the stream from heaven, like a pestilence, comes pouring down, and leaves only those of you who are destitute of letters and education;  and so you have to begin all over again like children, and know nothing of what happened in ancient times, either among us or among yourselves.  As for those genealogies of yours which you just now recounted to us, Solon, they are no better than the tales of children.  In the first place you remember a single deluge only, but there were many previous ones;  in the next place, you do not know that there formerly dwelt in your land the fairest and noblest race of men which ever lived,  and that you and your whole city are descended from a small seed or remnant of them which survived.  And this was unknown to you, because, for many generations, the survivors of that destruction died, leaving no written word.  For there was a time, Solon, before the great deluge of all, when the city which now is Athens was first in war and in every way the best governed of all cities,  and is said to have performed the noblest deeds and to have had the fairest constitution of any of which tradition tells, under the face of heaven. 
Da aber habe einer der Priester, ein sehr bejahrter Mann, ausgerufen:  O Solon, Solon, ihr Hellenen bleibt doch immer Kinder, und einen alten Hellenen gibt es nicht!  Als nun Solon dies vernommen, habe er gefragt: Wie so? Wie meinst du das?  Ihr seid alle jung an Geiste, erwiderte der Priester,  denn ihr tragt in ihm keine Anschauung, welche aus alter Überlieferung stammt, und keine mit der Zeit ergraute Kunde.  Der Grund hievon aber ist folgender.  Es haben schon viele und vielerlei Vertilgungen der Menschen Statt gefunden und werden auch fernerhin noch Statt finden,  die umfänglichsten durch Feuer und Wasser, andere, geringere aber durch unzählige andere Ursachen.  Denn was auch bei euch erzählt wird, daß einst Phaethon, der Sohn des Helios, den Wagen seines Vaters bestieg und,  weil er es nicht verstand auf dem Wege seines Vaters zu fahren,  Alles auf der Erde verbrannte und selber vom Blitze erschlagen ward,  das klingt zwar wie eine Fabel,  doch ist das Wahre daran die veränderte Bewegung der die Erde umkreisenden Himmelskörper und die Vernichtung von Allem, was auf der Erde befindlich ist, durch vieles Feuer, welche nach dem Verlauf großer Zeiträume eintritt.  Von derselben werden dann die, welche auf Gebirgen und in hochgelegenen und wasserlosen Gegenden wohnen, stärker betroffen als die Anwohner der Flüsse und des Meeres,  und so rettet auch uns der Nil, wie aus allen anderen Nöten, so auch alsdann, indem er uns auch aus dieser befreit.  Wenn aber wiederum die Götter die Erde, um sie zu reinigen, mit Wasser überschwemmen,  dann bleiben die, so auf den Bergen wohnen, Rinder- und Schafhirten, erhalten,  die aber, welche bei euch in den Städten leben, werden von den Flüssen ins Meer geschwemmt,  dagegen in unserem Lande strömt weder dann noch sonst das Wasser vom Himmel herab auf die Fluren,  sondern es ist so eingerichtet, daß alles von unten her über sie aufsteigt.  Daher und aus diesen Gründen bleibt Alles bei uns erhalten und gilt deshalb für das älteste.  In Wahrheit jedoch gibt es in allen Gegenden, wo nicht übermäßige Kälte oder Hitze es wehrt,  stets ein bald mehr, [23 St.] bald minder zahlreiches Menschengeschlecht.  Nur aber liegt bei uns Alles, was bei euch oder in der Heimat oder in anderen Gegenden vorgeht, von denen wir durch Hörensagen wissen,  so fern es irgendwie etwas Treffliches oder Großes ist oder irgend eine andere Bedeutsamkeit hat,  insgesamt von Alters her in den Tempeln aufgezeichnet und bleibt also erhalten.  Ihr dagegen und die übrigen Staaten seid hinsichtlich der Schrift und alles Anderen, was zum staatlichen Leben gehört,  immer eben erst eingerichtet, wenn schon wiederum nach dem Ablauf der gewöhnlichen Frist wie eine Krankheit die Regenflut des Himmels über euch hereinbricht und nur die der Schrift Unkundigen und Ungebildeten bei euch übrig läßt,  so daß ihr immer von Neuem gleichsam wieder jung werdet und der Vorgänge bei uns und bei euch unkundig bleibt, so viel ihrer in alten Zeiten sich ereigneten.  Wenigstens eure jetzigen Geschlechtsverzeichnisse, wie du sie durchgingst, unterscheiden sich nur wenig von Kindermärchen.  Denn erstens erinnert ihr euch nur Einer Überschwemmung der Erde, während doch so viele schon vorhergegangen sind,  sodann aber wißt ihr nicht, daß das trefflichste und edelste Geschlecht unter den Menschen in eurem Lande gelebt hat,  von denen du und alle Bürger eures jetzigen Staates herstammt, indem einst ein geringer Stamm von ihnen übrig blieb,  sondern alles dies blieb euch verborgen, weil die Übriggebliebenen viele Geschlechter hindurch ohne die Sprache der Schrift ihr ganzes Leben hinbrachten.  Denn es war einst, mein Solon, vor der größten Zerstörung durch Wasser der Staat, welcher jetzt der athenische heißt, der beste im Kriege und mit der in allen Stücken ausgezeichnetsten Verfassung ausgerüstet,  wie denn die herrlichsten Taten und öffentlichen Einrichtungen von allen unter der Sonne, deren Ruf wir vernommen haben, ihm zugeschrieben werden. 
Ἀκούσας οὖν ὁ Σόλων ἔφη θαυμάσαι καὶ πᾶσαν προθυμίαν σχεῖν δεόμενος τῶν ἱερέων πάντα δι’ ἀκριβείας οἱ τὰ περὶ τῶν πάλαι πολιτῶν ἑξῆς διελθεῖν.  τὸν οὖν ἱερέα φάναι· Φθόνος οὐδείς, ὦ Σόλων,  ἀλλὰ σοῦ τε ἕνεκα ἐρῶ καὶ τῆς πόλεως ὑμῶν,  μάλιστα δὲ τῆς θεοῦ χάριν, ἣ τήν τε ὑμετέραν καὶ τήνδε ἔλαχεν καὶ ἔθρεψεν καὶ ἐπαίδευσεν,  προτέραν μὲν τὴν παρ’ ὑμῖν ἔτεσιν χιλίοις,  ἐκ Γῆς τε καὶ Ἡφαίστου τὸ σπέρμα παραλαβοῦσα ὑμῶν, τήνδε δὲ ὑστέραν.  τῆς δὲ ἐνθάδε διακοσμήσεως παρ’ ἡμῖν ἐν τοῖς ἱεροῖς γράμμασιν ὀκτακισχιλίων ἐτῶν ἀριθμὸς γέγραπται.  περὶ δὴ τῶν ἐνακισχίλια γεγονότων ἔτη πολιτῶν σοι δηλώσω διὰ βραχέων νόμους, καὶ τῶν ἔργων αὐτοῖς ὃ κάλλιστον ἐπράχθη·  τὸ δ’ ἀκριβὲς περὶ πάντων ἐφεξῆς εἰς αὖθις κατὰ σχολὴν αὐτὰ τὰ γράμματα λαβόντες διέξιμεν.  τοὺς μὲν οὖν νόμους σκόπει πρὸς τοὺς τῇδε·  πολλὰ γὰρ παραδείγματα τῶν τότε παρ’ ὑμῖν ὄντων ἐνθάδε νῦν ἀνευρήσεις,  πρῶτον μὲν τὸ τῶν ἱερέων γένος ἀπὸ τῶν ἄλλων χωρὶς ἀφωρισμένον,  μετὰ δὲ τοῦτο τὸ τῶν δημιουργῶν,  ὅτι καθ’ αὑτὸ ἕκαστον ἄλλῳ δὲ οὐκ ἐπιμειγνύμενον δημιουργεῖ,  τό τε τῶν νομέων καὶ τὸ τῶν θηρευτῶν τό τε τῶν γεωργῶν.  καὶ δὴ καὶ τὸ μάχιμον γένος ᾔσθησαί που τῇδε ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν γενῶν κεχωρισμένον,  οἷς οὐδὲν ἄλλο πλὴν τὰ περὶ τὸν πόλεμον ὑπὸ τοῦ νόμου προσετάχθη μέλειν·  ἔτι δὲ ἡ τῆς ὁπλίσεως αὐτῶν σχέσις ἀσπίδων καὶ δοράτων,  οἷς ἡμεῖς πρῶτοι τῶν περὶ τὴν Ἀσίαν ὡπλίσμεθα, τῆς θεοῦ καθάπερ ἐν ἐκείνοις τοῖς τόποις παρ’ ὑμῖν πρώτοις ἐνδειξαμένης.  τὸ δ’ αὖ περὶ τῆς φρονήσεως, ὁρᾷς που τὸν νόμον τῇδε ὅσην ἐπιμέλειαν ἐποιήσατο εὐθὺς κατ’ ἀρχὰς περί τε τὸν κόσμον,  ἅπαντα μέχρι μαντικῆς καὶ ἰατρικῆς πρὸς ὑγίειαν ἐκ τούτων θείων ὄντων εἰς τὰ ἀνθρώπινα ἀνευρών,  ὅσα τε ἄλλα τούτοις ἕπεται μαθήματα πάντα κτησάμενος. 
                                           
Tum admiratum Solonem orare atque obsecrare, ut sibi omnia sacerdos de ueteribus ciuibus reuelaret  et illum "Nulla est inuidia" respondisse,  "praesertim cum et tibi sit mos gerendus et honor debitus amicae ciuitati referendus  et id me facere cogat ueneratio deae quae utramque urbem condidit educauit instituit,  priorem uestram annis fere mille  ex indigete agro et Uulcanio semine,  posteriorem hanc nostram octo milibus annis post, ut sacris delubrorum apicibus continetur.  De his ergo maioribus uestris audies, o Solo, qui ante nouem milia annorum uixerunt, quibus sint usi legibus quamque amplis et quam praeclaris facinoribus nobilitati;  si probationem desiderabis, post ex otio sacras litteras recensebimus.  Ac primum leges intuere;  fors enim multa reperies indicia germanitatis,  uel quod sacerdotiis praediti separatim a caetero populo manent, ne contagione aliqua profana castitas polluatur,  uel quod uaria opificum genera ita inter se discreta sint,  ut promisce nullus operetur.  Pastores uero et item penes quos est uenandi colendique ruris exercendique scientia,  disparatas sedes habent a propugnatorum armataeque iuuentutis castris et insignibus ipsorumque insignium  idem usus et differentia tam hic quam apud uos etiamnunc habetur:  clipeorum tegmen, thoracum indumenta, iaculorum amentata missilia.    Prudentiae uero curam ubi maiorem leges habendam sanciunt aut honestas apud quos tantam dignitatem obtinet in uitae muneribus et officiis?  Quid diuinatio? Quid medela? Nonne ad homines instinctu conditricis deae commeauerunt? (Cf. also previous records)   
Tunc ad (26) miratum Solonem obnixe sacerdotes obsecravisse ait, ut omnia diligenter priscorum ci(27)vium opera revelarent.  Atque illi sic a sacerdote quodam suisse responsum.  Nulla hoc in(28)vidia prohibet Solo.  Dicam equidem libenter tui et civitatis vestrae gratia.  Maxime ve(29)ro gratia deae, quae et vestram illam, et hanc nostram condidit, educavit, instituit, priorem (30) vestram annis mille,  ex terra et Vulcano accipiens semina.  Posterioris autem huius no(31)strae urbis res octo annorum milibus gestae i sacris literis continentur.  Illorum ergo civium (32) qui in hoc novem milium annorum tempore ante nos fuerunt, instituta et praeclara faci(33)nora, breviter Solo in praestantia tibi perstringam.  Deinceps vero cum plus dabitur otii, ac(34)cepto historiarum libro, latius exponemus.  Ac primum leges illorum considera quo pa(35)cto cum his nostris conveniant.  Multa enim hic similia illis reperies.  Principio quod (36) sacerdotes separati ab omni turba vitam agunt.  Deinde varia opificum genera ita inter (37) se discreta sunt,  ut suum quisque agat, promiscue vero nullus.  Similiter pastorum, ve(38)natorum, agricolarum inter se distincta sunt opera.  Milites quoque hic, ut nosti ab aliis o(39)mnibus segregati,  bellica duntaxat tractare legibus iubentur.  Armatura etiam ut clypeo(40)rum iaculorumque usus, apud utrosque persimilis.  his primi nos in Asia usi sumus, et dea (41) ut illis in locis sic vobis primis tradidit.  Prudentiae quoque et modestiae magna sicut (42) vides, nostris legibus ab initio cura fuit,  divinationis insuper et medicinae, et sanitas no(43)bis per haec divinitus procurata.  Demum quaecunque ad haec attinent disciplinae, diligen(44)ter institutae a lege reperiuntur. 
Solon marvelled at his words, and earnestly requested the priests to inform him exactly and in order about these former citizens.  You are welcome to hear about them, Solon, said the priest,  both for your own sake and for that of your city,  and above all, for the sake of the goddess who is the common patron and parent and educator of both our cities.  She founded your city a thousand years before ours,  receiving from the Earth and Hephaestus the seed of your race,  and afterwards she founded ours, of which the constitution is recorded in our sacred registers to be 8000 years old.  As touching your citizens of 9000 years ago, I will briefly inform you of their laws and of their most famous action;  the exact particulars of the whole we will hereafter go through at our leisure in the sacred registers themselves.  If you compare these very laws with ours  you will find that many of ours are the counterpart of yours as they were in the olden time.  In the first place, there is the caste of priests, which is separated from all the others;  next, there are the artificers,  who ply their several crafts by themselves and do not intermix;  and also there is the class of shepherds and of hunters, as well as that of husbandmen;  and you will observe, too, that the warriors in Egypt are distinct from all the other classes,  and are commanded by the law to devote themselves solely to military pursuits;  moreover, the weapons which they carry are shields and spears,  a style of equipment which the goddess taught of Asiatics first to us, as in your part of the world first to you.  Then as to wisdom, do you observe how our law from the very first made a study of the whole order of things,  extending even to prophecy and medicine which gives health; out of these divine elements deriving what was needful for human life,  and adding every sort of knowledge which was akin to them. 
Als nun Solon dies hörte, da habe er, wie er erzählte, sein Erstaunen bezeugt und angelegentlichst die Priester gebeten, ihm die ganze Geschichte der alten Bürger seines Staates in genauer Reihenfolge wiederzugeben.  Der Priester aber habe erwidert: Ich will dir Nichts vorenthalten, mein Solon,  sondern dir Alles mitteilen, sowohl dir als eurem Staate,  vor Allem aber der Göttin zu Liebe, welche euren so wie unseren Staat gleichmäßig zum Eigentume erhielt und beide erzog und bildete,  und zwar den euren tausend Jahre früher aus dem Samen,  den sie dazu von der Erdgöttin Ge und dem Hephästos empfangen hatte, und später eben so den unsrigen.  Die Zahl der Jahre aber, seitdem die Einrichtung des letzteren besteht, ist in unseren heiligen Büchern auf achttausend angegeben.  Von euren Mitbürgern, die vor neuntausend Jahren entstanden, will ich dir also jetzt im Kurzen berichten, welches ihre Staatsverfassung und welches die herrlichste Tat war, die sie vollbrachten, [24 St.]  das Genauere über dies Alles aber wollen wir ein ander Mal mit Muße nach der Reihe durchgehen, indem wir die Bücher selber zur Hand nehmen.  Von ihrer Verfassung nun mache dir eine Vorstellung nach der hiesigen.  Denn du wirst viele Proben von dem, was damals bei euch galt, in dem, was bei uns noch jetzt gilt, wiederfinden,  zuerst eine Kaste der Priester, welche von allen andern gesondert ist,  sodann die der Gewerbetreibenden,  von denen wieder jede Klasse für sich arbeitet, und nicht mit den anderen zusammen,  samt den Hirten, Jägern und Ackerleuten,  endlich wirst du auch wohl bemerkt haben, daß die Kriegerkaste hier zu Lande von allen Anderen gesondert  und daß ihr nichts Anderes, außer der Sorge für das Kriegswesen, vom Gesetze auferlegt ist.  Ihre Bewaffnung ferner besteht aus Spieß und Schild  mit denen wir zuerst unter den Völkern Asiens uns ausrüsteten, indem die Göttin es uns, ebenso wie in euren Gegenden euch zuerst, gelehrt hatte.  Was sodann die Geistesbildung anlagt, so siehst du doch wohl, eine wie große Sorge das Gesetz bei uns gleich in seinen Grundlagen auf sie verwandt hat, indem es aus allen auf die Naturordnung bezüglichen Wissenschaften  bis zu der Wahrsagekunst und der Heilkunst zur Sicherung der Gesundheit hin, welche alle göttlicher Natur sind, dasjenige, was zum Gebrauche der Menschen sich eignet,  heraussuchte und sich dergestalt alle diese Wissenschaften und alle andern, welche mit ihnen zusammenhängen, aneignete. 
ταύτην οὖν δὴ τότε σύμπασαν τὴν διακόσμησιν καὶ σύνταξιν ἡ θεὸς προτέρους ὑμᾶς διακοσμήσασα κατῴκισεν,  ἐκλεξαμένη τὸν τόπον ἐν ᾧ γεγένησθε,  τὴν εὐκρασίαν τῶν ὡρῶν ἐν αὐτῷ κατιδοῦσα, ὅτι φρονιμωτάτους ἄνδρας οἴσοι·  ἅτε οὖν φιλοπόλεμός τε καὶ φιλόσοφος ἡ θεὸς οὖσα τὸν προσφερεστάτους αὐτῇ μέλλοντα οἴσειν τόπον ἄνδρας, τοῦτον ἐκλεξαμένη πρῶτον κατῴκισεν.  ᾠκεῖτε δὴ οὖν νόμοις τε τοιούτοις χρώμενοι καὶ ἔτι μᾶλλον εὐνομούμενοι πάσῃ τε παρὰ πάντας ἀνθρώπους ὑπερβεβληκότες ἀρετῇ,  καθάπερ εἰκὸς γεννήματα καὶ παιδεύματα θεῶν ὄντας.  πολλὰ μὲν οὖν ὑμῶν καὶ μεγάλα ἔργα τῆς πόλεως τῇδε γεγραμμένα θαυμάζεται,  πάντων μὴν ἓν ὑπερέχει μεγέθει καὶ ἀρετῇ·  λέγει γὰρ τὰ γεγραμμένα ὅσην ἡ πόλις ὑμῶν ἔπαυσέν ποτε δύναμιν ὕβρει πορευομένην ἅμα ἐπὶ πᾶσαν Εὐρώπην καὶ Ἀσίαν,  ἔξωθεν ὁρμηθεῖσαν ἐκ τοῦ Ἀτλαντικοῦ πελάγους.  τότε γὰρ πορεύσιμον ἦν τὸ ἐκεῖ πέλαγος·  νῆσον γὰρ πρὸ τοῦ στόματος εἶχεν ὃ καλεῖτε, ὥς φατε, ὑμεῖς Ἡρακλέους στήλας,  ἡ δὲ νῆσος ἅμα Λιβύης ἦν καὶ Ἀσίας μείζων,  ἐξ ἧς ἐπιβατὸν ἐπὶ τὰς ἄλλας νήσους τοῖς τότε ἐγίγνετο πορευομένοις,  ἐκ δὲ τῶν νήσων ἐπὶ τὴν καταντικρὺ πᾶσαν ἤπειρον τὴν περὶ τὸν ἀληθινὸν ἐκεῖνον πόντον.  τάδε μὲν γάρ, ὅσα ἐντὸς τοῦ στόματος οὗ λέγομεν, φαίνεται λιμὴν στενόν τινα ἔχων εἴσπλουν·  ἐκεῖνο δὲ πέλαγος ὄντως ἥ τε περιέχουσα αὐτὸ γῆ παντελῶς ἀληθῶς ὀρθότατ’ ἂν λέγοιτο ἤπειρος. 
                                 
Hac quippe exornatione priorem uestram urbem sepsit honestauitque numen quod condidit,  electo salubri subtiliumque ingeniorum et prudentiae feraci loco.    Utpote enim bellicosa et sapiens dea regionem eligendam censuit talem, quae sui similes esset viro seditura.  His ergo legibus uel honestioribus et iam institutis ad omnem uirtutem eruditi ueteres Athenienses,  utpote divinae prosapiae germani,  maximis et ultra humanae gloriae captum titulis laudum nobilitati sunt.  E quibus unum eminens et praedecorum facinus in monumentis ueteribus inuenimus:  immanem quondam iniuriis et inexpugnabilem numero manum, quae prope iam cunctam Europam atque Asiam subegisset,  a uestris legionibus esse deletam ex Atlantico mari bellum omnibus gentibus et nationibus inferentem.  Tunc enim fretum illud erat, opinor, commeabile  habens in ore ac uestibulo sinus insulam, quod os a uobis Herculis censetur columnae;  quae quidem insula fertur aliquanto maior fuisse quam Libya atque Asia.  Simul ergo per eam perque contiguas alias insulas iter tunc illud agentibus commeatus  patebat usque ad defectum insularum et initium terrae continentis, vicinae vero mari;  quippe hoc intra os siue Herculeas columnas fretum angusto quodam litore,  in quo etiam nunc portus ueteris apparent uestigia, diuiditur a continenti, at uero illud pelagus immensae atque inaestimabilis magnitudinis uerum mare. 
Huiusmodi institutione et ordine priorem vestram ur(45)bem dea a primordiis exornavit,  cum im urbe condenda eam regionem elegisset  quae ob (46) aeris temperiem prudentissima ingenia procrearet.  Utpote enim bellicosa et sapeins dea (47) regionem eligendam censuit talem, quae esset sui similes homines editura.  His itaque legibus (48) vel etiam honestioribus institutionibus formati veteres Athenienses omni virtutum ge(49)nere caeteris omnibus excelluerunt,  ut decebat eos qui diis geniti editique essent.  Multa qui(50)dem et mirabilia vestrae civitatis opera in monimentis nostris leguntur,  sed unum ma(51)gnitudine et virtute praecipuum facinus.  Traditur enim vestra civitatis restitisse olim(52) innumeris hostium copiis, quae ex Atlantico mari profectae prope iam cunctam Euro(53)pam Asiamque obsederant.  See previous record  Tunc enim erat fretum illud navigabile,  habens in ore et (54) quasi vestibulo eius insulam, quas Herculis Columnas cognominatis:  ferturque insula (707,1) illa Libya simul et Asia maior fuisse,  per quam ad alias proximas insulas patebat aditus,  atque ex insulis ad omnem continentem e conspectu iacntem vero mari vicinam.  Sed (2) intra os ipsum portus angusto sinu fuisse traditur.  Pelagus illud verum mare, terra quo(4)que illa vere erat continens. 
All this order and arrangement the goddess first imparted to you when establishing your city;  and she chose the spot of earth in which you were born,  because she saw that the happy temperament of the seasons in that land would produce the wisest of men.  Wherefore the goddess, who was a lover both of war and of wisdom, selected and first of all settled that spot which was the most likely to produce men likest herself.  And there you dwelt, having such laws as these and still better ones, and excelled all mankind in all virtue,  as became the children and disciples of the gods.  The most glorious act of ancient Athens was the deliverance of Europe and Libya from the power of Atlantis. Soon afterwards both empires disappeared. Many great and wonderful deeds are recorded of your state in our histories.  But one of them exceeds all the rest in greatness and valour.  For these histories tell of a mighty power which unprovoked made an expedition against the whole of Europe and Asia, and to which your city put an end.  This power came forth out of the Atlantic Ocean,  for in those days the Atlantic was navigable;  and there was an island situated in front of the straits which are by you called the pillars of Heracles;  the island was larger than Libya and Asia put together,  and was the way to other islands,  and from these you might pass to the whole of the opposite continent which surrounded the true ocean;  for this sea which is within the Straits of Heracles is only a harbour, having a narrow entrance,  but that other is a real sea, and the surrounding land may be most truly called a boundless continent. 
Nach dieser ganzen Anordnung und Einrichtung gründete nun die Göttin zuerst euren Staat,  indem sie den Ort eurer Geburt mit Rücksicht darauf erwählte,  daß die dort herrschende glückliche Mischung der Jahreszeiten am Besten dazu geeignet sei, verständige Männer zu erzeugen.  Weil also die Göttin zugleich den Krieg und die Weisheit liebt, so wählte sie den Ort aus, welcher am Meisten sich dazu eignete, Männer, wie sie ihr am Ähnlichsten sind, hervorzubringen, und gab diesem zuerst seine Bewohner.  So wohntet ihr denn also dort im Besitze einer solchen Verfassung und noch viel anderer trefflicher Einrichtungen und übertraft alle anderen Menschen in jeglicher Tugend und Tüchtigkeit,  wie es auch von Sprößlingen und Zöglingen der Götter nicht anders zu erwarten stand.  Viele andere große Taten eures Staates nun lesen wir in unseren Schriften mit Bewunderung,  von allen jedoch ragt eine durch ihre Größe und Kühnheit hervor.  Unsere Bücher erzählen nämlich, eine wie gewaltige Kriegsmacht einst euer Staat gebrochen hat, als sie übermütig gegen ganz Europa und Asien  zugleich vom atlantischen Meere heranzog.  Damals nämlich war das Meer dort fahrbar,  denn vor der Mündung, welche ihr in eurer Sprache die Säulen des Herakles heißt,  hatte es eine Insel, welche größer war als Asien und Libyen zusammen,  und von ihr konnte man damals nach den übrigen Inseln hinübersetzen  und [25 St.] von den Inseln auf das ganze gegenüberliegende Festland, welches jenes recht eigentlich so zu nennende Meer umschließt.  Denn alles Das, was sich innerhalb der eben genannten Mündung befindet, erscheint wie eine Bucht mit einem engen Eingange,  jenes Meer aber kann in Wahrheit also und das es umgebende Land mit vollem Fug und Recht Festland heißen. 
ἐν δὲ δὴ τῇ Ἀτλαντίδι νήσῳ ταύτῃ μεγάλη συνέστη καὶ θαυμαστὴ δύναμις βασιλέων,  κρατοῦσα μὲν ἁπάσης τῆς νήσου, πολλῶν δὲ ἄλλων νήσων καὶ μερῶν τῆς ἠπείρου·  πρὸς δὲ τούτοις ἔτι τῶν ἐντὸς τῇδε Λιβύης μὲν ἦρχον μέχρι πρὸς Αἴγυπτον, τῆς δὲ Εὐρώπης μέχρι Τυρρηνίας.  αὕτη δὴ πᾶσα συναθροισθεῖσα εἰς ἓν ἡ δύναμις τόν τε παρ’ ὑμῖν καὶ τὸν παρ’ ἡμῖν καὶ τὸν ἐντὸς τοῦ στόματος πάντα τόπον μιᾷ ποτὲ ἐπεχείρησεν ὁρμῇ δουλοῦσθαι.  τότε οὖν ὑμῶν, ὦ Σόλων, τῆς πόλεως ἡ δύναμις εἰς ἅπαντας ἀνθρώπους διαφανὴς ἀρετῇ τε καὶ ῥώμῃ ἐγένετο·  πάντων γὰρ προστᾶσα εὐψυχίᾳ καὶ τέχναις ὅσαι κατὰ πόλεμον,  τὰ μὲν τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἡγουμένη,  τὰ δ’ αὐτὴ μονωθεῖσα ἐξ ἀνάγκης τῶν ἄλλων ἀποστάντων,  ἐπὶ τοὺς ἐσχάτους ἀφικομένη κινδύνους,  κρατήσασα μὲν τῶν ἐπιόντων τρόπαιον ἔστησεν,  τοὺς δὲ μήπω δεδουλωμένους διεκώλυσεν δουλωθῆναι,  τοὺς δ’ ἄλλους, ὅσοι κατοικοῦμεν ἐντὸς ὅρων Ἡρακλείων, ἀφθόνως ἅπαντας ἠλευθέρωσεν.  ὑστέρῳ δὲ χρόνῳ σεισμῶν ἐξαισίων καὶ κατακλυσμῶν γενομένων, μιᾶς ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτὸς χαλεπῆς ἐπελθούσης,  τό τε παρ’ ὑμῖν μάχιμον πᾶν ἁθρόον ἔδυ κατὰ γῆς,  ἥ τε Ἀτλαντὶς νῆσος ὡσαύτως κατὰ τῆς θαλάττης δῦσα ἠφανίσθη·  διὸ καὶ νῦν ἄπορον καὶ ἀδιερεύνητον γέγονεν τοὐκεῖ πέλαγος,  πηλοῦ κάρτα βραχέος ἐμποδὼν ὄντος,  ὃν ἡ νῆσος ἱζομένη παρέσχετο. 
                                   
Igitur in hac Atlantide insula maxima et admirabilis potentia extitit  regum omnem insulam finitimasque alias obtinentium maximaeque parti continentis dominantium,  siquidem tertiae mundi parti, quae Libya dicitur, usque ad Aegyptum imperarunt, Europae vero usque ad Tyrrhenum mare.  Quae quidem uis potentiaque collecta et armata nostram, o Solo, uestramque regionem, hoc amplius eas gentes quae intra Herculis columnas consistunt adoriri et expugnare gestiit.  Tunc ergo uestrae ciuitatis uirtus ultra omnem gloriam enituit,  quod pro communi omnium salute ac libertate desperantibus deserentibusque metu communem custodiam cunctis magnitudine animi bellicisque artibus assecuta est,      ut per extrema discrimina erumpens  hostes humani generis primo fugaret,  dehinc funderet, libertatem subiugatis redderet,  intactos in sua genuinaque libertate servaret.  Neque ita multo post accidit, ut motu terrae et illuvione diei noctisque iugi  praeclara illa vestra militaris ivuentus periret  et Atlantis insula tota sine indicio prioris existentiae submergeretur,  nisi quod pelagus illud pigrius  quam caetera crasso dehiscentis insulae limo et superne fluctibus concreto habetur."   
In hac Atlantide insula maxima et admirabilis potentia exti(5)tit regnum  qui toti insulae illi, multisque aliis, et maximae terrae continentis parti, praeterea (6) et his quae penes nos sunt, dominabantur.  Si quidem tertiae mundi parti, quae Libya dici(7)tur, usque ad Aegyptum imperaverit, Europae vero usque Tyrrhenum mare.  Ho(8)rum vis omnis una collecta nostra o Solo vestramque regionem, at quicquid intra co(9)lumnas Herculis continebatur, invasit.  Tunc vestrae civitatis virtus in omnes gentes eni(10)tuit.  Quae cum omnes magnanimitate bellicisque artibus antecellerent,    partim una aliis (11) Graecis, partim sola caeteris deferentibus,  extrema discrimina subiit,  hostesque expugna(12)vit,  amicis servata vel reddita libertate.    Post haec ingenti terrae motu iugique diei unius et (13) noctis illuvione factum est,  ut terra dehiscens vestros illos una omnes bellicosos homi(14)nes absorberet,  et Atlantis insula sub vasto gurgite mergerentur.  Quam ob causam inna(15)vigabile pelagus illud  propter absorbtae insulae limum relictum fuit.   
Now in this island of Atlantis there was a great and wonderful empire  which had rule over the whole island and several others, and over parts of the continent,  and, furthermore, the men of Atlantis had subjected the parts of Libya within the columns of Heracles as far as Egypt, and of Europe as far as Tyrrhenia.  This vast power, gathered into one, endeavoured to subdue at a blow our country and yours and the whole of the region within the straits;  and then, Solon, your country shone forth, in the excellence of her virtue and strength, among all mankind.  She was preeminent in courage and military skill,  and was the leader of the Hellenes.  And when the rest fell off from her, being compelled to stand alone,  after having undergone the very extremity of danger,  she defeated and triumphed over the invaders,  and preserved from slavery those who were not yet subjugated,  and generously liberated all the rest of us who dwell within the pillars.  But afterwards there occurred violent earthquakes and floods; and in a single day and night of misfortune  all your warlike men in a body sank into the earth,  and the island of Atlantis in like manner disappeared in the depths of the sea.  For which reason the sea in those parts is impassable and impenetrable,  because there is a shoal of mud in the way;  and this was caused by the subsidence of the island. 
Auf dieser Insel Atlantis nun bestand eine große und bewundernswürdige Königsherrschaft,  welche nicht bloß die ganze Insel, sondern auch viele andere Inseln und Teile des Festlands unter ihrer Gewalt hatte.  Außerdem beherrschte sie noch von den hier innerhalb liegenden Ländern Libyen bis nach Ägypten und Europa bis nach Tyrrenien hin.  Indem sich nun diese ganze Macht zu einer Heeresmasse vereinigte, unternahm sie es, unser und euer Land und überhaupt das ganze innerhalb der Mündung liegende Gebiet mit Einem Zuge zu unterjochen.  Da wurde nun, mein Solon, die Macht eures Staates in ihrer Trefflichkeit und Stärke vor allen Menschen offenbar.  Denn vor allen Andern an Mut und Kriegskünsten hervorragend,  führte derselbe zuerst die Hellenen,  dann aber ward er durch den Abfall der Anderen gezwungen, sich auf sich allein zu verlassen,  und als er so in die äußerste Gefahr gekommen,  da überwand er die Andringenden und stellte Siegeszeichen  auf und verhinderte so die Unterjochung der noch nicht Unterjochten  und gab den Andern von uns, die wir innerhalb der herakleischen Grenzen wohnen, mit edlem Sinne die Freiheit zurück.  Späterhin aber entstanden gewaltige Erdbeben und Überschwemmungen, und da versank während eines schlimmen Tages und einer schlimmen Nacht das ganze streitbare Geschlecht bei euch scharenweise unter die Erde,    und ebenso verschwand die Insel Atlantis, indem sie im Meere unterging.  Deshalb ist auch die dortige See jetzt unfahrbar und undurchforschbar,  weil der sehr hoch aufgehäufte Schlamm im Wege ist,  welchen die Insel durch ihr Untersinken hervorbrachte. 
Τὰ μὲν δὴ ῥηθέντα, ὦ Σώκρατες, ὑπὸ τοῦ παλαιοῦ Κριτίου κατ’ ἀκοὴν τὴν Σόλωνος, ὡς συντόμως εἰπεῖν, ἀκήκοας·  λέγοντος δὲ δὴ χθὲς σοῦ περὶ πολιτείας τε καὶ τῶν ἀνδρῶν οὓς ἔλεγες,  ἐθαύμαζον ἀναμιμνῃσκόμενος αὐτὰ ἃ νῦν λέγω,  κατανοῶν ὡς δαιμονίως ἔκ τινος τύχης οὐκ ἄπο σκοποῦ συνηνέχθης τὰ πολλὰ οἷς Σόλων εἶπεν.  οὐ μὴν ἐβουλήθην παραχρῆμα εἰπεῖν·  διὰ χρόνου γὰρ οὐχ ἱκανῶς ἐμεμνήμην.  ἐνενόησα οὖν ὅτι χρεὼν εἴη με πρὸς ἐμαυτὸν πρῶτον ἱκανῶς πάντα ἀναλαβόντα λέγειν οὕτως.  ὅθεν ταχὺ συνωμολόγησά σοι τὰ ἐπιταχθέντα χθές,  ἡγούμενος, ὅπερ ἐν ἅπασι τοῖς τοιοῖσδε μέγιστον ἔργον,  λόγον τινὰ πρέποντα τοῖς βουλήμασιν ὑποθέσθαι, τούτου μετρίως ἡμᾶς εὐπορήσειν.  οὕτω δή, καθάπερ ὅδ’ εἶπεν, χθές τε εὐθὺς ἐνθένδε ἀπιὼν πρὸς τούσδε ἀνέφερον αὐτὰ ἀναμιμνῃσκόμενος,  ἀπελθών τε σχεδόν τι πάντα ἐπισκοπῶν τῆς νυκτὸς ἀνέλαβον.  ὡς δή τοι, τὸ λεγόμενον, τὰ παίδων μαθήματα θαυμαστὸν ἔχει τι μνημεῖον.  ἐγὼ γὰρ ἃ μὲν χθὲς ἤκουσα, οὐκ ἂν οἶδ’ εἰ δυναίμην ἅπαντα ἐν μνήμῃ πάλιν λαβεῖν·  ταῦτα δὲ ἃ πάμπολυν χρόνον διακήκοα, παντάπασι θαυμάσαιμ’ ἂν εἴ τί με αὐτῶν διαπέφευγεν.  ἦν μὲν οὖν μετὰ πολλῆς ἡδονῆς καὶ παιδιᾶς τότε ἀκουόμενα,  καὶ τοῦ πρεσβύτου προθύμως με διδάσκοντος,  ἅτ’ ἐμοῦ πολλάκις ἐπανερωτῶντος,  ὥστε οἷον ἐγκαύματα ἀνεκπλύτου γραφῆς ἔμμονά μοι γέγονεν·  καὶ δὴ καὶ τοῖσδε εὐθὺς ἔλεγον ἕωθεν αὐτὰ ταῦτα,  ἵνα εὐποροῖεν λόγων μετ’ ἐμοῦ.  νῦν οὖν, οὗπερ ἕνεκα πάντα ταῦτα εἴρηται, λέγειν εἰμὶ ἕτοιμος, ὦ Σώκρατες,  μὴ μόνον ἐν κεφαλαίοις ἀλλ’ ὥσπερ ἤκουσα καθ’ ἕκαστον·  τοὺς δὲ πολίτας καὶ τὴν πόλιν ἣν χθὲς ἡμῖν ὡς ἐν μύθῳ διῄεισθα σύ,  νῦν μετενεγκόντες ἐπὶ τἀληθὲς δεῦρο θήσομεν ὡς ἐκείνην τήνδε οὖσαν,  καὶ τοὺς πολίτας οὓς διενοοῦ φήσομεν ἐκείνους τοὺς ἀληθινοὺς εἶναι προγόνους ἡμῶν, οὓς ἔλεγεν ὁ ἱερεύς.  πάντως ἁρμόσουσι καὶ οὐκ ἀπᾳσόμεθα λέγοντες αὐτοὺς εἶναι τοὺς ἐν τῷ τότε ὄντας χρόνῳ.  κοινῇ δὲ διαλαμβάνοντες ἅπαντες πειρασόμεθα τὸ πρέπον εἰς δύναμιν οἷς ἐπέταξας ἀποδοῦναι.  σκοπεῖν οὖν δὴ χρή, ὦ Σώκρατες, εἰ κατὰ νοῦν ὁ λόγος ἡμῖν οὗτος, ἤ τινα ἔτ’ ἄλλον ἀντ’ αὐτοῦ ζητητέον. 
                                                         
Haec sunt, o Socrate, quae Critias vetus a Solone sibi relata et exposita narravit.  Sed cum praeterito die de rebus publicis deque pacatis officiis militaribusque tractares,  subiit quaedam me ex recordatione miratio non sine deo dici quae diceres,  siquidem, quam constituebas oratione rem publicam, eadem aut certe proximae similitudinis uideretur ei quam ex Critiae relatione compereram;  reticui tamen veritus  ne, si quaesitum aliquid a me foret, dehinc obliuionis incommodo minime expedirem,  ridiculus essem maluique apud memet ipsum de memoria prius experiri.  Ex quo factum est, ut cito consentirem imperio tuo,  quod confidebam facile me, si recordatione memoriam exercuissem,  posse reminisci.  Itaque, ut hic modo dixit, tam hesterno i die post digressum protinus ad praesentes retuli  quam nocturnis uigiliis omnia scrutinabundus recuperaui certumque illud expertus sum  tenaciorem fore memoriam eorum quae in prima aetate discuntur.  Quippe haud confidam quae pridie audierim an referre possim postridie,    cum quae puer cognouerim incolumi memoria plane retexam;  nisi forte maior in illa aetate cognitionis delectatio altius insignit mentibus cognita,  fors etiam quod studiosa senis et assidua relatio  meracam quandam et inobsoletam infecerit animo notam.      Quare ut id ad quod omnia quae dicta sunt pertinent eloquar, dicere sum paratus,  non ut narrationem retexam,  sed ut ostendam rem publicam et populum sermone Socratis hesterna disputatione adumbratum non picturatam effigiem beatae civitatis,  sed vere beatam ciuitatem et vivum populum quondam fuisse propugnatoresque,  quos iste instituebat ad tolerantiam laborum virtutemque animi gymnasiis et musica mansuetudine, maiores nostros fuisse, quos ille sacerdos Aegyptius praedicaret,  quando facta eorum nutrimentis ab hoc memoratis institutisque conveniant.  Imperato quippe nobis a Socrate muneri non aliter satisfieri posse arbitror nisi consensu omnium participum officii recepti probabitur illam quam Socrates vario sermone depinxit urbem veteres Athenas fuisse.  Quare, mi Socrate, fieri huiusce modi remuneratione contentus aestima. 
Haec o Socrates eo(16)rum quae Critias maior a Solone accepta narrabat, summa est.  Se dum praeterito die de (17) Republica civibusque suis differeres,  subiit mhi quaedam ex recordatione admiratio,  co(18)gitanti videlicet divina quadam forte factum esse, ut simillima a quaedam haud ab re Solo(19)nis historiae traderes,  ob eam vero causam nihil tunc protuli,  quoniam ex diuturna negli(20)gentia non satis reminiscebar.  Satius igitur ipse censui, ut prius quam referre vobis inci(21)perem, mecum ipse repeterem.  Ideo vero statim imperio tuo consensi,  quia confidebam (22) ut in rebus huiusmodi maxime decet,  aliquid me quod propositae rei congrueret et repertu(23)rum.  Ita heri, ut iste ait, post discessum protinus his prout tunc recordebar, recencui,  A no(24)cturnis deinde vigiliis pene omnia recuperavi.  Profecto quae in pueritia discimus, diu(25)tius firmiusque, ut fertur, meminisse solemus.  Atque haud scio, an quae heri audivi, referre (26) nunc omnia memoriter possim:  quae vero puer accepi, mirabor equidem si quid eorum (27) memoria mihi exciderit.  Ea quippe cum voluptate et ioco audiebam,  cum et senex ille li(28)benter me doceret,  et ego ab illo sedulo sciscitarer.  Quapropter quasi quaedam litera(29)rum inustae indelebiliter notae, ea mihi omnia infixa memoriae permanserunt.  Atque his (30) etiam ante folis ortum ipsa narravi,  ut una mecum essent ad hanc orationem paratiores.  (31) Verum ut ad id quo haec omnia spectant, me conferam, paratus sum o Socrates,  non mo(32)do summatim sed sigillatim sicut audivi omnia enarrare.  Civitatem utique et cives quos (33) quasi per fabulam hesterna disputatione finxisti,  rem vera esse ponemus.  Civitatem qui(34)dem illam, Atheniensem hanc urbem esse. Cives quoque quos ipse excogitabas, nostros il(35)los maiores a sacerdote narratos fuisse, censebimus.  Nempe omnino haec congruent, ne(36)que ab re fuerit, si cives tuos revera priscos illos extitisse dixerimus.  Quare communiter (37) rem ipsam inter nos partientes conabimur omnes muneri abs te nobis imposito pro vi(38)ribus satisfacere.  Sed vide o Socrates nunquid sermonem hunc probemus, an alium exi(39)gamus. 
[The arrangements of the ideal state recalled to Critias’ mind the narrative of Solon.] I have told you briefly, Socrates, what the aged Critias heard from Solon and related to us.  And when you were speaking yesterday about your city and citizens, the tale which I have just been repeating to you came into my mind,  and I remarked with astonishment how, by some mysterious coincidence,  you agreed in almost every particular with the narrative of Solon;  but I did not like to speak at the moment.  For a long time had elapsed, and I had forgotten too much;  I thought that I must first of all run over the narrative in my own mind, and then I would speak.  And so I readily assented to your request yesterday,  considering that in all such cases the chief difficulty is to find a tale suitable to our purpose,  and that with such a tale we should be fairly well provided.  And therefore, as Hermocrates has told you, on my way home yesterday I at once communicated the tale to my companions as I remembered it;  and after I left them, during the night by thinking I recovered nearly the whole of it.  Truly, as is often said, the lessons of our childhood make a wonderful impression on our memories;  for I am not sure that I could remember all the discourse of yesterday,  but I should be much surprised if I forgot any of these things which I have heard very long ago.  I listened at the time with childlike interest to the old man’s narrative;  he was very ready to teach me,  and I asked him again and again to repeat his words,  so that like an indelible picture they were branded into my mind.  As soon as the day broke, I rehearsed them as he spoke them to my companions,  that they, as well as myself, might have something to say.  And now, Socrates, to make an end of my preface, I am ready to tell you the whole tale.  I will give you not only the general heads, but the particulars, as they were told to me.  The city and citizens, which you yesterday described to us in fiction,  we will now transfer to the world of reality.  It shall be the ancient city of Athens, and we will suppose that the citizens whom you imagined, were our veritable ancestors, of whom the priest spoke;  they will perfectly harmonize, and there will be no inconsistency in saying that the citizens of your republic are these ancient Athenians.  Let us divide the subject among us, and all endeavour according to our ability gracefully to execute the task which you have imposed upon us.  Consider then, Socrates, if this narrative is suited to the purpose, or whether we should seek for some other instead. 
Da hast du nun, lieber Sokrates, was mir vom alten Kritias auf Solons Bericht hin erzählt wurde, so im Kurzen vernommen.  Und so fiel mir denn auch, als du gestern über den Staat und seine Bürger, wie du sie schildertest, sprachst,  eben Das, was ich jetzt mitgeteilt habe, dabei ein, und mit Erstaunen bemerkte ich,  wie wunderbar du durch ein Spiel des Zufalls so überaus nahe in den meisten Stücken mit dem zusammentrafst, was Solon erzählt hatte.  Doch wollte ich es nicht sogleich sagen, [26 St.]  denn nach so langer Zeit hatte ich es nicht mehr gehörig im Gedächtnisse,  und ich merkte daher, daß es nötig wäre, bei mir selber zuvor gehörig Alles wieder zu überdenken und dann erst darüber zu sprechen.  Darum war ich auch so rasch mit den Aufgaben, welche du gestern stelltest, einverstanden,  indem ich glauben durfte, ich werde um das, was in allen solchen Fällen die meisten Schwierigkeiten macht,  nämlich einen den Erwartungen entsprechenden Stoff zu Grunde zu legen, eben nicht in Verlegenheit sein.  Deshalb nun rief ich es mir denn auch ins Gedächtnis zurück, indem ich es gestern gleich, wie auch Hermokrates schon bemerkt hat,  als ich von hier fortging, unseren beiden Gästen mitteilte, und eben so sann ich, nachdem ich sie verlassen hatte, während der Nacht darüber nach und habe mir dadurch so ziemlich Alles wieder zur vollen Erinnerung gebracht.  Und in der Tat, es ist wahr, was das Sprichwort sagt: was man als Knabe lernt, das merkt sich wunderbar.  Ich meinerseits wenigstens weiß es nicht, ob ich, was ich gestern hörte, mir so Alles im Gedächtnis wieder vergegenwärtigen könnte,  von dem eben Erzählten aber, was ich vor so langer Zeit gehört habe, sollte es gar sehr mich Wunder nehmen, wenn mir irgend Etwas davon entschwunden wäre.  Ich hatte aber auch schon damals, als ich es hörte, nach Kinderart viele Freude daran,  weshalb ich denn den Alten, der auch stets bereit war mir Rede zu stehen  wiederholt immer von Neuem darnach fragte,  so daß es wie mit unauslöschlichen Zügen sich mir eingebrannt hat.  Daher teilte ich denn auch den Gastfreunden gleich heute morgen früh eben dies mit,  damit es auch ihnen gleich mir nicht an Stoffe zu Reden gebräche.  Jetzt also, um auf das zurückzukommen, weswegen dies Alles bemerkt worden ist, bin ich bereit, lieber Sokrates,  nicht bloß im Ganzen und Großen, sondern auch in den einzelnen Zügen Alles, wie ich es gehört habe, vorzutragen,  und die Bürger und den Staat, welche du gestern uns gleichsam nur wie in einer Dichtung geschildert hast,  werde ich jetzt in die Wirklichkeit, und zwar hierher nach Athen versetzen,  indem ich annehme, daß jener Staat der unsrige gewesen ist, und werde behaupten, daß die Bürger, wie du sie dir dachtest, jene unsere leibhaftigen Voreltern gewesen sind, von welchen der Priester sprach.  Sie werden ganz dazu stimmen, und wir werden durchaus das Richtige treffen, wenn wir sagen, daß sie die seien, welche in der damaligen Zeit lebten.  werden uns jedoch in die Aufgabe, welche du uns gestellt hast, teilen und so alle dieselbe nach Vermögen gebührend zu lösen versuchen,  und es ist eben deshalb zuzusehen, lieber Sokrates, ob dieser Stoff nach unserem Sinne ist, oder ob wir noch erst einen anderen an seiner Stelle zu suchen haben. 
ΣΩ. Καὶ τίν’ ἄν, ὦ Κριτία, μᾶλλον ἀντὶ τούτου μεταλάβοιμεν,  ὃς τῇ τε παρούσῃ τῆς θεοῦ θυσίᾳ διὰ τὴν οἰκειότητ’ ἂν πρέποι μάλιστα,  τό τε μὴ πλασθέντα μῦθον ἀλλ’ ἀληθινὸν λόγον εἶναι πάμμεγά που.  πῶς γὰρ καὶ πόθεν ἄλλους ἀνευρήσομεν ἀφέμενοι τούτων;  οὐκ ἔστιν, ἀλλ’ ἀγαθῇ τύχῃ χρὴ λέγειν μὲν ὑμᾶς,  ἐμὲ δὲ ἀντὶ τῶν χθὲς λόγων νῦν ἡσυχίαν ἄγοντα ἀντακούειν. 
           
SOCRATES. Nullam vero aliam, Critia, magis approbo  quam istam ipsam quae est propria praesentium feriarum,  magnificum vero illud non fictam commenticiamque fabulam, sed veram historiam vitae possibilis fato quodam a me vestris animis intimatam.    Quare fortuna prosperante pergite iter institutae orationis;  ego, ut probum auditorem decet, attento silentio mentem atque aures parabo. 
SOCR. At enim quem o Critia sermonem magis quam istum probabimus:  qui (40) praesentibus deae sacris propter propinquitatem quandam mirifice congruit.  Maxi(40)mum vero illud est, non fictam a nobis fabulam, sed veram historiam recenseri.  Quonam (42) igitur pacto et unde, hac spreta, disputationem aliam exordiemur:  Certe non licet. Ideo (43) bonis fortunae auspiciis oportet iam tam vos differere,  quam me pro hesterna narratio(44)ne, hodie silentio vos audire. 
Soc. [Socrates is satisfied that the rehearsal of this narrative will be a suitable continuation of the discussion. But Timaeus will begin the feast by describing the generation of the Universe.] And what other, Critias, can we find that will be better than this,  which is natural and suitable to the festival of the goddess,  and has the very great advantage of being a fact and not a fiction?  How or where shall we find another if we abandon this?  We cannot, and therefore you must tell the tale, and good luck to you;  and I in return for my yesterday’s discourse will now rest and be a listener. 
SOKRATES: Und welchen anderen, mein Kritias, sollten wir wohl lieber an seiner Stelle nehmen,  welcher zu dem gegenwärtigen Opferfest der Göttin wegen der nahen Beziehung zu ihr so gut paßte?  Und dazu ist auch wohl noch das an ihm ein großer Vorzug, daß er kein bloß erdichtetes Märchen, sondern eine wahre Geschichte enthält.  Denn wie und woher sollten wir denn andere Stoffe nehmen, wenn wir diesen verschmähen wollten?  Wir würden vergebens suchen, vielmehr, und ich wünsche euch guten Erfolg dazu, müßt ihr jetzt reden,  ich aber zum Entgelt dafür, daß ich gestern gesprochen habe, [27 St.] nunmehr in Ruhe zuhören. 
ΚΡ. Σκόπει δὴ τὴν τῶν ξενίων σοι διάθεσιν, ὦ Σώκρατες, ᾗ διέθεμεν.  ἔδοξεν γὰρ ἡμῖν Τίμαιον μέν, ἅτε ὄντα ἀστρονομικώτατον ἡμῶν καὶ περὶ φύσεως τοῦ παντὸς εἰδέναι μάλιστα ἔργον πεποιημένον,  πρῶτον λέγειν ἀρχόμενον ἀπὸ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου γενέσεως, τελευτᾶν δὲ εἰς ἀνθρώπων φύσιν·  ἐμὲ δὲ μετὰ τοῦτον, ὡς παρὰ μὲν τούτου δεδεγμένον ἀνθρώπους τῷ λόγῳ γεγονότας,  παρὰ σοῦ δὲ πεπαιδευμένους διαφερόντως αὐτῶν τινας,  κατὰ δὲ τὸν Σόλωνος λόγον τε καὶ νόμον εἰσαγαγόντα αὐτοὺς ὡς εἰς δικαστὰς ἡμᾶς ποιῆσαι πολίτας τῆς πόλεως τῆσδε  ὡς ὄντας τοὺς τότε Ἀθηναίους, οὓς ἐμήνυσεν ἀφανεῖς ὄντας ἡ τῶν ἱερῶν γραμμάτων φήμη,  τὰ λοιπὰ δὲ ὡς περὶ πολιτῶν καὶ Ἀθηναίων ὄντων ἤδη ποιεῖσθαι τοὺς λόγους. 
               
CRITAS. Etiamne consideras, o Socrate, si est commoda dispositio debiti apparatus tibi?  Placuit enim nobis Timaeum quidem, utpote in astronomia caeteris eminentem naturaeque rerum arcana rimatum,  principe loco dicere orsum a mundi sensibilis constitutione usque ad genus hominum generationemque,  me vero susceptis ab hoc hominibus eiusdem oratione formatis,  tua porro ad egregiam frugem imbutis et eruditis legum sanctiore moderamine,  iuxta Solonem vero uel sacros Aegyptiorum libros revocare ciues clarissimos veteres et ante hos constituere spectaculum venerabile populi,  quem inundatione submersum profundo maris Aegyptiorum monumentorum fama celebravit,  atque ita ut de maioribus nostris sermonem contexere. 
CRI. Considera Socrates, an commode mutuum tibi con(45)vivium disposuerimus.  Visum nobis est, ut Timaeus tanquam in Astronomia nostro(46)rum omnium peritissimus, maximeque in rerum natura cognoscnenda veratus,  primus e(47)differat, ita ut a mundi generatione exordien usque ad generis humani naturam deve(48)niat.  Atque ego deinde suscipiens homines a Timaeo quidem genitos,  a Critia vero ut (49) plurium institutos,  secundum Solonis sermonem legemque in iudicium vestrum addu(50)cam, civitatisque istius cives efficiam  eos qui prisci illi Athenienses fuerunt, quos iam ex(51)tinctos sacrae Aegyptorum literae in lucem e tenebris eruerunt,  adeo ut de illis dein(52)ceps tanquam de veteribus Atheniensibus verba fiant. 
[Crit. Universe down to the creation of man: Critias will follow him.] Let me proceed to explain to you, Socrates, the order in which we have arranged our entertainment.  Our intention is, that Timaeus, who is the most of an astronomer amongst us, and has made the nature of the universe his special study,  should speak first, beginning with the generation of the world and going down to the creation of man;  next, I am to receive the men whom he has created,  and of whom some will have profited by the excellent education which you have given them;  and then, in accordance with the tale of Solon, and equally with his law, we will bring them into court and make them citizens,  as if they were those very Athenians whom the sacred Egyptian record has recovered from oblivion,  and thenceforward we will speak of them as Athenians and fellow-citizens. 
KRITIAS: So betrachte denn, lieber Sokrates, wie wir die Anordnung der Gastgeschenke für dich getroffen haben.  Wir haben nämlich beschlossen, daß Timaios, weil er sich unter uns am meisten auf die Sternkunde versteht, und es sich am meisten zur Aufgabe gemacht hat, über die Natur des Alls zur Erkenntnis zu gelangen,  zuerst reden solle, und zwar so, daß er mit der Entstehung der Welt beginnt und mit der Erzeugung der Menschen aufhört,  ich aber nach ihm, nachdem ich von ihm die Menschen als entstandene, gemäß seiner Darstellung,  von dir aber einen Teil derselben als ganz vorzüglich gebildet in Empfang genommen  und diese Letzteren nach der Erzählung und dem Gesetze des Solon gleichsam vor unseren Richterstuhl geführt habe,  dieselben, indem ich davon ausgehe, daß dies die damaligen Athener sind, welche die Überlieferung der heiligen Bücher aus ihrer Verborgenheit an's Licht gezogen hat,  zu Bürgern unseres Staates machen und das Weitere über sie sodann als über Bürger und Athener vortragen solle. 
ΣΩ. Τελέως τε καὶ λαμπρῶς ἔοικα ἀνταπολήψεσθαι τὴν τῶν λόγων ἑστίασιν.  σὸν οὖν ἔργον λέγειν ἄν, ὦ Τίμαιε, τὸ μετὰ τοῦτο, ὡς ἔοικεν, εἴη καλέσαντα κατὰ νόμον θεούς. 
   
SOCRATES. Ne ego magnifice sum invitatus hodie, ut ex ordinatione apparatus intellegi datur.  Ergo age, Timaee, deliba coeptum vocata, ut mos est, in auxilium divinitate. 
SOCRA. Copiosam et splen(53)didam disputationis mensam apparuisse mihi videris.  Tua ergo interest o Timaie, in(54)vocatis secundum legem diis, disputationem iam exordiri. 
Soc. I see that I shall receive in my turn a perfect and splendid feast of reason.  And now, Timaeus, you, I suppose, should speak next, after duly calling upon the Gods. 
SOKRATES: Recht vollständig und glänzend scheint ja meine Gegenbewirtung durch eure Reden ausfallen zu sollen.  Deine Aufgabe, wie ich denke, Timaios, wäre es denn also hiernach, jetzt zunächst zu sprechen, nachdem du zuvor, wie der Brauch es fordert, die Götter angerufen hast. 
(Γένεσις) ΤΙ. Ἀλλ’, ὦ Σώκρατες, τοῦτό γε δὴ πάντες ὅσοι καὶ κατὰ βραχὺ σωφροσύνης μετέχουσιν,  ἐπὶ παντὸς ὁρμῇ καὶ σμικροῦ καὶ μεγάλου πράγματος θεὸν ἀεί που καλοῦσιν·  ἡμᾶς δὲ τοὺς περὶ τοῦ παντὸς λόγους ποιεῖσθαί πῃ μέλλοντας,  ᾗ γέγονεν ἢ καὶ ἀγενές ἐστιν, εἰ μὴ παντάπασι παραλλάττομεν,  ἀνάγκη θεούς τε καὶ θεὰς ἐπικαλουμένους εὔχεσθαι πάντα κατὰ νοῦν ἐκείνοις μὲν μάλιστα, ἑπομένως δὲ ἡμῖν εἰπεῖν.  καὶ τὰ μὲν περὶ θεῶν ταύτῃ παρακεκλήσθω·  τὸ δ’ ἡμέτερον παρακλητέον, ᾗ ῥᾷστ’ ἂν ὑμεῖς μὲν μάθοιτε,  ἐγὼ δὲ ᾗ διανοοῦμαι μάλιστ’ ἂν περὶ τῶν προκειμένων ἐνδειξαίμην. 
               
TIMAEUS. Vere, mi Socrate, nam cum omnibus mos sit et quasi quaedam religio,  qui vel de maximis rebus vel de minimis acturi aliquid sunt, precari ad auxilium divinitatem,  quanto nos aequius est, qui universitatis naturae substantiaeque rationem praestaturi sumus,    invocare divinam opem, nisi plane saevo quodam furore atque implacabili raptamur amentia.  Sit igitur meis precibus comprehensum maxime quidem, ut ea dicantur a nobis quae placeant deo,  tum ut nobis quoque ipsis consequenter propositoque operi decenter profemur et, quatenus vos quidem facile assequamini,  ego iuxta anticipatam animo speciem orationis expediam. 
TIMAE. Probe consulis So(708,1)crates. Nam eum omnes qui mentis quoquo modo compotes sunt,  in operis suiuslibet vel (2) magni vel parvi principio invocare deum soleant,  quanto nos aequius est de universo  sive (3) genitum sit sive ingenitum disputaturos, nisi forte desipimus,  invocare divinam opem. (4) Ergo deos omnes deasque precamur in primis quidem ut ea dicantur a nobis, quae illis pla(5)ceant: deinde ut nobis ipsi consternus.  Quantum ad deos attinet, sic a nobis oratum sit.  Sed (6) quod ad nos spectat, poscendum est, ut et vos facile assquamini,  et ego secundum men(7)tis propositum rem ipsam qua de agitur transigam. 
Tim. [At the commencement Timaeus invokes the gods.] All men, Socrates, who have any degree of right feeling,  at the beginning of every enterprise, whether small or great, always call upon God.  And we, too, who are going to discourse of the nature of the universe,  how created or how existing without creation, if we be not altogether out of our wits,  must invoke the aid of Gods and Goddesses and pray that our words may be acceptable to them and consistent with themselves.  Let this, then, be our invocation of the Gods,  to which I add an exhortation of myself to speak in such manner as will be most intelligible to you,  and will most accord with my own intent. 
TIMAIOS: Gewiß, lieber Sokrates, tun doch das wohl alle, die auch nur ein wenig Überlegung besitzen,  rufen doch sie Alle wohl beim Beginne eines jeden Unternehmens, mag es nun geringfügig oder bedeutend sein, stets einen Gott an.  Und wir, die wir gar über das All zu sprechen im Begriffe sind,  nämlich in wie fern es entstanden ist oder aber unentstanden von Ewigkeit war, müßten ja ganz und gar den Verstand verloren haben,  wenn wir nicht die Götter und Göttinnen anrufen und von ihnen erflehen wollten das Ganze vor Allem nach ihrem Sinne, sodann aber auch in Übereinstimmung mit uns selber darzulegen.  Und so mögen denn die Götter eben hierum angerufen sein,  an uns selbst aber haben wir den Anruf und die Anfrage zu stellen, auf welche Weise ihr eurerseits am leichtesten ein Verständnis der Sache gewinnen,  ich für mein Teil aber den vorliegenden Gegenstand am deutlichsten so, wie ich über ihn denke, zum Ausdrucke bringen möge. 
Ἔστιν οὖν δὴ κατ’ ἐμὴν δόξαν πρῶτον διαιρετέον τάδε·  τί τὸ ὂν ἀεί, γένεσιν δὲ οὐκ ἔχον,  καὶ τί τὸ γιγνόμενον μὲν ἀεί, ὂν δὲ οὐδέποτε;  τὸ μὲν δὴ νοήσει μετὰ λόγου περιληπτόν, ἀεὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ὄν,  τὸ δ’ αὖ δόξῃ μετ’ αἰσθήσεως ἀλόγου δοξαστόν, γιγνόμενον καὶ ἀπολλύμενον, ὄντως δὲ οὐδέποτε ὄν.  πᾶν δὲ αὖ τὸ γιγνόμενον ὑπ’ αἰτίου τινὸς ἐξ ἀνάγκης γίγνεσθαι·  παντὶ γὰρ ἀδύνατον χωρὶς αἰτίου γένεσιν σχεῖν.  ὅτου μὲν οὖν ἂν ὁ δημιουργὸς πρὸς τὸ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἔχον βλέπων ἀεί,  τοιούτῳ τινὶ προσχρώμενος παραδείγματι, τὴν ἰδέαν καὶ δύναμιν αὐτοῦ ἀπεργάζηται,  καλὸν ἐξ ἀνάγκης οὕτως ἀποτελεῖσθαι πᾶν·  οὗ δ’ ἂν εἰς γεγονός, γεννητῷ παραδείγματι προσχρώμενος, οὐ καλόν.  ὁ δὴ πᾶς οὐρανὸς ἢ κόσμος ἢ καὶ ἄλλο ὅτι ποτὲ ὀνομαζόμενος μάλιστ’ ἂν δέχοιτο, τοῦθ’ ἡμῖν ὠνομάσθω -  σκεπτέον δ’ οὖν περὶ αὐτοῦ πρῶτον, ὅπερ ὑπόκειται περὶ παντὸς ἐν ἀρχῇ δεῖν σκοπεῖν,  πότερον ἦν ἀεί, γενέσεως ἀρχὴν ἔχων οὐδεμίαν, ἢ γέγονεν, ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς τινος ἀρξάμενος. 
  II Quid est quod semper sit neque ullum habeat ortum,  et quod gignatur nec umquam sit?  Quorum alterum intellegentia et ratione conprehenditur, quod unum atque idem semper est;  alterum quod adfert ad opinionem sensus rationis expers, quod totum opinabile est, id gignitur et interit nec umquam esse vere potest.  Omne autem quod gignitur ex aliqua causa gigni necesse est;  nullius enim rei causa remota reperiri origo potest.  Quocirca si is qui aliquod munus efficere molitur eam speciem, quae semper eadem, intuebitur  atque id sibi proponet exemplar,  praeclarum opus efficiat necesse est;  sin autem eam quae gignitur, numquam illam quam expetet pulchritudinem consequetur.  Omne igitur caelum sive mundus sive quo alio vocabulo gaudet, hoc a nobis nuncupatus sit -  de quo id primum consideremus quod principio est in omni quaestione considerandum,  semperne fuerit nullo generatus ortu, an ortus sit [an] ab aliquo temporis principatu. 
Est igitur, ut mihi quidem videtur, in primis dividendum,  quid sit quod semper est, carens generatione,  quid item quod gignitur nec est semper,  alterum intellectu perceptibile ductu et investigatione rationis, semper idem,  porro alterum opinione cum inrationabili sensu opinabile proptereaque incertum, nascens et occidens neque umquam in existendi condicione constanti et rata perseverans.  Omne autem quod gignitur ex causa aliqua necessario gignitur;  nihil enim fit, cuius ortum non legitima causa et ratio praecedat.  Operi porro fortunam dat opifex suus;  quippe ad immortalis qui idem et in statu genuino persistentis exempli similitudinem atque aemulationem formans  operis effigiem honestum efficiat simulacrum necesse est,  at uero ad natiuum respiciens generatumque contemplans minime decorum.  Omne igitur caelum uel mundus seu quo alio dignatur nomine --  faciendum est enim, quod in omni tractatu fieri decet, ut inter initia consideretur, quid sit quo de agitur;  item mundus fueritne semper citra exordium temporis an sit originem sortitus ex tempore, considerandum -- 
Principio ita mihi distinguendum esse (8) videtur,  quid sit quod semper est carens generatione:  quid uero quod gignitur quidem, (9) neque est unquam.  Illud intellectu per rationis indaginem percipi potest, cum semper sit (10) idem.  Hoc opinione per irrationalem sensum attingi, cum gignatur, et intereat, neque vere (11) unquam sit.  Quicquid autem gignitur, ex aliqua causa necessario gignitur.  Sine causa ve(12)ro oriri quicquam impossibile est.  Quando igitur opifex in operis alicuius constructione (13) ad id quod eodem modo se habet semper aspicit,  et huiusmodi quodam usus exemplo (14) ideam vimque in opus educit,  pulchrum fieri tunc opus omne necessarium est:  quando ue(16)ro ad id quod factum est respicit, minime pulchrum.  Vniuersum igitur hoc, Caelum, siue (17) Mundum, siue quo alio uocabulo gaudet, cognominemus.  De quo primum considere(18)mus, quod in quaestione de uniuerso ante omnia inuestigare debet:  Vtrum ne semper sue (19) sit sine ullo generationis principio, an, genitum sit ab aliquo principio sumens exordium. (20) 
(The world was created, and is therefore apprehended by sense. God was the cause of it, and he fashioned it after the eternal pattern. The eternal pattern can be spoken of with certainty; the created copy can only be described in the language of probability.) First then, in my judgment, we must make a distinction and ask,  What is that which always is and has no becoming;  and what is that which is always becoming and never is?  That which is apprehended by intelligence and reason is always in the same state;  but that which is conceived by opinion with the help of sensation and without reason, is always in a process of becoming and perishing and never really is.  Now everything that becomes or is created must of necessity be created by some cause,  for without a cause nothing can be created.  The work of the creator, whenever he looks to the unchangeable  and fashions the form and nature of his work after an unchangeable pattern,  must necessarily be made fair and perfect;  but when he looks to the created only, and uses a created pattern, it is not fair or perfect.  Was the heaven then or the world, whether called by this or by any other more appropriate name — assuming the name,  I am asking a question which has to be asked at the beginning of an enquiry about anything —  was the world, I say, always in existence and without beginning? or created, and had it a beginning? 
Man muß nun nach meiner Meinung zuerst Folgendes unterscheiden und feststellen:  Wie haben wir uns das immer Seiende, welches kein Werden zuläßt,  und wie das immer Werdende zu denken, [28 St.] welches niemals zum Sein gelangt?  Nun, das eine als dem Denken vermöge des vernünftigen Bewußtseins erfaßbar, eben weil als ein Solches, welches immer dasselbe bleibt,  das Andere dagegen als der Vorstellung vermöge der bewußtlosen Sinneswahrnehmung zugänglich, eben weil als ein Solches, welches dem Entstehen und Vergehen ausgesetzt und nie wahrhaft seiend ist.  Alles Werdende muß ferner durch irgend eine Ursache werden,  denn es ist unmöglich, daß Etwas ohne irgend eine Ursache entstehe.  So weit nun der Urheber dabei auf Dasjenige hinblickt, welches immer dasselbe bleibt,  und sich einer Wesenheit aus diesem Gebiete als seines Urbildes bedient, um darnach die Gestalt eines Dinges und den Inbegriff seiner Kräfte hervorzubringen,  wird es notwendigerweise sodann in allen Stücken vortrefflich geraten,  soweit er aber auf das Gewordene hinblickt und sich eines Urbildes bedient, welches selber dem Entstandenen angehört, in so weit nicht vortrefflich.  Von dem ganzen Weltgebäude nun oder Weltall, oder, wenn ihm irgend ein anderer Name am meisten genehm ist, so sei ihm dieser von uns beigelegt,  ist eben hiernach zunächst zu untersuchen, was überhaupt bei jedem Gegenstand der Untersuchung als Ausgangspunkt zu Grunde gelegt werden muß,  ob es immer war und nicht erst, in das Werden eintretend, einen Anfang genommen hat, oder ob es entstanden und von einem Anfange ausgegangen ist. 
γέγονεν· ὁρατὸς γὰρ ἁπτός τέ ἐστιν καὶ σῶμα ἔχων, πάντα δὲ τὰ τοιαῦτα αἰσθητά,  τὰ δ’ αἰσθητά, δόξῃ περιληπτὰ μετ’ αἰσθήσεως, γιγνόμενα καὶ γεννητὰ ἐφάνη.  τῷ δ’ αὖ γενομένῳ φαμὲν ὑπ’ αἰτίου τινὸς ἀνάγκην εἶναι γενέσθαι.  τὸν μὲν οὖν ποιητὴν καὶ πατέρα τοῦδε τοῦ παντὸς εὑρεῖν τε ἔργον καὶ εὑρόντα εἰς πάντας ἀδύνατον λέγειν·  τόδε δ’ οὖν πάλιν ἐπισκεπτέον περὶ αὐτοῦ,  πρὸς πότερον τῶν παραδειγμάτων ὁ τεκταινόμενος αὐτὸν ἀπηργάζετο,  πότερον πρὸς τὸ κατὰ ταὐτὰ καὶ ὡσαύτως ἔχον ἢ πρὸς τὸ γεγονός.  εἰ μὲν δὴ καλός ἐστιν ὅδε ὁ κόσμος ὅ τε δημιουργὸς ἀγαθός, δῆλον ὡς πρὸς τὸ ἀίδιον ἔβλεπεν·  εἰ δὲ ὃ μηδ’ εἰπεῖν τινι θέμις, πρὸς γεγονός.  παντὶ δὴ σαφὲς ὅτι πρὸς τὸ ἀίδιον·  ὁ μὲν γὰρ κάλλιστος τῶν γεγονότων, ὁ δ’ ἄριστος τῶν αἰτίων.  οὕτω δὴ γεγενημένος πρὸς τὸ λόγῳ καὶ φρονήσει περιληπτὸν καὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἔχον δεδημιούργηται.  τούτων δὲ ὑπαρχόντων αὖ πᾶσα ἀνάγκη τόνδε τὸν κόσμον εἰκόνα τινὸς εἶναι.  μέγιστον δὴ παντὸς ἄρξασθαι κατὰ φύσιν ἀρχήν.  ὧδε οὖν περί τε εἰκόνος καὶ περὶ τοῦ παραδείγματος αὐτῆς διοριστέον,  ὡς ἄρα τοὺς λόγους, ὧνπέρ εἰσιν ἐξηγηταί, τούτων αὐτῶν καὶ συγγενεῖς ὄντας·  τοῦ μὲν οὖν μονίμου καὶ βεβαίου καὶ μετὰ νοῦ καταφανοῦς μονίμους καὶ ἀμεταπτώτους -  καθ’ ὅσον οἷόν τε καὶ ἀνελέγκτοις προσήκει λόγοις εἶναι καὶ ἀνικήτοις, τούτου δεῖ μηδὲν ἐλλείπειν -  τοὺς δὲ τοῦ πρὸς μὲν ἐκεῖνο ἀπεικασθέντος, ὄντος δὲ εἰκόνος εἰκότας ἀνὰ λόγον τε ἐκείνων ὄντας·  ὅτιπερ πρὸς γένεσιν οὐσία, τοῦτο πρὸς πίστιν ἀλήθεια.  ἐὰν οὖν, ὦ Σώκρατες, πολλὰ πολλῶν πέρι, θεῶν καὶ τῆς τοῦ παντὸς γενέσεως, μὴ δυνατοὶ γιγνώμεθα πάντῃ πάντως αὐτοὺς ἑαυτοῖς ὁμολογουμένους λόγους καὶ ἀπηκριβωμένους ἀποδοῦναι, μὴ θαυμάσῃς·  ἀλλ’ ἐὰν ἄρα μηδενὸς ἧττον παρεχώμεθα εἰκότας, ἀγαπᾶν χρή 1   μεμνημένους ὡς ὁ λέγων ἐγὼ ὑμεῖς τε οἱ κριταὶ φύσιν ἀνθρωπίνην ἔχομεν,  ὥστε περὶ τούτων τὸν εἰκότα μῦθον ἀποδεχομένους πρέπει τούτου μηδὲν ἔτι πέρα ζητεῖν. 
Ortus est, quando quidem cernitur et tangitur et est undique corporatus, omnia autem talia sensum movent,  sensusque moventia quae sunt, eadem in opinatione considunt, quae ortum habere gignique diximus,  nihil autem gigni posse sine causis.  Atque illum quidem quasi parentem huius universitatis invenire difficile, et cum iam invenerit indicare in vulgus nefas.  Rursus igitur videndum,  ille fabricator huius tanti operis utrum sit imitatus exemplar,  idne quod semper unum idemque et sui simile an id quod generantum ortumque dicimus.  Atqui si pulcher est hic mundus et si probus eius artifex, profecto speciem aeternitati imitari maluit;  sin secus, quod ne dictu quidem fas est, generatum exemplum est pro aeterno secutus.  Non igitur dubium quin aeternitatem maluerit exequi,  quando quidem neque mundo quicquam pulchrius neque eius aedificatore praestantius.  Sic ergo generatus ad it est effectus quod ratione sapientiaque conprehenditur atque aeternitate inmutabili continetur.  Ex quo efficitur ut sit necesse hunc quem cernimus mundum simulacrum aeternum esse alicuius aeterni.  Difficillimum autem est in omni conquisitione rationis exordium;  de his igitur quae diximus haec sit prima distinctio.  III Omni orationi cum is rebus, de quibus explicat, videtur esse cognatio.  Itaque cum de re stabili et inmutabili disputat oratio talis fit qualis illa:  neque redargui neque convinci potest;  cum autem ingressa est imitata et efficta simulacra, bene agi putat si similitudinem veri consequatur:  quantum enim ad id quod ortum est aeternitas valet, tantum ad fidem veritas.  Quocirca si forte de deorum natura ortuque mundi disserentes minus id quod avemus animo consequimur, ut tota dilucide et plane exornata oratio sibi constet et ex omni parte secum ipsa consentiat, haut sane erit mirum,  aequum est enim contentique esse debebitis si probabilia dicentur;  meminisse et me qui disseram hominem esse et vos qui iudicetis,  ut si probabilia dicentur ne quid ultra requiratis. 
factus est, utpote corporeus et qui videatur atque tangatur, cuncta siquidem huius modi sensibilis corporeaeque naturae,  sensibilia porro ea quae opinio sensu aliquo commota praesumit eaque omnia facta sunt habentque ex aliqua generatione substantiam;  at vero quae fiunt ea habere auctorem suum constitit.  Igitur opificem genitoremque universitatis tam invenire difficile quam inventum impossibile digne profari.  Certe dubium non est,  ad cuius modi exemplum animaduerterit mundani operis fundamenta constituens,  utrum ad immutabile perpetuamque obtinens proprietatem an ad factum et elaboratum.  Nam si est -- ut quidem est -- pulchritudine incomparabili mundus, opifexque et fabricator eius optimus, perspicuum est, quod iuxta sincerae atque immutabilis proprietatis exemplum mundi sit instituta molitio,  sin uero, quod ne cogitari quidem aut mente concipi fas est, ad elaboratum.  Quod cum sit rationis alienum, liquet opificem deum uenerabilis exempli normam in constituendo mundo secutum --  quippe hic generatorum omnium speciosissimus, ille auctor maximus --  operisque sui ratione prudentiaque1   hiis quae semper eadem existunt accommodatus imago est, opinor, alterius.  Et quoniam rationem originis explicare non est facile factu,  distinguendae sunt imaginis exemplique naturae.  Causae quae, cur unaquaeque res sit, ostendunt, earundem rerum consanguineae sunt;  ita constantis quidem generis stabilisque naturae et intellectui prudentiaeque perspicuae rei causa et ratio constans perspicuaque et inexpugnabilis reperitur, at vero eius quae ad similitudinem constantis perpetuaeque rei facta est ratio, 2   utpote imaginis imaginaria simulacrumque rationis, perfunctoriam similitudinem mutuatur  quantoque est melior essentia generatione, tanto fama et opinionis incerto praestantior veritas.  Quare praedico iam nunc, Socrate: si, dum de natura universae rei disputatur, minime inconcussas inexpugnabilesque rationes afferre valuerim, ne miremini,  quin potius illud intuere, si nihilo minus quam quivis alius consentaneas assertiones afferam;  memento enim tam me qui loquor quam vos qui iudicatis homines fore  atque in rebus ita sublimibus mediocrem explanationem magni cuiusdam esse onus laboris. 
Id profecto cernitur tangiturque, et corpus habet. Omnia vero huiusmodi sensus movent. (21)  Quae sensus movent, opinione per sensum percipiuntur. Haec vero talia esse constat, ut (22) gignantur et genita sint.  Quicquid autem gignitur, ab aliaqua causa necessario gigni affe(23)ruimus.  Opificem quidem et patrem mundi invenire difficile, et cum iam inveneris praedicare, eloqui vulgo impossibile est.  Rursus considerandum est  utrum mundi faber sit (24) imitatus exemplar:  idne quod idem semper et simile est, an id quod genitum fuerit.  At(25)que si pulcher est hic mundus, et opifex mundi bonus, sempiternum certe exemplum (26) maluit imitari.  Sin secus, quod ne dictu quidem fas est, generatum exemplar est pro aeter(27)no secutus.  Cum vero et mundus omnium genitorum pulcherrimus sit, et eius autor (28) causarum omnium optimus, dubium non est quin sempiternitum sit secutus exemplum. (29)  sic igitur generatus, ad id est effectus, quod ratione et sapientia sola comprehendi pot(30)est, et immutabile permanet.  Ex quo efficitur, ut necesse est sit hunc mundum alicuius si(31)simulacrum esse.  Rationem vero originis naturaliter explicare difficillimum est.  Ideo de si(32)mulacro et exemplo sic distinguamus.  Rationes utique cum his rebus quas exprimunt, (33) cognationem quandam habere uidentur.  Ergo cum de re firma et stabili et mente com(34)prehendenda disseritur, stabiles similiter immutabilesque  et quam maxime fieri potest in(35)expugnabiles rationes esse oportet.  Cum vero de ipsius rei firmae stabilisque simulacro disputatur, verisimiles rationes sufficiunt, quae ita se ad superiores habeant rationes, ut simulacrum ad exemplum.  nempe quod est ad generationem essential, id ad fidem est (36) veritas.  Cum ergo o Socrates multa de diis mundi que generatione a multis dicta sint, (37) ne mireris obsecro, si rationes deiis probatissimas exactissimasque affere non possim.(38)  Satis enim factum putare debebis, si non minus probabiles quam quivis alius rationes (39) attulerim.  Aequum est meminisse, et me qui differam, et vos qui iudicabitis, homines (40) esse:  ut si probabilia dicentur, nihil ulterius requiratis. 
Created, I reply, being visible and tangible and having a body, and therefore sensible;  and an sensible things are apprehended by opinion and sense and are in a process of creation and created.  Now that which is created must, as we affirm, of necessity be created by a cause.  But the father and maker of all this universe is past finding out; and even if we found him, to tell of him to all men would be impossible.  And there is still a question to be asked about him:  Which of the patterns had the artificer in view when he made the world, —  the pattern of the unchangeable, or of that which is created?  If the world be indeed fair and the artificer good, it is manifest that he must have looked to that which is eternal;  but if what cannot be said without blasphemy is true, then to the created pattern.  Every one will see that he must have looked to the eternal;  for the world is the fairest of creations and he is the best of causes.  And having been created in this way, the world has been framed in the likeness of that which is apprehended by reason and mind and is unchangeable,  and must therefore of necessity, if this is admitted, be a copy of something.  Now it is all-important that the beginning of everything should be according to nature.  And in speaking of the copy and the original we may assume  that words are akin to the matter which they describe;  when they relate to the lasting and permanent and intelligible, they ought to be lasting and unalterable,  and, as far as their nature allows, irrefutable and immovable — nothing less.  But when they express only the copy or likeness and not the eternal things themselves, they need only be likely and analogous to the real words.  As being is to becoming, so is truth to belief.  If then, Socrates, amid the many opinions about the gods and the generation of the universe, we are not able to give notions which are altogether and in every respect exact and consistent with one another, do not be surprised.  Enough, if we adduce probabilities as likely as any others;  for we must remember that I who am the speaker, and you who are the judges, are only mortal men,  and we ought to accept the tale which is probable and enquire no further. 
Es ist entstanden, denn es ist sichtbar und fühlbar und hat einen Körper; alles so Beschaffene aber ist sinnlich wahrnehmbar,  und das sinnlich Wahrnehmbare, welches der Vorstellung mit Hilfe der Sinne zugänglich ist, erschien uns als das Werdende und Entstandene.  Das Werdende, sagten wir dann ferner, müsse notwendig durch irgend eine Ursache werden.  Den Schöpfer und Vater dieses Alles nun ist es schwierig zu finden, und wenn man ihn gefunden hat, unmöglich, sich für Alle verständlich über ihn auszusprechen,  doch muß man in Betreff seiner wiederum dies untersuchen,  nach welchem von beiderlei Urbildern er als Baumeister die Welt gebildet hat, [29 St.]  ob nach Demjenigen, welches stets dasselbe und unverändert bleibt, oder aber nach dem Entstandenen.  Wenn nun aber doch diese Welt schön und vortrefflich und der Meister gut und vollkommen ist, so ist es offenbar, daß er nach dem Ewigen schaute,  wenn dagegen der Fall eintritt, welchen auch nicht einmal auszusprechen erlaubt ist, dann nach dem Entstandenen.  Eben hiernach ist es nun schon Jedermann klar, daß er nach dem Ewigen blickte,  denn die Welt ist das Schönste von allem Entstandenen und der Meister ist der beste und vollkommenste von allen Urhebern.  So ist denn jene als eine solche ins Leben gerufen worden, die nach dem Urbilde dessen entstanden, was der Vernunft und Erkenntnis erfaßbar ist und beständig dasselbe bleibt.  Schreiten wir nun auf diesen Grundlagen zur Betrachtung dieser unserer Welt, so ist sie eben hiernach ganz notwendigerweise ein Abbild von etwas.  Nun ist es aber bei einer jeden Frage von der höchsten Wichtigkeit, ihren Ausgangspunkt sachgemäß zu behandeln,  und so muß man denn auch zwischen der Art, wie man von dem Abbilde und der, wie man von seinem Urbilde zu handeln hat, feste Grenzen ziehen,  indem man erwägt, daß die Darstellungsweise mit den Gegenständen, welche sie zum Verständnisse bringen soll, auch selber verwandt ist,  und daß daher die Darlegung des Bleibenden und Beständigen und im Lichte der Vernunft Erkennbaren selber das Gepräge des Bleibenden und Unumstößlichen an sich trägt,  und so weit es überhaupt wissenschaftlichen Erörterungen zukommt, unwiderleglich und unerschütterlich zu sein, darf man es hieran in Nichts fehlen lassen,  die des nach Jenem Gebildeten dagegen, so wie dieses selber nur ein Abbild ist, diesem ihrem Gegenstande entsprechend das des bloß Wahrscheinlichen,  denn wie zum Werden das Sein, so verhält sich zum Glauben die Wahrheit.  Wenn ich daher, mein Sokrates, trotzdem daß Viele Vieles über die Götter und die Entstehung des All erörtert haben, nicht vermögen sollte, eine nach allen Seiten und in allen Stücken mit sich selber übereinstimmende und eben so der Sache genau entsprechende Darstellung zu geben, so wundere dich nicht,  sondern wenn ich nur eine solche liefere, die um Nichts minder als die irgend eines Anderen wahrscheinlich ist, so müßt ihr schon zufrieden sein  und bedenken, daß wir Alle, ich, der Darsteller, und ihr, die Beurteiler, von nur menschlicher Natur sind,  so daß es sich bei diesen Gegenständen für uns ziemt, uns damit zu begnügen, wenn die Dichtung nur die Wahrscheinlichkeit für sich hat, und wir Nichts darüber hinaus verlangen dürfen. 
 
 
SOCRATES. Omnes tibi, o Timaee, veniam largimur volentes, et tamen principium orationis admiror; superest, ut leges quoque sacri certaminis exequaris. 
SOCR. Scite loqueris o Timaie. Quare nos ut iubes agendum putamus. Exordium quidem hoc orationis mirifice ap(41)probavimus. Sed age deinceips disputationem perage. 
Soc. Excellent, Timaeus; and we will do precisely as you bid us. The prelude is charming, and is already accepted by us — may we beg of you to proceed to the strain? 
SOKRATES: Sehr richtig bemerkt, lieber Timaios, und durchaus annehmbar gefordert. Und dein Vorspiel haben wir nun mit Bewunderung entgegengenommen; so führe uns denn auch das Lied selber nach seiner Ordnung zu Ende. 
ΤΙ. Λέγωμεν δὴ δι’ ἥντινα αἰτίαν γένεσιν καὶ τὸ πᾶν τόδε ὁ συνιστὰς συνέστησεν.  ἀγαθὸς ἦν, ἀγαθῷ δὲ οὐδεὶς περὶ οὐδενὸς οὐδέποτε ἐγγίγνεται φθόνος·  τούτου δ’ ἐκτὸς ὢν πάντα ὅτι μάλιστα ἐβουλήθη γενέσθαι παραπλήσια ἑαυτῷ.  ταύτην δὴ γενέσεως καὶ κόσμου μάλιστ’ ἄν τις ἀρχὴν κυριωτάτην παρ’ ἀνδρῶν φρονίμων ἀποδεχόμενος ὀρθότατα ἀποδέχοιτ’ ἄν.  βουληθεὶς γὰρ ὁ θεὸς ἀγαθὰ μὲν πάντα, φλαῦρον δὲ μηδὲν εἶναι κατὰ δύναμιν,  οὕτω δὴ πᾶν ὅσον ἦν ὁρατὸν παραλαβὼν οὐχ ἡσυχίαν ἄγον ἀλλὰ κινούμενον πλημμελῶς καὶ ἀτάκτως, εἰς τάξιν αὐτὸ ἤγαγεν ἐκ τῆς ἀταξίας,  ἡγησάμενος ἐκεῖνο τούτου πάντως ἄμεινον.  θέμις δ’ οὔτ’ ἦν οὔτ’ ἔστιν τῷ ἀρίστῳ δρᾶν ἄλλο πλὴν τὸ κάλλιστον·  λογισάμενος οὖν ηὕρισκεν ἐκ τῶν κατὰ φύσιν ὁρατῶν οὐδὲν ἀνόητον τοῦ νοῦν ἔχοντος ὅλον ὅλου κάλλιον ἔσεσθαί ποτε ἔργον,  νοῦν δ’ αὖ χωρὶς ψυχῆς ἀδύνατον παραγενέσθαι τῳ.  διὰ δὴ τὸν λογισμὸν τόνδε νοῦν μὲν ἐν ψυχῇ, ψυχὴν δ’ ἐν σώματι συνιστὰς τὸ πᾶν συνετεκταίνετο,  ὅπως ὅτι κάλλιστον εἴη κατὰ φύσιν ἄριστόν τε ἔργον ἀπειργασμένος.  οὕτως οὖν δὴ κατὰ λόγον τὸν εἰκότα δεῖ λέγειν τόνδε τὸν κόσμον ζῷον ἔμψυχον ἔννουν τε τῇ ἀληθείᾳ διὰ τὴν τοῦ θεοῦ γενέσθαι πρόνοιαν. 
Quaeramus igitur causam quae impulerit eum qui haec machinatus sit ut originem rerum et molitionem novam quaereret.  Probitate videlicet praestabat, probus autem invidet nemini;  itaque omnia sui similia generavit.  Haec nimirum gignendi mundi causa iustissima.  Nam cum constituisset deus bonis omnibus explere mundum mali nihil admiscere quo ad natura pateretur,  quicquid erat quod in cernendi sensum caderet id sibi adsumpsit, non tranquillum et quietum sed inmoderate agitatum et fluitans, idque ex inordinato in ordinem adduxit;  hoc enim iudicabat esse praestantius;  fas autem nec est nec umquam fuit quicquam nisi pulcherrimum facere ei qui esset optimus.  Cum rationem igitur habuisset, reperiebat nihil esse eorum quae natura cernerentur inintellegens intellegente in toto genere praestantius.    Quocirca intellegentiam in animo, animum inclusit in corpore:  sic ratus est opus illud effectum esse pulcherrimum.  Quam ob causam non est cunctandum profiteri - si modo investigari aliquid coniectura potest - hunc mundum animal esse idque intellegens et divina providentia constitutum. 
TIMAEUS. Dicendum igitur, cur rerum conditor fabricatorque geniturae omne hoc instituendum putaverit.  Optimus erat, ab optimo porro invidia longe relegata est.  Itaque consequenter cuncta sui similia, prout cuiusque natura capax beatitudinis esse poterat,3 effici voluit;   quam quidem voluntatem dei originem rerum certissimam si quis ponat, recte eum putare consentiam.  Volens siquidem deus bona quidem omnia provenire, mali porro nullius, prout eorum quae nascuntur natura fert, relinqui propaginem,  omne visibile corporeumque motu importuno fluctuans neque umquam quiescens ex inordinata iactatione redegit in ordinem  sciens ordinatorum fortunam confusis inordinatisque praestare.  Nec vero fas erat bonitati praestanti quicquam facere nisi pulchrum  eratque certum tantae divinitati nihil eorum quae sentiuntur, hebes dumtaxat nec intellegens, esse melius intellegente,  intellectum porro nisi animae non provenire.  Hac igitur reputatione intellectu in anima, porro anima in corpore locata,  totum animantis mundi ambitum cum veneranda illustratione composuit.  Ex quo apparet sensibilem mundum animal intellegens esse divinae providentiae sanctione. 
TIM. Dicamus igitur quam ob (42) causam ille rerum autor generationem et hoc universum constituit.  Bonus erat. Bonus (43) autem nulla unquam aliqua de re invidia tangitur.  Ergo cum livor ab eo alienissimus (44) esset, omnia sibi quaritum fieri poterant simillima fieri uoluit.  Si quis hanc gignendi (45) mundi causam praecipuam a prudentibus viris acceperit, rectissime profecto accipiet. (46)  Itaque cum vellet deus bona omnia fore, nihil vero quoad natura pateretur malum,  qiuc(50)quid erat quod in cernendi sensum cadere posset, asumpsit, non tranquillum et quietum, (51) sed temere agitatum et fluitans, idque ex inordinata iactatione redegit in ordinem.  hoc enim iudicabat esse praestantius.  fas autem neque erat neque est quicquam nisi pulcherrimum facere eum, qui est optimus.  cum igitur excogitasset, invenit nihil eorum, quae secundum na(54)turam aspectui subiecta sunt, si expers intelligentiae sit, intelligente alio, totum toto pulchrius (709,1) umquam fore,  intellectum vero aliqui sine anima dari no posse.  hac ratione men(2)tem quidem animae, animam vero corpore dedit,  totum que ita mundum constituit, ut pul(3)cherrimum natura opus optimumque foret.  quocirca sicut ratio nobis haec probabilis per(4)suadet, dicendum est, hunc mundum animal esse, idque intelligens, re vera divina providen(5)tia constitutum. 
Tim. God made the world good, wishing everything to be like himself. To this end he brought order into it and endowed it with soul and intelligence. Let me tell you then why the creator made this world of generation. 1   He was good, and the good can never have any jealousy of anything.  And being free from jealousy, he desired that all things should be as like himself as they could be.  This is in the truest sense the origin of creation and of the world, as we shall do well in believing on the testimony of wise men:  God desired that all things should be good and nothing bad, so far as this was attainable.  Wherefore also finding the whole visible sphere not at rest, but moving in an irregular and disorderly fashion, out of disorder he brought order,  nsidering that this was in every way better than the other.  Now the deeds of the best could never be or have been other than the fairest;  and the creator, reflecting on the things which are by nature visible, found that no unintelligent creature taken as a whole was fairer than the intelligent taken as a whole;  and that intelligence could not be present in anything which was devoid of soul.  For which reason, when he was framing the universe, he put intelligence in soul, and soul in body,  that he might be the creator of a work which was by nature fairest and best.  Wherefore, using the language of probability, we may say that the world became a living creature truly endowed with soul and intelligence by the providence of God. 
TIMAIOS: So wollen wir denn sagen, welcher Grund den, der dieses All, das Reich des Werdens, zusammenfügte, zu dieser seiner Wirksamkeit bewogen hat.  Er war gut, und in einem Guten entsteht niemals Neid, worauf sich derselbe auch immer beziehen könnte,  und, weil frei von diesem, wollte er denn auch, daß Alles ihm selbst so ähnlich als möglich werde.  Diesen Ausgangspunkt des Werdens und der Welt dürfte man daher wohl mit dem größten Recht einsichtigen Männern als den eigentlichsten zugestehen. [30 St.]  Da nämlich der Gott wollte, daß, so weit es möglich, Alles gut und Nichts schlecht sei,  aber Alles, was sichtbar war, nicht in Ruhe, sondern in regelloser und ungeordneter Bewegung vorfand, so führte er es denn aus der Unordnung in die Ordnung hinüber,  weil er der Ansicht war, daß dieser Zustand schlechthin besser als jener sei.  Es war aber und ist Recht, daß der Beste nichts Anderes, als das Schönste vollbringe,1   und da fand er nun, indem er es bei sich erwog, daß unter den ihrer Natur nach sichtbaren Dingen kein vernunftloses Werk jemals schöner sein werde als ein vernunftbegabtes, wenn man beide als Ganze einander gegenüberstellt,  daß aber wiederum Vernunft ohne Seele unmöglich irgend einem Gegenstande zu Teil werden könne.  In dieser Erwägung bildete er die Vernunft in eine Seele und die Seele in einen Körper ein, und fügte so aus ihnen den Bau des Weltalls zusammen,  um so naturgemäß das möglichst schönste und beste Werk vollendet zu sehen.  Und so darf man es denn mit Wahrscheinlichkeit aussprechen, daß diese Welt als ein wirklich beseeltes und vernünftiges Wesen durch des Gottes Vorsehung entstanden ist. 
Τούτου δ’ ὑπάρχοντος αὖ τὰ τούτοις ἐφεξῆς ἡμῖν λεκτέον,  τίνι τῶν ζῴων αὐτὸν εἰς ὁμοιότητα ὁ συνιστὰς συνέστησεν.  τῶν μὲν οὖν ἐν μέρους εἴδει πεφυκότων μηδενὶ καταξιώσωμεν  ἀτελεῖ γὰρ ἐοικὸς οὐδέν ποτ’ ἂν γένοιτο καλόν -  οὗ δ’ ἔστιν τἆλλα ζῷα καθ’ ἓν καὶ κατὰ γένη μόρια, τούτῳ πάντων ὁμοιότατον αὐτὸν εἶναι τιθῶμεν.  τὰ γὰρ δὴ νοητὰ ζῷα πάντα ἐκεῖνο ἐν ἑαυτῷ περιλαβὸν ἔχει,  καθάπερ ὅδε ὁ κόσμος ἡμᾶς ὅσα τε ἄλλα θρέμματα συνέστηκεν ὁρατά.  τῷ γὰρ τῶν νοουμένων καλλίστῳ καὶ κατὰ πάντα τελέῳ μάλιστα αὐτὸν ὁ θεὸς ὁμοιῶσαι βουληθεὶς ζῷον ἓν ὁρατόν,  πάνθ’ ὅσα αὐτοῦ κατὰ φύσιν συγγενῆ ζῷα ἐντὸς ἔχον ἑαυτοῦ, συνέστησε. 
Hoc posito quod sequitur videndum est,  cuiusnam animantium deus in fingendo mundo similitudinem secutus sit.  Nullius profecto id quidem, quae sunt nobis nota animantia: sunt enim omnia in quaedam genera partita aut inchoata, nulla ex parte perfecta;  inperfecto autem nec absoluto simile pulchrum esse nihil potest.  Cuius ergo omne animal quasi particula quaedam est - sive in singulis sive in universo genere cernatur - eius similem mundum esse ducamus.  Omnes igitur qui animo cernuntur et ratione intelleguntur animantes conplexu rationis et intellegentiae,  sicut homines hoc mundo et pecudes et omnia quae sub aspectum cadunt, comprehenduntur.  Quod enim pulcherrimum in rerum natura intellegi potest et quod ex omni parte absolutissimum est, cum deus similem mundum efficere vellet, animal unum aspectabile,  in quo omnia animalia continerentur, efficit. 
Hoc ita posito quae sequuntur expedienda sunt:  ad cuius animantis similitudinem constituerit eum suus conditor.  Speciali quidem nemini similem – siquidem perfectio in genere est, non in specie,  proptereaque mundus imperfectae rei similis minime perfectus esset -  at vero eius, in quo omnia genera et quasi quidam fontes continentur animalium intellegibilium,   siquidem animalium genera mundus alter complectitur  perinde ut hic nos et caetera subiecta visui et caeteris sensibus.  Ergo intellegibili substantiae praecellenti principalique naturae omnifariam quoque perfectae deus opifex gigni simile volens sensibile animal unum et visibile constituit,  naturae suae convenientia cuncta quae vita fruuntur intra conseptum et limitem suum continens. 
hoc posito, quod sequitur videamus,  ad quius animalis similitudinem deus (6) mundum constituit.  uni cuidam proriaeque animalium speciei similem fecisse, ne arbitre(7)mur.  Nam si imperfecto animali similes esset factus, pulcher certe non esset.  Immo vero il(8)lius animalis eum simillimum esse dicamus, cuius animalia caetera et singulatim et gene(9)ratim partes sunt.  illud siquidem viventia omnia, quae, solamente perspiciuntur, in seipso (10) complectitur,  quem admodum mundus hic nos et caetera quae cernuntur animalia conti(11)net.  volens itaque deus omnium quae intelligi possunt pulcherrimo et undique absoluto mun(12)dum hunc simillimum reddere, animal unum ipsum effecit, aspectui subiectum,  animalia cun(13)cta naturae suae convenientia intra suum limitem continens. 
[The original of the universe is a perfect animal, which comprehends all intelligible animals, just as the copy contains all visible animals.] This being supposed, let us proceed to the next stage:  In the likeness of what animal did the Creator make the world?  It would be an unworthy thing to liken it to any nature which exists as a part only;  for nothing can be beautiful which is like any imperfect thing;  but let us suppose the world to be the very image of that whole of which all other animals both individually and in their tribes are portions.  For the original of the universe contains in itself all intelligible beings,  just as this world comprehends us and all other visible creatures.  For the Deity, intending to make this world like the fairest and most perfect of intelligible beings,  framed one visible animal comprehending within itself all other animals of a kindred nature. 
Nachdem dies festgestellt ist, müssen wir wiederum das hieran zunächst sich Anschließende besprechen,  welches lebendige Wesen sich denn der Meister bei ihr zum Vorbilde genommen hat, um sie ihm ähnlich zu bilden.  Von Allem nun, was zur Gattung der Teile gehört, werden wir sie mit Nichts in Vergleich bringen wollen,  denn was dem Unvollkommenen gleicht, kann nicht schön sein,  wohl aber werden wir sie Demjenigen, wovon die übrigen lebendigen Wesen als Einzelne, sowie nach ihren Gattungen bloße Teile sind, als am allerähnlichsten setzen.  Denn alle die lebendigen Wesen, welche allein dem Gedanken zugänglich sind, faßt Jenes ebenso in sich zusammen,  wie diese Welt uns und alle übrigen Geschöpfe, welche sichtbar gebildet sind.  Denn da der Gott sie dem schönsten und in allen Stücken vollkommenen unter allen Gegenständen der Gedankenwelt am ähnlichsten machen sollte, so fügte er sie zu einem einzigen sichtbaren lebendigen Wesen zusammen,  welches alle ihrer Natur nach mit ihm verwandten belebten Wesen in sich enthielt. [31 St.] 
πότερον οὖν ὀρθῶς ἕνα οὐρανὸν προσειρήκαμεν, ἢ πολλοὺς καὶ ἀπείρους λέγειν ἦν ὀρθότερον;  ἕνα, εἴπερ κατὰ τὸ παράδειγμα δεδημιουργημένος ἔσται.  τὸ γὰρ περιέχον πάντα ὁπόσα νοητὰ ζῷα μεθ’ ἑτέρου δεύτερον οὐκ ἄν ποτ’ εἴη·  πάλιν γὰρ ἂν ἕτερον εἶναι τὸ περὶ ἐκείνω δέοι ζῷον, οὗ μέρος ἂν εἴτην ἐκείνω,  καὶ οὐκ ἂν ἔτι ἐκείνοιν ἀλλ’ ἐκείνῳ τῷ περιέχοντι τόδ’ ἂν ἀφωμοιωμένον λέγοιτο ὀρθότερον.  ἵνα οὖν τόδε κατὰ τὴν μόνωσιν ὅμοιον ᾖ τῷ παντελεῖ ζῴῳ,  διὰ ταῦτα οὔτε δύο οὔτ’ ἀπείρους ἐποίησεν ὁ ποιῶν κόσμους,  ἀλλ’ εἷς ὅδε μονογενὴς οὐρανὸς γεγονὼς ἔστιν καὶ ἔτ’ ἔσται. 
Rectene igitur unum mundum diximus an fuit pluris aut innumerabiles dictu melius et verius?  Unus profecto, si quidem factus est ad exemplum.  Quod enim omnis animantis eos qui ratione intelleguntur conplectitur id non potest esse cum altero:  rursus enim alius animans qui eum contineat sit necesse est, cuius partes sint animantes superiores,   caelumque hoc simulacrum illius ultimi sit, non proximi.  Quorum ne quid accideret atque ut hic mundus esset animanti absolutio simillimus hoc ipso quod solus atque unus esset,  idcirco  singularem deus hunc mundum atque unigenam procreavit. 
Nunc, utrum recte unum mundum dixerimus an plures dici oportuerit vel innumerabiles, etiam considerandum.  Unum plane, quoniam iuxta exemplum formatus est,  id enim quod universa continet intellegibilia cum alio secundum esse non poterat;  utrum enim ex duobus contineret omnia non, opinor, liqueret  nec esset unum et simplex initium cuncta continens, sed coniugatio copulata.  Ut igitur exemplari, cuius aemulationem mutuabatur, etiam in numero similis esset,  idcirco neque duo nec innumerabiles mundi  sed unicus a deo factus est. 
proinde rectine mundum (14) unum diximus? an rectius plures innumerabilesve dici opportuit?  unum profecto, si mo(15)do ad unius similitudinem sit formatus.  quod enim viventia omnia quae cunque in(16)telliguntur continet, socium alterum habere no potest.  alioquin aliud animal, quod haec duo con (17) tineat, esse opporteret, cuius duo haec partes sint,  nec illorum sed tertii huius, mundus hic si(18)mulacrum rectius diceretur.  Ut igitur hic mundus esset animali absoluto simillimus, ex eo (19) quod solus atque unus esset,  idcirco neque duo neque innumerabiles procreti sunt,  sed unus (20) mundus unigenitusque factus est et erit. 
Are we right in saying that there is one world, or that they are many and infinite?  There must be one only, if the created copy is to accord with the original.  For that which includes all other intelligible creatures cannot have a second or companion;  in that case there would be need of another living being which would include both, and of which they would be parts,  and the likeness would be more truly said to resemble not them, but that other which included them.  In order then that the world might be solitary, like the perfect animal,  the creator made not two worlds or an infinite number of them;  but there is and ever will be one only-begotten and created heaven. 
Sprechen wir also mit Recht nur von einer Welt, oder wäre es richtiger von vielen, ja von einer unbegrenzten Zahl zu reden?  Nur von einer kann die Rede sein, wenn anders sie wirklich nach ihrem Urbilde ins Werk gesetzt sein soll.  Denn jenes, alle nur immer der Gedankenwelt angehörigen belebten Gebilde umfassende Wesen kann unmöglich ein zweites neben einem anderen sein;  denn dann müßte es wiederum noch ein anderes, jene beiden umfassendes Wesen geben, dessen Teile dann also jene beiden wären,  und es würde dann die Welt nicht mehr ein jenen beiden, sondern vielmehr ein diesem sie umfassenden Nachgebildetes richtiger genannt werden.  Damit sie also als einzig in ihrer Art dem vollkommenen lebendigen Wesen ähnlich wäre,  darum bildete der Schöpfer weder zwei, noch auch unzählige Welten,  sondern, wie dies Weltgebäude als ein einzig geborenes entstanden ist, so besteht es auch und wird auch fernerhin also bestehen. 
Σωματοειδὲς δὲ δὴ καὶ ὁρατὸν ἁπτόν τε δεῖ τὸ γενόμενον εἶναι,  χωρισθὲν δὲ πυρὸς οὐδὲν ἄν ποτε ὁρατὸν γένοιτο,  οὐδὲ ἁπτὸν ἄνευ τινὸς στερεοῦ, στερεὸν δὲ οὐκ ἄνευ γῆς·  ὅθεν ἐκ πυρὸς καὶ γῆς τὸ τοῦ παντὸς ἀρχόμενος συνιστάναι σῶμα ὁ θεὸς ἐποίει.  δύο δὲ μόνω καλῶς συνίστασθαι τρίτου χωρὶς οὐ δυνατόν·  δεσμὸν γὰρ ἐν μέσῳ δεῖ τινα ἀμφοῖν συναγωγὸν γίγνεσθαι.  δεσμῶν δὲ κάλλιστος ὃς ἂν αὑτὸν καὶ τὰ συνδούμενα ὅτι μάλιστα ἓν ποιῇ,  τοῦτο δὲ πέφυκεν ἀναλογία κάλλιστα ἀποτελεῖν.  ὁπόταν γὰρ ἀριθμῶν τριῶν εἴτε ὄγκων εἴτε δυνάμεων ὡντινωνοῦν ᾖ τὸ μέσον,  ὅτιπερ τὸ πρῶτον πρὸς αὐτό, τοῦτο αὐτὸ πρὸς τὸ ἔσχατον,  καὶ πάλιν αὖθις, ὅτι τὸ ἔσχατον πρὸς τὸ μέσον, τὸ μέσον πρὸς τὸ πρῶτον,  τότε τὸ μέσον μὲν πρῶτον καὶ ἔσχατον γιγνόμενον,  τὸ δ’ ἔσχατον καὶ τὸ πρῶτον αὖ μέσα ἀμφότερα,  πάνθ’ οὕτως ἐξ ἀνάγκης τὰ αὐτὰ εἶναι συμβήσεται,  τὰ αὐτὰ δὲ γενόμενα ἀλλήλοις ἓν πάντα ἔσται.  εἰ μὲν οὖν ἐπίπεδον μέν, βάθος δὲ μηδὲν ἔχον ἔδει γίγνεσθαι τὸ τοῦ παντὸς σῶμα,  μία μεσότης ἂν ἐξήρκει τά τε μεθ’ αὑτῆς συνδεῖν καὶ ἑαυτήν,  νῦν δὲ στερεοειδῆ γὰρ αὐτὸν προσῆκεν εἶναι, τὰ δὲ στερεὰ μία μὲν οὐδέποτε, δύο δὲ ἀεὶ μεσότητες συναρμόττουσιν·  οὕτω δὴ πυρός τε καὶ γῆς ὕδωρ ἀέρα τε ὁ θεὸς ἐν μέσῳ θείς,  καὶ πρὸς ἄλληλα καθ’ ὅσον ἦν δυνατὸν ἀνὰ τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον ἀπεργασάμενος,  ὅτιπερ πῦρ πρὸς ἀέρα, τοῦτο ἀέρα πρὸς ὕδωρ, καὶ ὅτι ἀὴρ πρὸς ὕδωρ, ὕδωρ πρὸς γῆν,  συνέδησεν καὶ συνεστήσατο οὐρανὸν ὁρατὸν καὶ ἁπτόν.  καὶ διὰ ταῦτα ἔκ τε δὴ τούτων τοιούτων καὶ τὸν ἀριθμὸν τεττάρων τὸ τοῦ κόσμου σῶμα ἐγεννήθη  δι’ ἀναλογίας ὁμολογῆσαν,  φιλίαν τε ἔσχεν ἐκ τούτων,  ὥστε εἰς ταὐτὸν αὑτῷ συνελθὸν ἄλυτον ὑπό του ἄλλου πλὴν ὑπὸ τοῦ συνδήσαντος γενέσθαι. 
Corporeum autem et aspectabile idemque tractabile omne necesse est esse quod natum est.  Nihil porro igni vacuum aspici ac videri potest,  nec vero tangi quod careat solido, solidum autem nihil quod terrae sit expers.  Quam ob rem mundum efficere moliens deus terram primum ignemque iungebat.  Omnia autem duo ad cohaerendum tertium aliquid anquirunt  et quasi nodum vinculumque desiderant.  Sed vinculorum id est aptissimum atque pulcherrumum, quod ex se atque de is quae stringit quam maxime unum efficit.  Id optime adsequitur quae Graece analogia, Latine - audendum est enim, quoniam haec primum a nobis novantur - comparatio pro portione dici potest.  Quando enim trium vel numerorum vel figurarum vel quorumcumque generum contigit ut quod medium sit  ut ei primum pro portione ita id postremo conparetur,  vicissimque ut extremum cum medio sic medium cum primo conferatur,  id quod medium est tum primum fit tum postremum,  postrema autem et prima media fiunt:  ita necessitas cogit ut eadem sint ea quae devincta fuerint;  eadem autem cum facta sint, efficitur ut omnia sint unum.  Quod si universi corpus planum et aequabile explicaretur neque in eo quicquam1 esset requisitum;  unum enim interiectum medium et sepse et ea quibus esset interpositum conligaret.  Sed cum soliditas mundo quareretur, solida autem omnia uno medio numquam duobus semper copulentur,  ita contigit ut inter ignem atque terram aquam deus animamque poneret  eaque inter se conpararet et pro portione coniungeret,  ut quem ad modum ignis animae sic anima aquae, quodque anima aquae id aqua terrae pro portione redderet;  qua ex coniunctione caelum ita aptum est ut sub aspectum et tactum cadat.  Itaque et ob eam causam et ex is rebus numero quattuor mundi est corpus effectum,  ea constrictum conparatione qua dixi;  ex quo ipse se concordi quadam amicitia et caritate complectitur  atque ita apte cohaeret ut dissolvi nullo modo queat nisi ab eodem a quo est conligatus. 
Et quia corpulentus visibilisque et contiguus erat merito futurus,  sine igni porro nihil visibile sentitur  nec vero tangi quicquam potest sine soliditate, soliditas porro nulla sine terra,  ignem terramque corporis mundani fundamenta iecit deus.  Quoniamque nulla duo sine adiunctione tertii firme et indissolubiliter cohaerent –  nexu enim medio extrema nectente opus est,  certe est, qui et se ipsum et ea quae secum vinciuntur facit unum –  hoc porro modus et congrua mensura partium efficit.  Cum enim ex tribus vel numeris vel molibus vel potentiis meditas  imo perinde quadrat4 ut summitas medio,   rursumque ut imum medio, sic medietas summo,  tunc certe medietas a summo  et item imo nihil differt rursumque extimis illis ad medietatis condicionem atque ad eiusdem parilitatem redactis cum medietas quoque extimorum vicem suscipit,  fit, opinor, ut tota materia una et eadem ratione societur  eoque pacto eadem sibi erunt universa membra, quippe cum eorum sit una condicio; unis porro effectis membris unum erit atque idem totum.  Quare, si corpus universae rei longitudinem et latitudinem solam, crassitudinem vero nullam habere deberet essetque huius modi, qualis est corporum solidorum superficies,  una medietas sufficeret ad semet ipsam vinciendam et extimas partes.  Nunc quoniam soliditate opus erat mundano corpori, solida porro numquam una sed duabus medietatibus vinciuntur,  idcirco mundi opifex inter ignem terramque aera et aquam inseruit  libratis isdem elementis salubri modo,  ut quae cognatio est inter ignem et aera, eadem foret inter aera et aquam, rursum quae inter aera et aquam, haec eadem in aquae terraeque societate consisteret.  Atque ita ex quattuor supra dictis materiis praeclaram istam machinam visibilem contiguamque fabricatus est    amica partium aequilibritatis ratione sociatam,    quo immortalis indissolubilisque esset adversum omnem casum excepta fabricatoris sui voluntate. 
Quonima vero corporeus, spectabilisque, et tracta(21)bilis erat futurus,  ac sine igni videri nihil potest,  nihilque sine sine solido tangi, et solidum absque (22) terra nihil,  ideo in operis huius exordio deus ignem primo terramque creavit.  Sed duo sola (23) absque tertio quodam commode cohaerere non possunt,  mediumque aliquod vinculum utro(24)runque desiderant.  Vincolorum vero id est aptissimum atque pulcherrimum, quod ex se et ex (25) iis quae astringit, quam maxime unum efficit.  Hoc maxime proportio ratioque alternae com(26)parationis assequitur.  Quando enim in tribus numeris aut molibus aut viribus medium (27)  ita se habet ad postremum, ut primum ad medium,  vicissimque ut postremum cum medio, (28) ita medium cum primo congruit?  tunc quod medium est, et primum fit, et postremum,  (29) postremum quoque et primum media fiunt,  Ita necessitas cogit, ut omnia quae sic devincta (30) fuerint, eadem inter se sint.  Eadem vero cum facta sint, efficitur ut omnia sint unum.  Quod (31) si universi corpus latitudinem habere debuisset, nullam vero profunditatem,  unum sane tum (32) ad seipsum, tum ad extrema vincienda interiectum medium suffecisset.  sed cum solidita(33)tem mundus requireret, solida vero non uno sed duobus semper mediis copulenter,  in(34)ter ignem et terram deus aerem aquamque locabit,  eaeque ita inter se invicem quoad fieri pot(35)erat, comparabit,  ut quemadmodum ignis ad aerem, ita aer ad aquam: ut aer ad aquam, (36) sic aqua ad terram congrue conferatur.  qua ex coniunctione ita constitutus est mundus, ut (37) aspici tangique possit.  Propterea ex huiusmodi rebus numero quatuor, mundi corpus confla(38)tum est,  ea connexum comparatione qua dixi.  Ex quo seipsum amicitia concordi comple(39)ctitur,  atque ita apte cohaeret, ut nequeat dissolvi ullo modo, nisi ab eodem a quo est colliga(40)tum. 
[The world is visible and tangible, and therefore composed of fire and earth. These elements, being solids, required two means to unite them, water and air.] Now that which is created is of necessity corporeal, and also visible and tangible.  And nothing is visible where there is no fire,  or tangible which has no solidity, and nothing is solid without earth.  Wherefore also God in the beginning of creation made the body of the universe to consist of fire and earth.  But two things cannot be rightly put together without a third;  there must be some bond of union between them.  And the fairest bond is that which makes the most complete fusion of itself and the things which it combines;  and proportion is best adapted to effect such a union.  For whenever in any three numbers, whether cube or square, there is a mean,  which is to the last term what the first term is to it;  and again, when the mean is to the first term as the last term is to the mean,  — then the mean becoming first and last,  and the first and last both becoming means,  they will all of them of necessity come to be the same,  and having become the same with one another will be all one.  If the universal frame had been created a surface only and having no depth,  a single mean would have sufficed to bind together itself and the other terms;  but now, as the world must be solid, and solid bodies are always compacted not by one mean but by two,  God placed water and air in the mean between fire and earth,  and made them to have the same proportion so far as was possible  (as fire is to air so is air to water, and as air is to water so is water to earth);  and thus he bound and put together a visible and tangible heaven.  And for these reasons, and out of such elements which are in number four, the body of the world was created,  and it was harmonized by proportion,  and therefore has the spirit of friendship;  and having been reconciled to itself, it was indissoluble by the hand of any other than the framer. 
Körperlich, sichtbar und fühlbar muß nun aber das Gewordene sein.  Ohne das Feuer aber kann schwerlich je Etwas sichtbar werden,  noch fühlbar ohne etwas Festes und fest wiederum nicht ohne Erde;  daher bildete der Gott den Körper des All, als er ihn zusammenzusetzen begann, zunächst aus Feuer und Erde.  Zwei Dinge allein aber ohne ein drittes wohl zusammenzufügen ist unmöglich,  denn nur ein vermittelndes Band kann zwischen Beiden die Vereinigung bilden.  Von allen Bändern ist aber dasjenige das schönste, welches zugleich sich selbst und die durch dasselbe verbundenen Gegenstände möglichst zu Einem macht.  Dies aber auf das Schönste zu bewirken, ist die Proportion da. [32 St.]  Denn wenn von drei Zahlen oder Massen oder Kräften von irgend einer Art die mittlere  sich eben so zu letzten verhält wie die erste zu ihr selber,  und ebenso wiederum zu der ersten wie die letzte zu ihr selber,  dann wird sich ergeben, daß, wenn die mittlere an die erste und letzte,  die erste und letzte dagegen an die beiden mittleren Stellen gesetzt werden,  das Ergebnis notwendig ganz dasselbe bleibt,  bleibt dies aber dasselbe, so sind sie alle damit wahrhaft unter einander Eins geworden.  Wenn nun der Leib des Alls eine Fläche ohne alle Höhe hätte werden sollen,  dann würde Ein Mittelglied genügt haben, das Andere und sich selber zusammenzubinden,  nun aber kam es ihm zu, ein Körper zu sein, und alle Körper werden nie durch Ein, sondern stets durch zwei Mittelglieder zusammengehalten,  und so stellte denn der Gott zwischen Feuer und Erde das Wasser und die Luft in die Mitte,  indem er sie so viel als möglich unter einander in dasselbe Verhältnis brachte,  so daß sich das Feuer eben so zur Luft wie die Luft zum Wasser, und wie die Luft zum Wasser so das Wasser zur Erde sich verhalten sollte,  und verband und fügte auf diese Weise das Weltall zusammen, so daß es sichtbar und fühlbar wurde.  Und so wurde denn zu diesem Zwecke und aus diesen also beschaffenen und ihrer Zahl nach auf vier sich belaufenden Wesenheiten der Körper der Welt geschaffen,  so daß er vermittelst der Proportion innerlich zusammenstimmte,  und besaß dadurch eine solche Anhänglichkeit seiner Teile unter einander,  daß er sich mit sich selber in Eins zusammenzog und unauflöslich für jeden Anderen ward, als für den Urheber der Verbindung. 
Τῶν δὲ δὴ τεττάρων ἓν ὅλον ἕκαστον εἴληφεν ἡ τοῦ κόσμου σύστασις.  ἐκ γὰρ πυρὸς παντὸς ὕδατός τε καὶ ἀέρος καὶ γῆς συνέστησεν αὐτὸν ὁ συνιστάς,  μέρος οὐδὲν οὐδενὸς οὐδὲ δύναμιν ἔξωθεν ὑπολιπών,  τάδε διανοηθείς, πρῶτον μὲν ἵνα ὅλον ὅτι μάλιστα ζῷον τέλεον ἐκ τελέων τῶν μερῶν εἴη,  πρὸς δὲ τούτοις ἕν, ἅτε οὐχ ὑπολελειμμένων ἐξ ὧν ἄλλο τοιοῦτον γένοιτ’ ἄν,  ἔτι δὲ ἵν’ ἀγήρων καὶ ἄνοσον ᾖ,  κατανοῶν ὡς συστάτῳ σώματι θερμὰ καὶ ψυχρὰ καὶ πάνθ’ ὅσα δυνάμεις ἰσχυρὰς ἔχει περιιστάμενα ἔξωθεν καὶ προσπίπτοντα ἀκαίρως λύει καὶ νόσους γῆράς τε ἐπάγοντα φθίνειν ποιεῖ.  διὰ δὴ τὴν αἰτίαν καὶ τὸν λογισμὸν τόνδε ἕνα ὅλον ὅλων ἐξ ἁπάντων τέλεον καὶ ἀγήρων καὶ ἄνοσον αὐτὸν ἐτεκτήνατο. 
Earum autem quattuor rerum quas supra dixi sic in omni mundo partes omnes conlocatae sunt,    ut nulla pars huiusce generis excederet extra atque ut in hoc universo inessent genera illa universa;  id ob eas causas, primum ut mundus animans posset ex perfectis partibus esse perfectus,  deinde ut unus esset, nulla parte unde alter gigneretur relicta,  postremo ne qui morbus eum posset aut senectus adtingere;  omnis enim coagmentatio corporis vel caloris vi vel frigoris vel aliqua impulsione vehementi labefactatur et frangitur et ad morbos senectutemque compellitur.  Hanc igitur habuit rationem effector mundi et molitor deus, ut unum opus totum atque perfectum ex omnibus totis atque perfectis absolveret, quod omni morbo et senio vacaret. 
Igitur quattuor illa integra corpora et sine ulla delibatione ad mundi continentiam sumpta sunt.  Ex omni quippe igni et item totis illis reliquis, aere aqua terra, constructus est  nulla vel corporis vel potentiae parte derelicta contemptaque  propterea ut perfectum animal esset, utpote ex integris corporibus perfectisque conflatum,  5   hoc amplius ut aeternae compos incolumitatis foret.  Videbat enim eam esse naturam corporis, ut ei facile importuna caloris accessione uel contra frigoris omniumque huius modi, quae in magna sunt violentaque potentia, noceretur.  Quo consilio quaque reputatione unum perfectum ex perfectis omnibus citra senium dissolutionemque composuit 
Quatuor igitur earum rerum quamlibet integram mundus accepit.  Ex omni quippe (41) igni, aere, aqua, terra, ipsius faber ita ipsum composuit,  ut nullam quiusquam istorum par(42)tem aut vim extra relinqueret.  Ideque ea ratione fecit, primum quidem ut totum hoc animal (43) quam maxime perfecrtum ex perfectus partibus esset.  Deinde ut esset unem, cum nihil ex(44)tra relictum fuerit, ex quo alterum generetur.  Postremo ne quisipsum morbus aut sene(45)ctus attingeret.  Videbat enim eam esse naturam corporis, ut importuna caloris vel frigo(46)ris aliarumque rerum nimis vehementium accessione laedatur, et in morbos seniumque im(47)pulsum deficiat.  Quam ob causam rationemque unum totum ex omnibus totis et perfectis (48) perfectum, morbi et senectutis expertem deus mundum constituit. 
[All the four elements were included entire in the composition of the world, which was therefore perfect and not subject to decay; for nothing was left outside which could hurt or destroy it. It received a spherical form, — without eyes, ears, mouth, hands, feet, and was made to revolve in a circle on the same spot.] Now the creation took up the whole of each of the four elements;  for the Creator compounded the world out of all the fire and all the water and all the air and all the earth,  leaving no part of any of them nor any power of them outside.  His intention was, in the first place, that the animal should be as far as possible a perfect whole and of perfect parts:  secondly, that it should be one, leaving no remnants out of which another such world might be created:  and also that it should be free from old age and unaffected by disease.  Considering that if heat and cold and other powerful forces which unite bodies surround and attack them from without when they are unprepared, they decompose them, and by bringing diseases and old age upon them, make them waste away —  for this cause and on these grounds he made the world one whole, having every part entire, and being therefore perfect and not liable to old age and disease. 
Von diesen vieren nun hat das Weltgebäude ein jedes ganz erhalten.  Denn aus allem Feuer und Wasser und aus aller Luft und Erde fügte es der Bildner zusammen  und ließ von keinem derselben irgend einen Teil oder eine Kraft außerhalb zurück,  indem er dies dabei bezweckte, zunächst, daß es als organisches Wesen zu einem möglichst vollkommenen Ganzen durch [33 St.] sein Bestehen aus möglichst vollkommenen Teilen werde,  sodann, daß es ein einziges sei, sofern nichts übrig geblieben, woraus ein Anderes von derselben Art entstehen könnte,  ferner auch dem Alter und der Krankheit nicht ausgesetzt,  indem er erwog, daß, wenn einen zusammengesetzten Körper Hitze und Kälte und Alles, was sonst starke Wirkungen ausübt, von außen her umgeben und zur Unzeit mit ihm zusammentreffen, sie ihn in Auflösung versetzen und ihm durch Herbeiführung von Krankheit und Alter seinen allmählichen Untergang bereiten.  Aus diesem Grunde und in dieser Erwägung erbaute er denn diese Welt als ein einziges Ganzes, welches selbst wieder aus lauter Ganzen besteht und eben deshalb frei ist von Alter und Krankheit. 
σχῆμα δὲ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ τὸ πρέπον καὶ τὸ συγγενές.  τῷ δὲ τὰ πάντα ἐν αὑτῷ ζῷα περιέχειν μέλλοντι ζῴῳ πρέπον ἂν εἴη σχῆμα τὸ περιειληφὸς ἐν αὑτῷ πάντα ὁπόσα σχήματα·  διὸ καὶ σφαιροειδές, ἐκ μέσου πάντῃ πρὸς τὰς τελευτὰς ἴσον ἀπέχον, κυκλοτερὲς αὐτὸ ἐτορνεύσατο,  πάντων τελεώτατον ὁμοιότατόν τε αὐτὸ ἑαυτῷ σχημάτων,  νομίσας μυρίῳ κάλλιον ὅμοιον ἀνομοίου.  λεῖον δὲ δὴ κύκλῳ πᾶν ἔξωθεν αὐτὸ ἀπηκριβοῦτο πολλῶν χάριν.  ὀμμάτων τε γὰρ ἐπεδεῖτο οὐδέν, ὁρατὸν γὰρ οὐδὲν ὑπελείπετο ἔξωθεν, οὐδ’ ἀκοῆς, οὐδὲ γὰρ ἀκουστόν·  πνεῦμά τε οὐκ ἦν περιεστὸς δεόμενον ἀναπνοῆς,  οὐδ’ αὖ τινος ἐπιδεὲς ἦν ὀργάνου σχεῖν ᾧ τὴν μὲν εἰς ἑαυτὸ τροφὴν δέξοιτο,  τὴν δὲ πρότερον ἐξικμασμένην ἀποπέμψοι πάλιν.  ἀπῄει τε γὰρ οὐδὲν οὐδὲ προσῄειν αὐτῷ ποθεν - οὐδὲ γὰρ ἦν -  αὐτὸ γὰρ ἑαυτῷ τροφὴν τὴν ἑαυτοῦ φθίσιν παρέχον  καὶ πάντα ἐν ἑαυτῷ καὶ ὑφ’ ἑαυτοῦ πάσχον καὶ δρῶν ἐκ τέχνης2 γέγονεν·  ἡγήσατο γὰρ αὐτὸ ὁ συνθεὶς αὔταρκες ὂν ἄμεινον ἔσεσθαι μᾶλλον ἢ προσδεὲς ἄλλων.  χειρῶν δέ, αἷς οὔτε λαβεῖν οὔτε αὖ τινα ἀμύνασθαι χρεία τις ἦν, μάτην οὐκ ᾤετο δεῖν αὐτῷ προσάπτειν,  οὐδὲ ποδῶν οὐδὲ ὅλως τῆς περὶ τὴν βάσιν ὑπηρεσίας.  κίνησιν γὰρ ἀπένειμεν αὐτῷ τὴν τοῦ σώματος οἰκείαν,  τῶν ἑπτὰ τὴν περὶ νοῦν καὶ φρόνησιν μάλιστα οὖσαν·  διὸ δὴ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ καὶ ἐν ἑαυτῷ περιαγαγὼν αὐτὸ ἐποίησε κύκλῳ κινεῖσθαι στρεφόμενον,  τὰς δὲ ἓξ ἁπάσας κινήσεις ἀφεῖλεν καὶ ἀπλανὲς ἀπηργάσατο ἐκείνων.  ἐπὶ δὲ τὴν περίοδον ταύτην ἅτ’ οὐδὲν ποδῶν δέον ἀσκελὲς καὶ ἄπουν αὐτὸ ἐγέννησεν. 
Formam autem ei maxime cognatam et decoram dedit.  A quo enim animanti omnis reliquas contineri vellet animantes, hunc ea forma figuravit qua una omnis formae reliquae concluduntur,  et globosum est fabricatus, quod σφαιροειδές Graeci vocant, cuius omnis extremitas paribus a medio radiis attingitur, idque ita tornavit ut nihil efficere posset rotundius,  nihil asperitatis ut haberet nihil offensionis, nihil incisum angulis nihil anfractibus, nihil eminens nihil lacunosum - omnesque partes simillimae omnium,  quod eius iuducio praestabat dissimilitudini similitudo.  Omni autem totam figuram mundi levitate circumdedit.  Nec enim oculis egebat, quia nihil extra quod cerni posset relictum erat, nec auribus, quia ne quod audiretur quidem,  neque erant anima circumfusa extrema mundi, ut respirationem requireret;  nec vero desiderabat aut alimenta corporis  aut detractionem confecti et consumpti cibi:  neque enim ulla decessio fieri poterat neque accessio, nec vero erat unde;  itaque se ipse consumptione et senio alebat sui,  cum ipse per se et a se et pateretur et faceret omnia;  sic enim ratus est ille qui ista iunxit et condidit ipsum se contentum esse mundum neque egere altero.  Itaque ei nec manus affixit, quoniam nec capiendum quicquam erat nec repellendum,  nec pedes aut aliqua membra quibus ingressum corporis sustineret.  Motum enim dedit caelo eum qui figurae eius esset aptissimus,  qui unus ex septem motibus mentem atque intellegentiam cieret maxime;  itaque una conversione atque eadem ipse circum se torquetur et vertitur;  sex autem reliquos motus ab eo separavit itaque ab omni erratione eum liberavit.  Ad hanc igitur conversionem, quae pedibus et gradu non egeret, ingrediendi membra non dedit. 
formamque dedit ei congruam,  quippe animali cuncta intra suum ambitum animalia et omnes eorum formas regesturo:  globosam et rotundam, quae a medietate ad omnem ambitum extimarum partium spatiis aequalibus distat,  quo totus sui similis foret,  meliorem similitudinem dissimilitudine iudicans.  Levem porro globum undique versum extrinsecus expolivit non otiose,  siquidem neque videndi necessarius esset usus, cunctis intra globum visibilibus regestis, nec auditus, nullo extra posito audiendo sono,  nec uero respirandi adiumento opus – quippe omnis coercebatur intrinsecus spiritus –  - nec membris quidem talibus per quae novo admisso cibo vetus liquore posito pelleretur.    Neque enim quicquam ex eo recedebat nec erat accedendi facultas cunctis coercitis,  sed corruptela partium intra se senescentium vicem quandam obtinebat cibatus  idemque ut ageret et pateretur etiam omnia mundi globus partibus suis intra se agentibus ac perpetientibus.    Nec vero manus ei necessarias esse duxit, cum nihil superesset comprehendendum,      nec pedes, quoniam ex septem motibus non locularis ei quisquam sed rationabilis competebat, qui animarum proprius est circuitus  neque ullum locum ex loco mutans ideoque in orbem fertur et velut fixo circumvolat cardine;  proptereaque rata et inerrabilis eius agitatio est.   
Cui et figuram ma(49)xime congruam et decoram dedit.  Animal quippe hoc, quod intra suum ambitum erat (50) animalia omnia contenturum, eam figuram paraecipue requirebat, in qua figurae omnes (51) continerentur.  Quapropter sphaericum fecit, in quo omnis extremitas paribus a medio (52) radiis attingitur.  quae quidem figura omnium perfectissima sibique ipsi simillima iudicatur.  Putabat enim simile dissimili multo pulchrius esse.  Lenem praeterea hunc globum extrin(710,1)secus undique expolivit. Nec emerito summa eum aequalitate tornavit.  Nec enim oculis (2) indigebat, quia nihil extra quod cerni posset, relictum erat. Nec auribus, cum nihil superesset (3) foris quod audiretur.  Nec erant aere circumfusa externa mundi, ut respiratione re(4)quirereret.  Nec mebris quidem talibhus opus erat, per quae nova alimenta susciperet,  aut (5) decocti cibi excrementa emitteret:  nulla decessio fieri poterat, nulla accesio. Neque enim [6) erat aut quo aut unde talia fierent.  Ipsum enim se consumptione et senio suiipsius alit.  Ita (7) nempe divina arte fabricatus est mundus, ut omnia in seipso et a seipso patiatur, et agat.  Ratus enim est ille auctor, mundum si sibi ipse sufficiat, praestantiorum fore, quam si alio(9)rum adminiculis egiat.  Nec ei manus necessarias esse duxit, quia neque capiendum quic[10)quam erat neque repellendum.  Nec pedibus aliis ad progressum statumve membris (1) opus erat.  Motum enim illi congruum suo corpori tribuit,  qui ex septem motibus unus (12) ad mentem maxime et intelligentiam pertinet.  Ideoque cum illum per eadem, et in eodem, (13) et in seipso circumduxisset, effecit ut circulari conversione moveretur.  Sex autem reliquos (14) motus separabit ab eo, et ab eaorum errore et pervagatione penitus liberabit.  ad hanc igi(15)tur conversionem quae pedibus non egebat, crura pedesque non dedit. 
And he gave to the world the figure which was suitable and also natural.  Now to the animal which was to comprehend all animals, that figure was suitable which comprehends within itself all other figures.  Wherefore he made the world in the form of a globe, round as from a lathe, having its extremes in every direction equidistant from the centre,  the most perfect and the most like itself of all figures;  for he considered that the like is infinitely fairer than the unlike.  This he finished off, making the surface smooth all round for many reasons;  in the first place, because the living being had no need of eyes when there was nothing remaining outside him to be seen; nor of ears when there was nothing to be heard;  and there was no surrounding atmosphere to be breathed;  nor would there have been any use of organs by the help of which he might receive his food  or get rid of what he had already digested,  since there was nothing which went from him or came into him: for there was nothing beside him.  Of design he was created thus, his own waste providing his own food,  and all that he did or suffered taking place in and by himself.  For the Creator conceived that a being which was self-sufficient would be far more excellent than one which lacked anything;  and, as he had no need to take anything or defend himself against any one, the Creator did not think it necessary to bestow upon him hands:  nor had he any need of feet, nor of the whole apparatus of walking;  but the movement suited to his spherical form was assigned to him,  being of all the seven that which is most appropriate to mind and intelligence;  and he was made to move in the same manner and on the same spot, within his own limits revolving in a circle.  All the other six motions were taken away from him, and he was made not to partake of their deviations.  And as this circular movement required no feet, the universe was created without legs and without feet. 
Sodann gab er derselben auch eine Gestalt, wie sie ihr angemessen und ihrer Natur verwandt ist.  Demjenigen lebendigen Wesen, welches alles andere Lebendige in sich fassen soll, dürfte nun wohl auch eine Gestalt angemessen sein, welche alle anderen Gestalten in sich faßt.  Deshalb drehte er sie denn auch kugelförmig, so daß sie von der Mitte aus überall gleich weit von ihren Endpunkten entfernt war, nach Maßgabe der Kreisform,  welches von allen Gestalten die vollkommenste und am meisten sich selber gleiche ist,  indem er das Gleiche für tausendmal schöner als das Ungleiche hielt,  auswendig aber machte er sie ringsherum auf das Genaueste vollständig glatt, und zwar aus vielerlei Gründen.  Bedurfte sie doch der Augen nicht, denn es war nichts Sichtbares, noch auch der Ohren, denn es war nichts Hörbares außerhalb ihrer zurückgelassen,  ebenso bestand keine Luft, welche sie noch umgeben und der Einatmung bedurft hätte;  auch war sie keines Werkzeuges benötigt, um vermittelst desselben Nahrung zu sich zu nehmen  und die früher zu sich genommene, nachdem sie den eigentlichen Nahrungssaft von ihr ausgesogen, wieder von sich zu geben,  denn Nichts sonderte sich von ihr aus und Nichts trat irgendwoher zu ihr hinzu, denn es gab Nichts außer ihr,  vielmehr ist sie kunstvoll dergestalt gebildet, daß ihre Aussonderungen ihr auch zugleich wieder zur Nahrung dienen,  und daß sie Alles innerhalb ihrer selbst erleidet und Alles durch sich selber tut;  denn es hielt Der, welcher sie zusammenfügte, sie für vollkommener und besser, wenn sie sich selbst genügte, als wenn sie eines Anderen bedürfte.  Hände aber, die ihr weder um irgend Etwas anzugreifen, noch auch abzuwehren, erforderlich waren, glaubte er nutzloser Weise ihr nicht anfügen zu dürfen  und eben so wenig Füße, sowie überhaupt die zum Gehen dienenden Glieder. [34 St.]  Denn er teilte ihr eine Bewegung zu, welche einem Körper von der Gestalt des ihrigen eigentümlich  und von allen sieben Bewegungen diejenige ist, die am meisten der der Vernunft und Erkenntnis nahe kommt.  Nämlich gleichmäßig in demselben Raume und in sich selber führte er sie herum und ließ sie so sich umschwingend im Kreise bewegen,  alle sechs andern Bewegungen aber nahm er ihr ab und machte sie von deren Irrwandel frei,  und da sie zu jenem Umlauf der Beine nicht bedurfte, so erschuf er sie ohne Schenkel und Füße. 
(Ἡ ψυχὴ τοῦ κόσμου) Οὗτος δὴ πᾶς ὄντος ἀεὶ λογισμὸς θεοῦ περὶ τὸν ποτὲ ἐσόμενον θεὸν λογισθεὶς λεῖον καὶ ὁμαλὸν πανταχῇ τε ἐκ μέσου ἴσον καὶ ὅλον καὶ τέλεον ἐκ τελέων σωμάτων σῶμα ἐποίησεν·  ψυχὴν δὲ εἰς τὸ μέσον αὐτοῦ θεὶς διὰ παντός τε ἔτεινεν καὶ ἔτι ἔξωθεν τὸ σῶμα αὐτῇ περιεκάλυψεν,  καὶ κύκλῳ δὴ κύκλον στρεφόμενον οὐρανὸν ἕνα μόνον ἔρημον κατέστησεν,  δι’ ἀρετὴν δὲ αὐτὸν αὑτῷ δυνάμενον συγγίγνεσθαι καὶ οὐδενὸς ἑτέρου προσδεόμενον, γνώριμον δὲ καὶ φίλον ἱκανῶς αὐτὸν αὑτῷ.  διὰ πάντα δὴ ταῦτα εὐδαίμονα θεὸν αὐτὸν ἐγεννήσατο.  Τὴν δὲ δὴ ψυχὴν οὐχ ὡς νῦν ὑστέραν ἐπιχειροῦμεν λέγειν, οὕτως ἐμηχανήσατο καὶ ὁ θεὸς νεωτέραν - οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἄρχεσθαι πρεσβύτερον ὑπὸ νεωτέρου συνέρξας εἴασεν - ἀλλά πως ἡμεῖς πολὺ μετέχοντες τοῦ προστυχόντος τε καὶ εἰκῇ ταύτῃ πῃ καὶ λέγομεν,  ὁ δὲ καὶ γενέσει καὶ ἀρετῇ προτέραν καὶ πρεσβυτέραν ψυχὴν σώματος ὡς δεσπότιν καὶ ἄρξουσαν ἀρξομένου συνεστήσατο ἐκ τῶνδέ τε καὶ τοιῷδε τρόπῳ.  τῆς ἀμερίστου καὶ ἀεὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἐχούσης οὐσίας καὶ τῆς αὖ περὶ τὰ σώματα γιγνομένης μεριστῆς τρίτον ἐξ ἀμφοῖν ἐν μέσῳ συνεκεράσατο οὐσίας εἶδος,  τῆς τε ταὐτοῦ φύσεως αὖ πέρι καὶ τῆς τοῦ ἑτέρου,  καὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ συνέστησεν ἐν μέσῳ τοῦ τε ἀμεροῦς αὐτῶν καὶ τοῦ κατὰ τὰ σώματα μεριστοῦ·  καὶ τρία λαβὼν αὐτὰ ὄντα συνεκεράσατο εἰς μίαν πάντα ἰδέαν, τὴν θατέρου φύσιν δύσμεικτον οὖσαν εἰς ταὐτὸν συναρμόττων βίᾳ.  μειγνὺς δὲ μετὰ τῆς οὐσίας καὶ ἐκ τριῶν ποιησάμενος ἕν, πάλιν ὅλον τοῦτο μοίρας ὅσας προσῆκεν διένειμεν, ἑκάστην δὲ ἔκ τε ταὐτοῦ καὶ θατέρου καὶ τῆς οὐσίας μεμειγμένην.  ἤρχετο δὲ διαιρεῖν ὧδε.  μίαν ἀφεῖλεν τὸ πρῶτον ἀπὸ παντὸς μοῖραν, μετὰ δὲ ταύτην ἀφῄρει διπλασίαν ταύτης, τὴν δ’ αὖ τρίτην ἡμιολίαν μὲν τῆς δευτέρας, τριπλασίαν δὲ τῆς πρώτης, τετάρτην δὲ τῆς δευτέρας διπλῆν, πέμπτην δὲ τριπλῆν τῆς τρίτης, τὴν δ’ ἕκτην τῆς πρώτης ὀκταπλασίαν, ἑβδόμην δ’ ἑπτακαιεικοσιπλασίαν τῆς πρώτης·  μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα συνεπληροῦτο τά τε διπλάσια καὶ τριπλάσια διαστήματα, μοίρας ἔτι ἐκεῖθεν ἀποτέμνων καὶ τιθεὶς εἰς τὸ μεταξὺ τούτων, ὥστε ἐν ἑκάστῳ διαστήματι δύο εἶναι μεσότητας, τὴν μὲν ταὐτῷ μέρει τῶν ἄκρων αὐτῶν ὑπερέχουσαν καὶ ὑπερεχομένην, τὴν δὲ ἴσῳ μὲν κατ’ ἀριθμὸν ὑπερέχουσαν, ἴσῳ δὲ ὑπερεχομένην.  ἡμιολίων δὲ διαστάσεων καὶ ἐπιτρίτων καὶ ἐπογδόων γενομένων ἐκ τούτων τῶν δεσμῶν ἐν ταῖς πρόσθεν διαστάσεσιν,  τῷ τοῦ ἐπογδόου διαστήματι τὰ ἐπίτριτα πάντα συνεπληροῦτο, λείπων αὐτῶν ἑκάστου μόριον, τῆς τοῦ μορίου ταύτης διαστάσεως λειφθείσης ἀριθμοῦ πρὸς ἀριθμὸν ἐχούσης τοὺς ὅρους ἓξ καὶ πεντήκοντα καὶ διακοσίων πρὸς τρία καὶ τετταράκοντα καὶ διακόσια.  καὶ δὴ καὶ τὸ μειχθέν, ἐξ οὗ ταῦτα κατέτεμνεν, οὕτως ἤδη πᾶν κατανηλώκει.  ταύτην οὖν τὴν σύστασιν πᾶσαν διπλῆν κατὰ μῆκος σχίσας, μέσην πρὸς μέσην ἑκατέραν ἀλλήλαις οἷον χεῖ προσβαλὼν κατέκαμψεν εἰς ἓν κύκλῳ,  συνάψας αὑταῖς τε καὶ ἀλλήλαις ἐν τῷ καταντικρὺ τῆς προσβολῆς καὶ τῇ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἐν ταὐτῷ περιαγομένῃ κινήσει πέριξ αὐτὰς ἔλαβεν, καὶ τὸν μὲν ἔξω, τὸν δ’ ἐντὸς ἐποιεῖτο τῶν κύκλων.  τὴν μὲν οὖν ἔξω φορὰν ἐπεφήμισεν εἶναι τῆς ταὐτοῦ φύσεως, τὴν δ’ ἐντὸς τῆς θατέρου.  τὴν μὲν δὴ ταὐτοῦ κατὰ πλευρὰν ἐπὶ δεξιὰ περιήγαγεν, τὴν δὲ θατέρου κατὰ διάμετρον ἐπ’ ἀριστερά, κράτος δ’ ἔδωκεν τῇ ταὐτοῦ καὶ ὁμοίου περιφορᾷ·  μίαν γὰρ αὐτὴν ἄσχιστον εἴασεν, τὴν δ’ ἐντὸς σχίσας ἑξαχῇ ἑπτὰ κύκλους ἀνίσους κατὰ τὴν τοῦ διπλασίου καὶ τριπλασίου διάστασιν ἑκάστην,  οὐσῶν ἑκατέρων τριῶν, κατὰ τἀναντία μὲν ἀλλήλοις προσέταξεν ἰέναι τοὺς κύκλους,  τάχει δὲ τρεῖς μὲν ὁμοίως, τοὺς δὲ τέτταρας ἀλλήλοις καὶ τοῖς τρισὶν ἀνομοίως, ἐν λόγῳ δὲ φερομένους.  Ἐπεὶ δὲ κατὰ νοῦν τῷ συνιστάντι πᾶσα ἡ τῆς ψυχῆς σύστασις ἐγεγένητο,  μετὰ τοῦτο πᾶν τὸ σωματοειδὲς ἐντὸς αὐτῆς ἐτεκταίνετο καὶ μέσον μέσῃ συναγαγὼν προσήρμοττεν·  ἡ δ’ ἐκ μέσου πρὸς τὸν ἔσχατον οὐρανὸν πάντῃ διαπλακεῖσα κύκλῳ τε αὐτὸν ἔξωθεν περικαλύψασα, αὐτὴ ἐν αὑτῇ στρεφομένη, θείαν ἀρχὴν ἤρξατο ἀπαύστου καὶ ἔμφρονος βίου πρὸς τὸν σύμπαντα χρόνον.  καὶ τὸ μὲν δὴ σῶμα ὁρατὸν οὐρανοῦ γέγονεν,  αὐτὴ δὲ ἀόρατος μέν, λογισμοῦ δὲ μετέχουσα καὶ ἁρμονίας ψυχή, τῶν νοητῶν ἀεί τε ὄντων ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀρίστου ἀρίστη γενομένη τῶν γεννηθέντων.  ἅτε οὖν ἐκ τῆς ταὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς θατέρου φύσεως ἔκ τε οὐσίας τριῶν τούτων συγκραθεῖσα μοιρῶν, καὶ ἀνὰ λόγον μερισθεῖσα καὶ συνδεθεῖσα, αὐτή τε ἀνακυκλουμένη πρὸς αὑτήν,  ὅταν οὐσίαν σκεδαστὴν ἔχοντός τινος ἐφάπτηται καὶ ὅταν ἀμέριστον, λέγει κινουμένη διὰ πάσης ἑαυτῆς ὅτῳ τ’ ἄν τι ταὐτὸν ᾖ καὶ ὅτου ἂν ἕτερον,  πρὸς ὅτι τε μάλιστα καὶ ὅπῃ καὶ ὅπως καὶ ὁπότε συμβαίνει κατὰ τὰ γιγνόμενά τε πρὸς ἕκαστον ἕκαστα εἶναι καὶ πάσχειν3 καὶ πρὸς τὰ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἔχοντα ἀεί.  λόγος δὲ ὁ κατὰ ταὐτὸν ἀληθὴς γιγνόμενος περί τε θάτερον ὂν καὶ περὶ τὸ ταὐτόν, ἐν τῷ κινουμένῳ ὑφ’ αὑτοῦ φερόμενος ἄνευ φθόγγου καὶ ἠχῆς,  ὅταν μὲν περὶ τὸ αἰσθητὸν γίγνηται καὶ ὁ τοῦ θατέρου κύκλος ὀρθὸς ἰὼν εἰς πᾶσαν αὐτοῦ τὴν ψυχὴν διαγγείλῃ, δόξαι καὶ πίστεις γίγνονται βέβαιοι καὶ ἀληθεῖς,  ὅταν δὲ αὖ περὶ τὸ λογιστικὸν ᾖ καὶ ὁ τοῦ ταὐτοῦ κύκλος εὔτροχος ὢν αὐτὰ μηνύσῃ, νοῦς ἐπιστήμη τε ἐξ ἀνάγκης ἀποτελεῖται·  τούτω δὲ ἐν ᾧ τῶν ὄντων ἐγγίγνεσθον, ἄν ποτέ τις αὐτὸ ἄλλο πλὴν ψυχὴν εἴπῃ, πᾶν μᾶλλον ἢ τἀληθὲς ἐρεῖ. 
Haec deus is qui semper2 erat de aliquando futuro deo cogitans levem illum effecit et undique aequabilem et a medio ad summum parem et perfectum atque absolutum ex absolutis atque perfectis.  Animum autem ut in eo medio conlocavit ita per totum tetendit;  deinde eum circumdedit corpore et vestivit extrinsecus caeloque solivago volubili et in orbem incitato complexus est,  quod secum ipsum propter virtutem facile esse posset nec desideraret alterum, satis sibi ipsum notum et familiare.  Sic deus ille aeternus hunc perfecte beatum deum procreavit.  Sed animum haud ita ut modo locuti sumus tum denique cum corpus ei effecisset inchoavit: neque enim esset rectum minori parere maiorem; sed nos multa inconsiderate ac temere dicimus.  Deus autem et ortu et virtute antiquiorem genuit animum eumque ut dominum atque imperantem oboedienti praefecit corpori; idque molitus tali quodam est modo.  Ex ea materia quae individua est et quae semper unius modi suique similis et ex ea quae ex corporibus dividua gignitur tertium materiae genus ex duobus in medium admiscuit,  quod esset eiusdem naturae et quod alterius,  idque interiecit inter individuum atque id quod dividuum esset in corpore;  ea cum tria sumpsisset in unam speciem temperavit, naturamque illam quam alterius diximus vi cum eadem coniunxit fugientem et eius copulationis alienam;  quae permiscens cum materia cum ex tribus effecisset unum id ipsum in ea quae decuit membra partitus est. Iam partis singulas ex eodem et ex altero et ex materia temperavit.  Fuit autem talis illa partitio.  Unam principio partem detraxit ex toto, secundam autem primae partis duplam, deinde tertiam, quae esset secundae sesquealtera, prima [de] tripla, deinde quartam quae secunda dupla esset, quintam inde quae tertiae tripla, tum sextam octoplam primae, postremo septimam quae septem et viginti partibus antecederet primae.  Deinde instituit dupla et tripla intervalla explere partis rursum ex toto desicans; quas in intervallis ita locabat ut in singulis essent bina media - vix enim audeo dicere medietates, quas Graeci μεσότητας appellant, sed quasi ita dixerim intellegatur, erit enim planius -, earum alteram eadem parte preastantem extremis eademque superatam [eadem partem praestant in extremis eademque superatam] alteram pari numero praestantem extremis parique superatam.  Sesquealteris autem intervallis et sequetertiis et sesqueoctavis sumptis ex his conligationibus in primis intervallis   sesqueoctavi intervallo sesquetertia omnia explebat, cum particulam singolorum relinqueret; eius autem particulae intervallo relicto habebat numerus ad numerum eandem pro portione comparationem in extremis quam habent ducenta quinqaginta VI cum ducentis quadraginta tribus.  Atque ita permixtum illud, ex quo haec secuit, iam omne consumpserat.  Hanc igitur omnem coniunctionem duplicem in longitudinem diffidit mediamque accomodans ad mediam quasi decusavit,3 deinde in orbem intorsit,  ut et ipsae secum et inter se, ex commissura qua e regione essent, iungerentur, eoque motu, cuius orbis semper in eodem erat eodemque modo ciebatur, undique est eas circumplexus. Atque ita cum alterum esset exteriorem alterum interiorem amplexus orbem,  illum eiusdem naturae, hunc alterius notavit.  eamque quae erat eiusdem detorsit a latere in dexteram partem, hanc autem citimam mediana linea direxit ad laevam. Sed principatum dedit superiori,  quam solam individuam reliquit; interiorem autem cum in sex partis caeli divisisset, septem orbis disparis duplo et triplo intevallo  moveri iussit contrariis inter se cursibus.  Eorum autem trium fecit pares celeritates, set quatuor et inter se se dispares et dissimilis trium reliquorum.  Animum igitur quom ille procreator mundi deus ex sua mente et voluntate genuisset,  tum denique omne quod erat concretum atque corporeum substernebat animo interiusque faciebat atque ita medio medium accommodans copulabat.  Sic animus a medio profectus extremitatem caeli a suprema regione rotundo ambitu circumiecit seseque ipse versans divinum sempiternae sapientisque vitae induxit exordium.  Et corpus quidem caeli spectabile effectum est;  animus autem oculorum effugit optutum, est autem unus ex omnibus rationis concentionisque, quae ἁρμονία Graece, sempiternarum rerum et sub intelligentiam cadentium compos et particeps; quo nihil est ab optimo et praestantissimo genitore melius procreatum:  quippe qui ex eadem iunctus alteraque natura, adiuncta materia, temperatione trium partium pro portione compacta, se ipsa conversans,  cum materiam mutabilem arripuit et cum rursus individuam atque simplicem per quam omnis movetur discernitque quid sit eiusdem generis quid alterius,  et cetera diiudicat, quid quoique rei sit maxime aptum, quid quoque loco aut modo aut tempore contingat, quaeque distinctio sit inter ea quae gignantur et ea quae sint semper eadem.  Ratio autem vera, quae versatur in is quae sunt semper eadem et in is quae mutantur, cum in eodem et in altero movetur ipsa per sese sine voce et sine ullo sono,  cum eandem partem adtingit qua sensus cieri potest, et orbis illius generis alterius inmutatus et rectus omni[a] animo mentique denuntiat, tum opiniones adsensionesque firmae veraeque gignuntur;  cum autem in illis rebus vertitur quae manentes semper eadem non sensu set intellegentia continentur ...  ... 
Haec igitur aeterni dei prospicientia iuxta nativum et umquam futurum deum levem eum et aequiremum indeclivemque et a medietate undique versum aequalem exque perfectis universisque totum perfectumque progenuit.  Animam vero in medietate eius locavit eandemque per omnem globum aequaliter porrigi iussit, quo tectis interioribus partibus extima quoque totius corporis ambitu animae circumdarentur.  Atque ita orbem teretem in orbem atque in suum ambitum voluit converti et moveri solum praecipuum,  qui virtutum praestantia sufficeret conciliationi propriae nec extraordinario cuiusquam indigeret auxilio, amicumque semper sibi;  ideoque summe beatum, divina potentia praeditum, genuit.  Nec tamen eo quo nos ad praesens loquimur ordine ortum animae deus annuit iunioremque et posteriorem corporibus eam fecit – neque enim decebat rem antiquiorem a post genita regi – sed hominibus mos est passim praepostereque et sine observatione ordinis fari:  at vero deus tam antiquitate quam virtutibus praeire animam naturae corporis iussit dominamque eam et principali iure voluit esse circa id quod tuetur.  Itaque tertium animae genus excogitavit hoc pacto. Ex individua semperque in suo statu perseverante substantia itemque alia, quae inseparabilis corporum comes per eadem corpora scindere se putatur, tertium substantiae genus mixtum locavit medium inter utramque substantiam.  eodemque modo ex gemina biformique natura, quippe cuius pars idem, pars diversum vocetur, tertium naturae genus commentus est, 6   quod medium locauit inter indiuiduam et item coniugatione corporea diuiduam substantiam  triaque haec omnia in unam speciem permiscuit diversa illa natura concretioni atque adunationi generum repugnante.  Quibus cum substantia mixtis et ex tribus in unum redactis rursum totum hoc unum divisit in partes competenter, quo singulae partes constarent ex substantia diversique et item eius, quod idem vocatur, gemina natura,  divisionem instaurans hactenus  unam sumpsit ex universo primitus portionem, post quam duplicem eius quam sumpserat, tertiam vero sescuplam quidem secundae, triplam vero primitus sumptae, at vero quartam sumpsit duplicem secundae, quintam triplam tertiae, sexta fuit assumptio partibus septem quam prima propensior, septima sex et viginti partibus quam prima maior.  Quibus ita divisis consequenter complebat interualla duplicis et triplicis quantitatis ex universitate partes secans etiam nunc et ex his intervallorum spatia complens, quo singula intervalla binis medietatibus fulcirentur. Medietatum porro altera quota parte limitis extimi praecellebat unum extimum limitem, tota praecellebatur ab alio extimo limite, altera pari summa et aequali ad numerum modo praecellebat et praecellebatur ab extimis.  Natis itaque limitibus sescuplorum et item eorum quibus accedit pars sui tertia, quod genus a Graecis epitritum dicitur, item eorum quibus accedit pars sui octava, qui numerus epogdous ab isdem vocatur, ex his nexibus illa prima spatia,  id est epogdoi spatiis epitritorum omnium intervalla complebat, ita ut ad perfectam cumulatamque completionem deesset aliquid epitrito, tantum scilicet quantum deest habita comparatione ducentis quadraginta tribus aduersus ducentos quinquaginta sex.  Et iam omne fere commixtum illud genus essentiae consumptum erat huius modi sectionibus partium.  Tunc hanc ipsam seriem in longum secuit et ex una serie duas fecit easque mediam mediae in speciem chi Graecae litterae coartavit curvavitque in orbes,  quoad coirent inter se capita, orbemque orbi sic inseruit, ut alter eorum aduerso, alter obliquo circuitu rotarentur,  et exterioris quidem circuli motum eundem, quod erat eiusdem naturae consanguineus, cognominavit, interioris autem diversum;  atque exteriorem quidem circulum, quem eundem cognominatum esse diximus, a regione dextra per sinistrum latus usque ad dextrum inflexit, diversum vero per diametrum in sinistrum latus eidem et simili illi circumactioni virtute pontificioque rotatus dato.  Unam quippe, ut erat, eam et indivisam reliquit, interiorem vero scidit sexies septemque impares orbes fabricatus est iuxta dupli et tripli spatia  orbesque ipsos contraria ferri iussit agitatione,  ex quibus septem tres quidem pari velocitate, quattuor vero et sibimet ipsis et ad comparationem caeterorum impari dissimilique sed cum ratione motu.  Igitur cum pro voluntate patris cuncta rationabilis animae substantia nasceretur,  aliquanto post omne corporeum intra conseptum eius effinxit mediumque applicans mediae modulamine apto iugabat;  ast illa complectens caeli ultima circumfusaque eidem exteriore complexu operiensque ambitu suo ipsaque in semet convertens divinam originem auspicata est indefessae sapientisque et sine intermissione vitae.  Et corpus quidem caeli sive mundi visibile factum,  ipsa vero invisibilis, rationis tamen et item modulaminis compos cunctis intellegibilibus praestantior a praestantissimo auctore facta.  Ut igitur ex eiusdem et diversi natura cum essentia mixtis coagmentata indigete motu et orbiculata circuitione in se ipsam revertens  cum aliquam vel dissipabilem substantiam offenderit vel individuam, facile recognoscit, quid sit eiusdem individuaeque, quid item diversae dissolubilisque naturae  causasque omnium quae proveniunt videt et ex his quae accidunt quae sint futura metitur,7   motusque eius rationabilis sine voce, sine sono  cum quid sensile spectat circulusque diversi generis sine errore fertur veridico sensu et certa nuntiante cunctae animae, rectae opiniones et dignae credulitate nascuntur;  porro cum individuum genus semperque idem conspexerit, ea quae sunt motu intimo fideliter nuntiante, intellectus et scientia convalescunt.  Quae quidem omnia in anima fieri eidemque insigniri palam est; 
Cum haec igitur deus (16) ille qui semper est, de aliquando futuro deo cogitaret, lenem eum effecit aequalemque, et a (17) medio ad summum undique parem, corpusque ex corporibus totis et perfectis totum atque (18) perfectum:  Animam autem in eius medio collocavit, perque totum pretendit, atque ea corpus (19) ipsum etiam extrinsecus circuntexit,  mundumque hunc unum et solum solitariumque et cir(20)cularum volvi in circulum statuit,  qui propter virtutem secum ipse facile coercere possit, (21) nullius alterius indigens, satisque ipse sibi notus atque amicus.  Itaque omnibus his de causis (22) mundum opifex eius beatum deum effecit:  Sed animam haud ita ut modo dicere caepimus, (23) tum denique cum corpus ei effecisset, procreavit. neque enim quae coniunxit, parere iunio(24)ri antiquius permisillet. Sed nos multa utpote fortunae participes inconsiderate et teme(25)re loquimur.  Ille vero tam generatione quam virtute priorem antiquioremque animam (26) corpore constituit, utpote quae obedienti corpori esset imperatura, ex his videlicet, atque (27) hoc pacto.  Ex ea substantia quae individua et semper eadem similisque est, et ex ea rursus (28) quae circa corpora dividua sit, tertiam substantiae speciem commiscuit mediam,  quae rur(29)sus esset natura ipsius eiusdem, et natura ipsius alterius particeps,  eamque per haec mediam (30) constituit inter individuam substantiam, et eam quae circa cor(31)pus dividitur.  Ea cum tria sumpsisset, in unam speciem omnia (32) temperavit. Ubi naturam eius quod alterum diversumque vo(33)camus, commixtioni repugnantem, cum eo quod idem dicitur (34) vi quadam conciliavit.  Postquam vero duo illa cum substan(35)tia commiscuit, et ex tribus unum fecit, rursus ad totum in ea (36) quae decuit membra partitus est, quorum quodlibet ex tribus, (37) eodem altero, substantiaque constaret.  Fuit autem talis illa par(38)titio.  Unam principio accepit ex universo portionem. Secun(39)dam autem primae partis duplam. Deinde tertiam, quae secun(40)dae sesquialtera esset, primae tripla. Postea quartam, secundae du(41)plam. Quintam deinceps tertiae triplam. Sextam primae octo(41)plam. Postremo septimam, quae partibus sex et viginti primam (42) excederet.  Post haec dupla et tripla intervalla replevit, partes (43) rursus ex toto desecans, quas intervallis ita locavit, ut bina es(44)sent in singulis media, sive ut ita dixerim, medietates : quarum (44) una eadem parte excedit alterum extremorum, eadem ab alte(45)ro superatur. Altera medietas pari numero extremo unum (46) superat, pari superatur ab altero.  Cum vero sesquialtera inter(47)valla, sesquitertia sesquioctava subsisset, ex his nexibus in (48) primis spatiis,  sesquioctavo intervallo sesquitertia omnia ex (49) plebat, particula singulorum relicta. Huius autem particulae (50) intervallo assumpto ea inde habebatur numeri ad numerum (51) in terminis comparatio, quae est inter ducentos quinquaginta sex, (711,1) et ducentos quadraginta tres.  Iam vero commi(2)xtum illud unde ista secernebat totum, huiusmodi par(3)tium sectione consumptum erat.  Tunc seriem hanc uni(4)versam in longum secuit, et ex una duas fecit, mediam(5)que mediae in speciem X Graecae literae acommodavit. (6) Deinde in orbem intorsit,  quoad ita coirent inter se ca(7)pita, ut lineae ipsae et secum et inter se invicem eregione (8) intersectionis ipsius coniungerentur, atque eo motu qui (9) in eodem et similiter semper revolvitur, undique est e(10)as circumplexus: et circulorum alterum eteriorem, in(11)teriorem alterum fecit.  Exteriorem quidem lationem (12) eiusdem naturae, interiorem vero alterius nominavit.  atque illam quae erat ipsius eiusdem naturae cognata, in (14) latus ad dexteram partem: eam vero quae alterius, per diametrum ad laevam flexit. Sed (15) principatum dedit eius ipsius similisque agitationi.  Eam namque solam indivisam re(16)liquit, interiorem vero cum sexies divisisset, septemque orbes inaequales dupli et tripli in(17)tervallis effecisset,  singula cum tria sunt utriusque contrariis inter se cursibus orbes pera(18)gere iussit,  et ex septem interioribus tres quidem pari celeritate, quattuor vero et ad se (19) et ad reliquos tres celeritate quidem impari, debita tamen ratione converti.  Postquam (20) igitur secundum creatoris illius mentem tota animae constituo absoluta fuit,  mox omne (21) corporeum intra ipsam efinxit, mediumque mediae accommodans apto modulamine co-(22)pulavit.  At illa medio per omne usque ad caeli extrema se porrigens, eique extrinsecus cir(23)cumfusa, seque in seipsa convertens, ita sempiternae sapientisque vitae in universum tempus (24) divinum dedit exordium.  Et corpus quidem caeli spectabile factum,  anima vera ocu(25)lorum effugit obutum, rationis et modulaminis compos ab auctore suo omnium quae (26) semper sunt et ad intelligentiam pertinent optimo, ipsa quoque optima omnium quae ge(27)nita sunt effecta.  Quoniam igitur ex tribus partibus, eodem scilicet, et altero, et essentia, (28) constata est, ratione proportionis distincta atque compacta, necnon in seipsam orbe reflecti(29)tur,  quotiens aliquid attingit quod essentiam dividuam habet et quod individuam, in (30) seipsam omnino conversa quid sit utrumque discernit, et quid idem sit, a quo alterum (31) et diversum,  ad quid quaeque, et obi, quomodo, et quando esse huiusmodi aliquid vel pati (32) contingat, tam in iis quae gignuntur, quam in illis quae semper sunt eadem.  Ratio porro ad (33) ipsum quod idem vergens atque veridica, tam circa alterum quam circa idem versata, et si(34)ne sono strepituque omni in eo quod seipso movetur revoluta,  quando ad sensibile aliquid (35) se convertit, si tunc etiam alterius diversaeque naturae circulus recte per omnem ipsius ani(36)mam rem ipsam nuntiet, opiniones fideique asensiones firmas verasque producit.  Quando (37) rursus circa rationale se versat, et ipsius quod idem est circulus se apte revolvens rem de(38)nuntiat, intellectus necessario scientiaque perficitur.  Haec quisquis in alia quam in ani(39)ma fieri dixerit, a vero penitus aberrabit. 
[In the centre was placed the soul, which pervaded the whole, and even surrounded it. ]Such was the whole plan of the eternal God about the god that was to be, to whom for this reason he gave a body, smooth and even, having a surface in every direction equidistant from the centre, a body entire and perfect, and formed out of perfect bodies.  And in the centre he put the soul, which he diffused throughout the body, making it also to be the exterior environment of it;  and he made the universe a circle moving in a circle, one and solitary,  yet by reason of its excellence able to converse with itself, and needing no other friendship or acquaintance.  Having these purposes in view he created the world a blessed god.  [It was created thus. First out of the indivisible (i.e. the Same) and the divisible (i.e. the Other) God made Essence. He then mingled these three elements and divided the whole mixture into parts, according to the proportions of the Pythagorean Tetractys and of the Diatonic scale. The compound was cut into two strips, which were crossed and then bent round into an outer circle, revolving to the right (i.e. the circle of the Same), and an inner, revolving diagonally to the left (i.e. the circle of the Other). The latter was subdivided into seven unequal circles (i.e. the orbits of the seven planets).]
Now God did not make the soul after the body, although we are speaking of them in this order; for having brought them together he would never have allowed that the elder should be ruled by the younger; but this is a random manner of speaking which we have, because somehow we ourselves too are very much under the dominion of chance. 
Whereas he made the soul in origin and excellence prior to and older than the body, to be the ruler and mistress, of whom the body was to be the subject. And he made her out of the (35) following elements and on this wise:  Out of the indivisible and unchangeable, and also out of that which is divisible and has to do with material bodies, he compounded a third and intermediate kind of essence,  partaking of the nature of the same and of the other,  and this compound he placed accordingly in a mean between the indivisible, and the divisible and material.  He took the three elements of the same, the other, and the essence, and mingled them into one form, compressing by force the reluctant and unsociable nature of the other into the same.  When he had mingled them with the essence and out of three made one, he again divided this whole into as many portions as was fitting, each portion being a compound of the same, the other, and the essence.  And he proceeded to divide after this manner:  — First of all, he took away one part of the whole [1], and then he separated a second part which was double the first [2], and then he took away a third part which was half as much again as the second and three times as much as the first [3], and then he took a fourth part which was twice as much as the second [4], and a fifth part which was three times the third [9], and a sixth part which was eight times the first [8], and a seventh part which was twenty-seven times the first [27].  After this (36) he filled up the double intervals [i.e. between 1, 2, 4, 8] and the triple [i.e. between 1, 3, 9, 27], cutting off yet other portions from the mixture and placing them in the intervals, so that in each interval there were two kinds of means, the one exceeding and exceeded by equal parts of its extremes [as for example 1, 4/3, 2, in which the mean 4/3 is one-third of 1 more than 1, and one-third of 2 less than 2], the other being that kind of mean which exceeds and is exceeded by an equal number.   Where there were intervals of 3/2 and of 4/3 and of 9/8, made by the connecting terms in the former intervals,  Where there were intervals of 3/2 and of 4/3 and of 9/8, made by the connecting terms in the former intervals, he filled up all the intervals of 4/3 with the interval of 9/8, leaving a fraction over; and the interval which this fraction expressed was in the ratio of 256 to 243.  And thus the whole mixture out of which he cut these portions was all exhausted by him.  This entire compound he divided length-ways into two parts, which he joined to one another at the centre like the letter X, and bent them into a circular form,  connecting them with themselves and each other at the point opposite to their original meeting-point; and, comprehending them in a uniform revolution upon the same axis, he made the one the outer and the other the inner circle.  Now the motion of the outer circle he called the motion of the same, and the motion of the inner circle the motion of the other or diverse.  The motion of the same he carried round by the side to the right, and the motion of the diverse diagonally to the left. And he gave dominion to the motion of the same and like,  for that he left single and undivided; but the inner motion he divided in six places and made seven unequal circles having their intervals in ratios of two and three,  three of each, and bade the orbits proceed in a direction opposite to one another;  and three [Sun, Mercury, Venus] he made to move with equal swiftness, and the remaining four [Moon, Saturn, Mars, Jupiter] to move with unequal swiftness to the three and to one another, but in due proportion.  (After framing the soul, God formed within her the body of the universe. The soul, being compounded of the Same, the Other, and the Essence, is moved to utter the sameness or otherness of any essence which she touches. When contemplating the sensible world, she attains to true opinion; when the rational, to knowledge.) Now when the Creator had framed the soul according to his will,  he formed within her the corporeal universe, and brought the two together, and united them centre to centre.  The soul, interfused everywhere from the centre to the circumference of heaven, of which also she is the external envelopment, herself turning in herself, began a divine beginning of never-ceasing and rational life enduring throughout all time.  The body of heaven is visible,  but the soul is invisible, and partakes of reason and harmony, and being made by the best of intellectual and everlasting natures, is the best of things created.  And because she is composed of the same and of the other and of the essence, these three, and is divided and united in due proportion, and in her revolutions returns upon herself,  the soul, when touching anything which has essence, whether dispersed in parts or undivided, is stirred through all her powers, to declare the sameness or difference of that thing and some other;  and to what individuals are related, and by what affected, and in what way and how and when, both in the world of generation and in the world of immutable being.  And when reason, which works with equal truth, whether she be in the circle of the diverse or of the same — in voiceless silence holding her onward course in the sphere of the self-moved —  when reason, I say, is hovering around the sensible world and when the circle of the diverse also moving truly imparts the intimations of sense to the whole soul, then arise opinions and beliefs sure and certain.  But when reason is concerned with the rational, and the circle of the same moving smoothly declares it, then intelligence and knowledge are necessarily perfected.  And if any one affirms that in which these two are found to be other than the soul, he will say the very opposite of the truth. 
Diese ganze Erwägung nun also desjenigen Gottes, welcher von Ewigkeit ist, wie derselbe sie über denjenigen Gott anstellte, welcher erst ins Dasein eintreten sollte, bewirkte, daß der Körper der Welt glatt und eben und überall gleich weit vom Mittelpunkte abstehend und in sich geschlossen und vollständig aus Körpern, die schon selber vollständig waren, gebildet wurde.  Die Seele aber pflanzte er in die Mitte desselben ein und spannte sie nicht bloß durch das ganze Weltall aus, sondern umkleidete den Weltkörper auch noch von außen mit ihr.  Und so richtete er denn das Weltganze her als einen im Kreise sich drehenden Umkreis,  Und so richtete er denn das Weltganze her als einen im Kreise sich drehenden Umkreis, welcher, einzig und einsam, durch seine Vortrefflichkeit mit sich selber des Umgangs zu pflegen vermag und keines Anderen dazu bedarf, sondern hinlänglich bekannt und befreundet ist allein mit sich selber,  und durch alle diese Veranstaltungen schuf er es zu einem seligen Gotte.  Die Seele hat nun aber nicht etwa, wie wir jetzt später von ihr zu reden beginnen, so auch der Gott erst nach dem Körper gebildet, denn nicht würde er bei der Zusammenfügung beider zugelassen haben, daß das Altere von dem Jüngeren beherrscht werde, sondern wir, wie wir vielfach vom Zufall und Ohngefähr abhängig sind, reden nur gerade eben auf dem entsprechende Weise,  er dagegen fügte die Seele so, daß sie ihrer Entstehung so wie ihrer Vortrefflichkeit nach dem Körper voranging und ihm gegenüber die dem höheren Alter zustehende Würde empfing, [35 St.] als seine künftige Herrin und Gebieterin aus folgenden Bestandteilen und auf folgende Weise zusammen.  Aus beiden, nämlich aus der unteilbaren und immer sich gleich bleibenden Wesenheit und sodann derjenigen, welche an den Körpern teilbar wird, mischte er eine dritte Art von Wesenheit zusammen, welche die Mitte hielt  zwischen der Natur des Selbigen und der des Anderen,  und stellte sie demgemäß in Einer Reihe hin, so daß unter ihnen jene die Mitte einnahm zwischen dem Unteilbaren und dem an den Körpern haftenden Geteilten.  Darauf nahm er alle drei und mischte sie zu einer einzigen Gestaltung zusammen, indem er die der Mischung widerstrebende Natur des Anderen gewaltsam mit dem Selbigen verträglich machte.  Und nachdem er so beide mit der Substanz gemischt und so aus Dreien Eins gemacht hatte, teilte er wiederum dieses Ganze in so viel Teile als es sich gehörte, so aber, daß ein jeder aus dem Selbigen, dem Anderen und der Substanz zusammengesetzt war.  Er begann aber diese Teilung folgendermaßen.  Zuerst nahm er einen Teil von dem Ganzen weg, darauf das Doppelte desselben, zum Dritten sodann das Anderthalbfache des zweiten Teils, zum Vierten das Doppelte des zweiten, zum Fünften das Dreifache des dritten, zum Sechsten das Achtfache des ersten und zum Siebten das Siebenundzwanzigfache des ersten.  [36 St.] Hierauf füllte er sowohl die zweifachen als dreifachen Zwischenräume aus, indem er noch weitere Teile vom Ganzen abschnitt und sie in die Mitte von ihnen hineinsetzte, so daß in jedem Zwischenraume zwei Mittelglieder waren, von denen das eine um den gleichen Bruchteil der äußeren Glieder das eine der letzteren übertraf und von andern übertroffen wurde, das andere aber um eine gleiche Zahl.  Da nun aber Zwischenräume von 3/2, 4/3 und 9/8 durch diese Verbindungsglieder innerhalb der früheren Zwischenräume entstanden waren,  so füllte er mit dem Zwischenraume von 9/8 alle Zwischenräume von 4/3 aus und ließ so von einem jeden der letzteren noch Einen Teil übrig, so daß der Zwischenraum dieses Teiles, in Zahlen ausgedrückt, dem Verhältnisse der Glieder 243 zu 256 entsprach.  Und damit hatte er denn auch die Mischung, von welcher er alle diese Teile hinwegnahm, ganz und gar verbraucht.  Dies ganze so zusammengefügte Gebilde aber spaltete er hierauf der Länge nach in zwei Teile, verband dieselben kreuzweise in ihrer Mitte, so daß sie die Gestalt eines Chi (X) bildeten, und bog dann jeden von beiden in einen Kreis zusammen,  so daß er also jeden mit sich selbst und beide mit einander in dem Punkte, welcher ihrer Durchschneidung gegenüberlag, verknüpfte, umschloß beide mit der auf dieselbe Weise und in demselben Räume herumgeführten Bewegung und machte den einen dieser Kreise zum äußeren und den andern zum inneren.  Den Umlauf sodann, der im äußeren, und den, der im inneren Kreise vor sich ging, benannte er nach den beiden Wesenheiten, von welchen sie herrührten, jenen den des Selbigen und diesen den des Anderen,  und führte den ersteren in der Richtung der Seite nach rechts herum, den letzteren aber in der Richtung der Diagonale nach links. Das Übergewicht aber verlieh er dem des Selbigen und Gleichartigen,  denn er beließ ihn in ungeteilter Einheit; den inneren aber spaltete er sechsfach und teilte ihn so in sieben ungleiche Kreise, je nach den Zwischenräumen des Zweifachen und Dreifachen,  und setzte fest, daß zwar einander entgegengesetzt die Kreise sich bewegen sollten,  drei aber an Geschwindigkeit gleich, vier hingegen unter sich und von den dreien verschieden, jedoch so, daß sie sich nach einem bestimmten Verhältnisse bewegten.  Nachdem nun nach dem Sinne des Meisters die ganze Zusammenfügung der Seele erfolgt war,  bildete er hierauf alles, was körperlich ist, innerhalb derselben und fügte es so zusammen, daß es dieselbe mitten durchdrang.  Sie selbst aber, die sie nicht bloß das ganze Weltgebäude überall von der Mitte bis zum Umkreise durchflocht, sondern es auch von außen her ringsherum einschloß und die sie rein in sich selber ihren Kreislauf vollbrachte, nahm in dieser Weise den göttlichen Anfang eines unvergänglichen und vernunftbegabten Lebens für alle Zeiten.  Und der Körper der Welt ward, wie gesagt, sichtbar,  sie selbst aber zwar unsichtbar, aber, was sie eben erst zur Seele macht, der Vernunft und Harmonie der reinen Gedankenwelt und des ewig Seienden teilhaftig und so durch den edelsten Schöpfer das Edelste von allem Geschaffenen.  Da sie nämlich aus der Natur des Selbigen und des Anderen und der Seelensubstanz, also aus ihrer drei Teilen, zusammengemischt und nach festen Verhältnissen geteilt und verbunden ist, und da sie in ihrem Kreislaufe in sich selber stets zu sich selber zurückkehrt,  so wird sie, wenn sie mit irgend etwas in Berührung tritt, mag nun dasselbe ein teilbares Wesen haben oder ein unteilbares, durch ihr ganzes Selbst hindurch bewegt und gibt eben hierdurch kund, womit nur immer irgend etwas Dasselbige oder wovon es verschieden ist,  und in was für Beziehung vornehmlich und auf welche Art und Weise und wann für dasselbe der Fall eintritt, was immer und im Verhältnis zu wem immer sowohl von dem Werdenden als auch von dem immer sich Gleichbleibenden zu sein sowie zu erleiden.  Wird nun aber diese Kundgebung, welche das durch sich selber Bewegte ohne Laut und Schall in sich trägt, auf gleiche Weise wahr, mag sie nun auf das Andere oder auf das Selbige sich beziehen,  so entstehen, wenn sie auf das sinnlich Wahrnehmbare gerichtet ist und der Kreislauf des Anderen im richtigen Gange die Kunde der Sache durch die ganze Seele verbreitet hat, sichere und richtige Vorstellungen und Meinungen;  wenn sie aber auf das Vernünftige sich erstreckt und der Kreislauf des Selbigen, indem er wohl vonstatten gegangen, ihr solche Kunde gebracht hat, dann kommt notwendig vernünftige Einsicht und Wissenschaft zustande.  Wenn aber einer von allem, was da ist, dasjenige, in welchem diese so wie jene entstehen, anders als Seele nennen wollte, so würde er alles eher als die Wahrheit sagen. 
(χρόνος) Ὡς δὲ κινηθὲν αὐτὸ καὶ ζῶν ἐνόησεν τῶν ἀϊδίων θεῶν γεγονὸς ἄγαλμα ὁ γεννήσας πατήρ, ἠγάσθη τε καὶ εὐφρανθεὶς ἔτι δὴ μᾶλλον ὅμοιον πρὸς τὸ παράδειγμα ἐπενόησεν ἀπεργάσασθαι.  καθάπερ οὖν αὐτὸ τυγχάνει ζῷον ἀίδιον ὄν, καὶ τόδε τὸ πᾶν οὕτως εἰς δύναμιν ἐπεχείρησε τοιοῦτον ἀποτελεῖν.  ἡ μὲν οὖν τοῦ ζῴου φύσις ἐτύγχανεν οὖσα αἰώνιος, καὶ τοῦτο μὲν δὴ τῷ γεννητῷ παντελῶς προσάπτειν οὐκ ἦν δυνατόν·  εἰκὼ δ’ ἐπενόει κινητόν τινα αἰῶνος ποιῆσαι, καὶ διακοσμῶν ἅμα οὐρανὸν ποιεῖ μένοντος αἰῶνος ἐν ἑνὶ κατ’ ἀριθμὸν ἰοῦσαν αἰώνιον εἰκόνα, τοῦτον ὃν δὴ χρόνον ὠνομάκαμεν.  ἡμέρας γὰρ καὶ νύκτας καὶ μῆνας καὶ ἐνιαυτούς, οὐκ ὄντας πρὶν οὐρανὸν γενέσθαι, τότε ἅμα ἐκείνῳ συνισταμένῳ τὴν γένεσιν αὐτῶν μηχανᾶται·  ταῦτα δὲ πάντα μέρη χρόνου, καὶ τό τ’ ἦν τό τ’ ἔσται χρόνου γεγονότα εἴδη, ἃ δὴ φέροντες λανθάνομεν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀίδιον οὐσίαν οὐκ ὀρθῶς.  λέγομεν γὰρ δὴ ὡς ἦν ἔστιν τε καὶ ἔσται, τῇ δὲ τὸ ἔστιν μόνον κατὰ τὸν ἀληθῆ λόγον προσήκει,  τὸ δὲ ἦν τό τ’ ἔσται περὶ τὴν ἐν χρόνῳ γένεσιν ἰοῦσαν πρέπει λέγεσθαι - κινήσεις γάρ ἐστον,  τὸ δὲ ἀεὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἔχον ἀκινήτως οὔτε πρεσβύτερον οὔτε νεώτερον προσήκει γίγνεσθαι διὰ χρόνου οὐδὲ γενέσθαι ποτὲ οὐδὲ γεγονέναι νῦν οὐδ’ εἰς αὖθις ἔσεσθαι,  τὸ παράπαν τε οὐδὲν ὅσα γένεσις τοῖς ἐν αἰσθήσει φερομένοις προσῆψεν,  ἀλλὰ χρόνου ταῦτα αἰῶνα μιμουμένου καὶ κατ’ ἀριθμὸν κυκλουμένου γέγονεν εἴδη -  καὶ πρὸς τούτοις ἔτι τὰ τοιάδε, τό τε γεγονὸς εἶναι γεγονὸς καὶ τὸ γιγνόμενον εἶναι γιγνόμενον, ἔτι τε τὸ γενησόμενον εἶναι γενησόμενον καὶ τὸ μὴ ὂν μὴ ὂν εἶναι, ὧν οὐδὲν ἀκριβὲς λέγομεν.  περὶ μὲν οὖν τούτων τάχ’ ἂν οὐκ εἴη καιρὸς πρέπων ἐν τῷ παρόντι διακριβολογεῖσθαι.  Χρόνος δ’ οὖν μετ’ οὐρανοῦ γέγονεν, ἵνα ἅμα γεννηθέντες ἅμα καὶ λυθῶσιν, ἄν ποτε λύσις τις αὐτῶν γίγνηται,  καὶ κατὰ τὸ παράδειγμα τῆς διαιωνίας φύσεως, ἵν’ ὡς ὁμοιότατος αὐτῷ κατὰ δύναμιν ᾖ·  τὸ μὲν γὰρ δὴ παράδειγμα πάντα αἰῶνά ἐστιν ὄν, ὁ δ’ αὖ διὰ τέλους τὸν ἅπαντα χρόνον γεγονώς τε καὶ ὢν καὶ ἐσόμενος.  ἐξ οὖν λόγου καὶ διανοίας θεοῦ τοιαύτης πρὸς χρόνου γένεσιν, ἵνα γεννηθῇ χρόνος,  ἥλιος καὶ σελήνη καὶ πέντε ἄλλα ἄστρα, ἐπίκλην ἔχοντα πλανητά, εἰς διορισμὸν καὶ φυλακὴν ἀριθμῶν χρόνου γέγονεν·  σώματα δὲ αὐτῶν ἑκάστων ποιήσας ὁ θεὸς ἔθηκεν εἰς τὰς περιφορὰς ἃς ἡ θατέρου περίοδος ᾔειν, ἑπτὰ οὔσας ὄντα ἑπτά,  σελήνην μὲν εἰς τὸν περὶ γῆν πρῶτον, ἥλιον δὲ εἰς τὸν δεύτερον ὑπὲρ γῆς, ἑωσφόρον δὲ καὶ τὸν ἱερὸν Ἑρμοῦ λεγόμενον εἰς τὸν τάχει μὲν ἰσόδρομον ἡλίῳ κύκλον ἰόντας, τὴν δὲ ἐναντίαν εἰληχότας αὐτῷ δύναμιν·  ὅθεν καταλαμβάνουσίν τε καὶ καταλαμβάνονται κατὰ ταὐτὰ ὑπ’ ἀλλήλων ἥλιός τε καὶ ὁ τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ καὶ ἑωσφόρος.  τὰ δ’ ἄλλα οἷ δὴ καὶ δι’ ἃς αἰτίας ἱδρύσατο, εἴ τις ἐπεξίοι πάσας, ὁ λόγος πάρεργος ὢν πλέον ἂν ἔργον ὧν ἕνεκα λέγεται παράσχοι.  ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ἴσως τάχ’ ἂν κατὰ σχολὴν ὕστερον τῆς ἀξίας τύχοι διηγήσεως·  ἐπειδὴ δὲ οὖν εἰς τὴν ἑαυτῷ πρέπουσαν ἕκαστον ἀφίκετο φορὰν τῶν ὅσα ἔδει συναπεργάζεσθαι χρόνον,  δεσμοῖς τε ἐμψύχοις σώματα δεθέντα ζῷα ἐγεννήθη τό τε προσταχθὲν ἔμαθεν,  κατὰ δὴ τὴν θατέρου φορὰν πλαγίαν οὖσαν,  διὰ τῆς ταὐτοῦ φορᾶς ἰούσης τε καὶ κρατουμένης, τὸ μὲν μείζονα αὐτῶν, τὸ δ’ ἐλάττω κύκλον ἰόν, θᾶττον μὲν τὰ τὸν ἐλάττω, τὰ δὲ τὸν μείζω βραδύτερον περιῄειν.  τῇ δὴ ταὐτοῦ φορᾷ τὰ τάχιστα περιιόντα ὑπὸ τῶν βραδύτερον ἰόντων ἐφαίνετο καταλαμβάνοντα καταλαμβάνεσθαι·  πάντας γὰρ τοὺς κύκλους αὐτῶν στρέφουσα ἕλικα διὰ τὸ διχῇ κατὰ τὰ ἐναντία ἅμα προϊέναι τὸ βραδύτατα ἀπιὸν ἀφ’ αὑτῆς οὔσης ταχίστης ἐγγύτατα ἀπέφαινεν.  ἵνα δ’ εἴη μέτρον ἐναργές τι πρὸς ἄλληλα βραδυτῆτι καὶ τάχει καὶ τὰ περὶ τὰς ὀκτὼ φορὰς πορεύοιτο, φῶς ὁ θεὸς ἀνῆψεν ἐν τῇ πρὸς γῆν δευτέρᾳ τῶν περιόδων, ὃ δὴ νῦν κεκλήκαμεν ἥλιον,   ἵνα ὅτι μάλιστα εἰς ἅπαντα φαίνοι τὸν οὐρανὸν μετάσχοι τε ἀριθμοῦ τὰ ζῷα ὅσοις ἦν προσῆκον, μαθόντα παρὰ τῆς ταὐτοῦ καὶ ὁμοίου περιφορᾶς.  νὺξ μὲν οὖν ἡμέρα τε γέγονεν οὕτως καὶ διὰ ταῦτα, ἡ τῆς μιᾶς καὶ φρονιμωτάτης κυκλήσεως περίοδος·  μεὶς δὲ ἐπειδὰν σελήνη περιελθοῦσα τὸν ἑαυτῆς κύκλον ἥλιον ἐπικαταλάβῃ, ἐνιαυτὸς δὲ ὁπόταν ἥλιος τὸν ἑαυτοῦ περιέλθῃ κύκλον.  τῶν δ’ ἄλλων τὰς περιόδους οὐκ ἐννενοηκότες ἄνθρωποι, πλὴν ὀλίγοι τῶν πολλῶν, οὔτε ὀνομάζουσιν οὔτε πρὸς ἄλληλα συμμετροῦνται σκοποῦντες ἀριθμοῖς,  ὥστε ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν οὐκ ἴσασιν χρόνον ὄντα τὰς τούτων πλάνας, πλήθει μὲν ἀμηχάνῳ χρωμένας, πεποικιλμένας δὲ θαυμαστῶς·  ἔστιν δ’ ὅμως οὐδὲν ἧττον κατανοῆσαι δυνατὸν ὡς ὅ γε τέλεος ἀριθμὸς χρόνου τὸν τέλεον ἐνιαυτὸν πληροῖ τότε, ὅταν ἁπασῶν τῶν ὀκτὼ περιόδων τὰ πρὸς ἄλληλα συμπερανθέντα τάχη σχῇ κεφαλὴν τῷ τοῦ ταὐτοῦ καὶ ὁμοίως ἰόντος ἀναμετρηθέντα κύκλῳ.  κατὰ ταῦτα δὴ καὶ τούτων ἕνεκα ἐγεννήθη τῶν ἄστρων ὅσα δι’ οὐρανοῦ πορευόμενα ἔσχεν τροπάς,  ἵνα τόδε ὡς ὁμοιότατον ᾖ τῷ τελέῳ καὶ νοητῷ ζῴῳ πρὸς τὴν τῆς διαιωνίας μίμησιν φύσεως. 
... gaudio elatus ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  Ratione igitur et mente divina ad originem temporis  [curris] curriculum inventum est solis et lunae ...  ... alterius natura converteret,  ut terram lunae cursus proxime ambiret, eique supra terram proxima solis circumvectio esset; Lucifer deinde et sancta Mercuri stella cursum habent solis celeritati parem sed vim quandam contrariam,  eaque inter se concursationes habent lucifer Mercurius sol, aliique alios vincunt vicissimque vincuntur.  Reliquorum siderum quae causa collocandi fuerit quaeque eorum sit conlocatio, in sermonem alium differendum est, ne in eo quod adtigendum fuit quam in eo quoius causa id adtingimus longior ponatur oratio.    Quando igitur sibi quidque eorum siderum cursum decorum est adeptum, ex quibus erat motus temporis consignandus,  conligatisque corporibus vinculis animalibus cum animantia orta sunt eaque imperio parere didicerunt,   tunc ex alterius naturae motione transversa  in eiusdem naturae motum incurrentia in eaque haerentia atque inpedita, cum alia maiorem lustrarent orbem alia minorem, tardius quae maiorem celerius quae minorem,  motu unius eiusdemque naturae quae velocissume movebantur ea celeritate vinci a tardioribus et cum superabant superari videbantur;  omnis enim orbis eorum quasi helicae inflexione vertebat, quia bifariam contrarie simul procedentia efficiebant ut quod esset tardissimum id proximum fieri videretur celerrimo.  atque ut esset mensura quaedam evidens quae in octo cursibus celeritates tarditatesque declararet, deus ipse solem quasi lumen accendit ad secundum supra terram ambitum,   ut quam maxime caelum omnibus conluceret animantesque, quibus ius esset doceri, ab eiusdem motu et ab eo quod simile esset numerorum naturam vimque cognoscerent.  Nox igitur et dies ad hunc modum et ob has generata causas unum circumitum orbis efficit sapientissimum atque optimum,  mensis autem quando luna lustrato suo cursu solem consecuta est, annus ubi sol suum totum confecit et peragravit orbem.  Ceterorum autem siderum ambitus ignorantes homines preater admodum paucos neque nomen appellant neque inter se numero commetiuntur;  itaque nesciunt hos siderum errores id ipsum esse quod rite dicitur tempus, multitudine infinita varietate admirabili praeditos;  ac tamen illud perspici et intellegi potest absoluto perfectoque numero temporis absolutum annum perfectumque tunc conpleri denique cum se octo ambitus confectis suis cursibus ad idem caput retulerunt cumque eos per mensos est idem et semper sui similis orbis.  Has igitur ob causas nata astra sunt quae per caelum penetrantia solistiali se et brumali revocatione converterent,  ut hoc omne animal quod videmus esset illi animali quod sentimus ad aeternitatis imitationem simillimum. 
quam cum moveri et vivere animadverteret factum a se simulacrum immortalis divinitatis genitor suus, hilaratus impendio multo magis ad exemplum eius aemulae similitudinis aliud specimen censuit excogitandum.  Ut igitur haec immortalis et sempiterna, sic mundum quoque sensibilem animal immortale constituit.  Sed animal quidem, id quod est generale animal, natura aevoque exaequaturum; nam facto nativoque operi cum aevo societas congruere minime videbatur.  Quapropter imaginem eius mobilem numeroque serpentem factae a se machinae deus sociabat eam quae tempus dicitur, aevo intacto et in singularitate perseverante.  Dies enim et noctes et menses et annos, qui ante caelestem exornationem non erant, tunc nascente mundo iussit existere;  quae omnia partes sunt temporis, nosque haec cum aevo assignamus, id est solitariae naturae, non recte partes individuae rei fingimus.  Dicimus enim "fuit est erit", ast illi esse solum competit iuxta veram sinceramque rationem,  fuisse vero et fore deinceps non competit. Haec quippe geniturae temporis proprie sunt. motus enim sunt unus praetereuntis, alter imminentis non aevi sed temporis;  aevi quippe mansio perpetua et immutabilis. Ergo neque iunior se neque senior nec fuit nec erit  nec patietur eorum aliquid quae sensibilis natura patitur,  sed sunt haec omnia vices temporis imitantis aevum.  ...  Ac de his quidem fors erit aptior deinceps disputandi locus.  Tempus vero caelo aequaevum est, ut una orta una dissolvantur, si modo dissolvi ratio fasque patietur,  simul ut aevitatis exemplo similis esset uterque mundus;  archetypus quippe omni aevo semper existens est, hic sensibilis imagoque eius. 8 Is est qui per omne tempus fuerit, quippe et futurus sit.  Hac igitur dei ratione consilioque huius modi genituram temporis volentis creari  sol et luna et aliae quinque stellae quae vocantur erraticae factae sunt, quo tam partes temporis notarentur certa dimensione quam reditus anfractusque temporarii sub numeri comprehensionem venirent,  corporaque siderea fabricatus assignavit vitalibus diversae naturae motibus numero septem totidem corpora,  lunae quidem iuxta terram in prima circumactione, solis vero in secunda, tum Luciferi et Mercurii collocat ignes in eo motu qui concurrit quidem solstitiali circuitioni, contraria tamen ab eo circumfertur agitatione;  quare fit, ut comprehendant se invicem et a se rursum comprehendantur hae stellae.  Caeteros quoque siderum ortus et progressiones divinae rationis ductu digessit in ordinem. Cuius exornationis causam explicare si quis velit, plus erit opere ipso quod operis gratia sumitur;  verum haec, si erunt ad id quo de agitur utilia, post exequemur.  Igitur singulis universisque apto et decenti sibi motu locatis, videlicet iis quae consequens erat tempori provenire,  nexibusque vitalibus ubi constricta corpora facta sunt animalia imperatumque didicerunt,  ea quae diversae naturae motus obliquus  per directum eiusdem naturae motum vertens semet utpote constrictus circumferebat partim maiore partim minore circulo rotabantur, citius quidem dimensum spatium peragentia quae minore, tardius vero quae maiore, utpote ambitu circumacta prolixiore.  Qua de causa fiebat, ut ex uniformi eiusdem naturae conversione quae citius circuirent ab his quae tardius circumferrentur comprehendentia comprehendi viderentur.  Omnes quippe circulos eorum uniformis et inerrabilis illa conversio vertens in spiram et velut sinuosum acanthi volumen, quia gemino et contrario motu ferebantur, tum ipsa etiam cita et volucris ea quae tardius a se recedebant proxima sibi semper ex consecutione faciebat.  Atque ut rationabilis et consulta haec motuum varietas et moderatio visu quoque notaretur omniumque octo motuum perspicua esset chorea, ignivit lucem clarissimam deus rerum conditor e regione secundi a terra globi, quam lucem solem vocamus,  cuius splendore caelum infraque illustrarentur omnia numerusque omnium extaret animantium.  Hinc ergo noctis dieique ortus ex eodem semper et inerrabili motu factus rata alterna lucis atque umbrarum successione, 9   mensis vero proventus, cum lustrato luna circulo suo solem consequitur, anni, cum sol item emensis anfractibus renovat exordia;  caeterarum vero stellarum circuitus neque notant neque dinumerant homines exceptis paucis 10   nec intellegunt discursus erroresque earum temporis esse genituram, in quo sit admiranda varietas proventuum caelestes tramites undique stellis variantibus.  Est tamen intellectu facile, quod perfectus temporis numerus perfectum annum compleat tunc demum, cum omnium octo circumactionum cursus peracti velut ad originem atque exordium circumactionis alterius revertentur, quam semper idem atque uniformis motus dimetietur;  quam ob causam caetera quoque nata sunt astra, quae per caelum meantia conversiones habent,  ut quam simillimum esset omne hoc perfecto illi quod mente perspicitur animali aevoque exaequatae naturae temporis socia natura nancisceretur imaginem. 
Cum igitur hoc a se factum sempiternorum de(40)orum pulchrum simulacrum moveri et vivere pater ille qui genuit animadverteret de(41)lectatus est opere, et hac ductus laetitia opus suo multo etiam magis primo illi exempla(42)ri simile reddere cogitavit.  Itaque quemadmodum illud sempiternum animal est ita u(43)niversum hoc pro viribus tale facere statuit.  Illius quidem animalis aeterna natura est: (44) quod genito operi congruere omnino non potest.  Idcirco imaginem aevi mobilem fin(45)gere decrevit ac dum caelum exornaret, fecit aeternitatis in unitate menentis aeternam (46) quandam in numero fluentem imaginem, quam nos tempus vocamus.  Dies porro et no(47)ctes, et menses, et annos, qui ante caelum non erat, tunc nascente mundo nasci iussit.  quae (48) omnia temporis partes sunt. Atqui erat et erit, quae nati temporis species sunt, non recte (49) aeternae substantiae assignamus.  Dicimus enim de illa, est, erat, et erit. Sed illi revera solum (50) esse competit.  Fuisse vero et fore deinceps, ad generationem tempore procedentem re(51)ferre debemus. Motus enim quidam duo illa sunt.  Aeterna autem substantia cum eadem (52) semper et immobilis perseveret, neque senior seipsa fit umquam neque iunior, neque fuit hacte(53)nus, neque erit in posterum,  neque recipit eorum quicquam, quibus res corporeae mobilisque (54) ex ipsa generationis conditione subiciuntur.  Nempe haec omnia temporis imitantis (712,1) aevum, seque numero se revolventis, species sunt.  Saepe etiam dicimus quod factum est, esse fa(2)ctum: quod fit, in generatione esse; quod fiet esse faciendum: et quod non est, non esse. (3) Quorum nihil recte et exacta ratione dicimus.  Sed exquisitam de iis discussionem prae(4)sens disputationem non requirit.  Tempus vero una cum caelo factum est, ut una orta, una eti(5)am dissolvantur, si qua his dissolutio umquam contigerit.  Et ad examplar aeternae naturae (6) ideo factum est, ut mundus hic illi praestantiori quoad potest simillimus sit.  Ille enim mun(7)dus, huius exemplar omne per aevum est. Hic vero perpetuo per omne tempus fuit, fitque (8) solus, et erit.  Hac ratione consilioque dei tempus creare volentis  Sol et Luna, et aliae quinqie (9) stallae quae vocantur erraticae, factae sunt, quo temportis numeris distinguatur atque obser(10)vetur.  Cum vero stellarum huiusmodi corpora septem fecisset deus, septem orbibus qui (11) alterius ipsius diversaeque naturae circuitu volvuntur, adhibuit.  Lunam in primo supra ter(12)ram circuitu posuit. In secundo Solum. Luciferi deinde globum, et Mercurii sacrum ut (13) dicitur orbem circulis affixit, Soli velocitate aequalibus, potentia vero illi contrariis.  Quo (14) fit ut apprehendant se invicem, et a se vicissim apprehendantur similiter hae stellae, Sol, (15) Lucifer, et Mercurius.  Caeterarum stellarum ordines progressusque et rations si quis om(16)nino percurrere velit, plus erit opere ipso, quod operis gratia sumetur.  Haec enim forte a (17) nobis pro dignitate rei alias si dabitur otium tractabuntur.  Postquam vero singula quae (18) ad seriem temporis pertinebant, convenientem sibi progressum sortita sunt,  corporaque (19) nexibus compacta vitalibus animalia evaserunt, praescriptum tenorem et institutum or(20)dinem tenuerunt:  ut videlicet secundum alterius diversaeque naturae obliquam agitatio(21)nem  eiusdem ipsius agitatione subjectam, orbes illi partim ampliorem, partim angustio(22)rem circulum peragant: et quae minorem, velocius: quae maiorem, tardius revolvantur.  (23) Secundum vero ipsam eiusdem naturae lationem, quae velocissime percurrunt compre(24)hendentia, a tardioribus comprehendi videntur.  Omnes quidem eorum circulos super(25)na illa vertigo varia circuitione revolens, propterea quod isti duobus simul contrariis (26) motibus agitantur, id quod tardissime ab ipsa quae velocissima est recedit, proximum de(27)claravit.  Ut autem esset quaedam velocitatis illorum tarditatisque mensura certissima, om(28)niumque octo motuum prodiret in lucem chorea, accendit lucem clarissimam deus in se(29)cundo a terra circulo, quam modo Solem vocamus.  Cuius splendore caelum omne illu(30)straretur, et animantes omnes quaecunque natura numeri capaces sunt, ipsius participes (31) efficerentur, usum numerandi discentes ab illo eiusdem similisque naturae circuitu.  Hinc (32) quoque noctis dieique varietas orta est. Propter haec etiam unius sapientissimique circui(33)tus revolutio.  Mensis vero proventus, quando Luna lustrato circulo suo Solem conse(34)cuta est. Anni, ubi Sol suum peragravit orbem.  Caeterorum autem siderum ambitus igno(35)rantes homines, praeter admodum paucos, neque nomine certo illos appellant, neque nu(36)meris inter se distinctis commetiuntur.  Itaque, ut ita dixerim, nesciunt horum pervaga(37)tiones idipsum esse quod rite dicitur tempus, multitudine infinita et varietate mirabili (38) praeditas.  Est tamen intellectu facile, quod perfectus numerus temporis perfectum tunc (39) demum compleat annum, cum octo ambitus consectis suis cursibus, quos orbis ille semper (40) idem similiterque procedens metitur, ad idem se caput retulerint.  Has ob causas nata sunt (41) ea astra quae per caelum meantia conversiones habent,  ut hoc omne animal quod videmus, (42) esset perfectissimo animali illi quod mente perspicitur, harmoniae imitatione simillimum. 
(God, to make creation more perfect, endowed it with the immortality of which it is capable. To this end he made time, — a moving image of eternity, which is immoveable. The modes of time are not to be applied to the eternal essence.) When the father and creator saw the creature which he had made moving and living, the created image of the eternal gods, he rejoiced, and in his joy determined to make the copy still more like the original;  and as this was eternal, he sought to make the universe eternal, so far as might be.  Now the nature of the ideal being was everlasting, but to bestow this attribute in its fulness upon a creature was impossible.  Wherefore he resolved to have a moving image of eternity, and when he set in order the heaven, he made this image eternal but moving according to number, while eternity itself rests in unity; and this image we call time.  For there were no days and nights and months and years before the heaven was created, but when he constructed the heaven he created them also.  They are all parts of time, and the past and future are created species of time, which we unconsciously but wrongly transfer to the eternal essence;  for we say that he ‘was,’ he ‘is,’ he ‘will be,’ but the truth is that ‘is’ alone is properly attributed to him,  and that ‘was’ and ‘will be’ are only to be spoken of becoming in time, for they are motions,  but that which is immovably the same cannot become older or younger by time, nor ever did or has become, or hereafter will be, older or younger,  nor is subject at all to any of those states which affect moving and sensible things and of which generation is the cause.  These are the forms of time, which imitates eternity and revolves according to a law of number.  Moreover, when we say that what has become is become and what becomes is becoming, and that what will become is about to become and that the non-existent is non-existent, — all these are inaccurate modes of expression.  But perhaps this whole subject will be more suitably discussed on some other occasion.  (The seven planets were intended to preserve the numbers of time.) Time, then, and the heaven came into being at the same instant in order that, having been created together, if ever there was to be a dissolution of them, they might be dissolved together.  It was framed after the pattern of the eternal nature, that it might resemble this as far as was possible;  for the pattern exists from eternity, and the created heaven has been, and is, and will be, in all time.  Such was the mind and thought of God in the creation of time.  The sun and moon and five other stars, which are called the planets, were created by him in order to distinguish and preserve the numbers of time;  and when he had made their several bodies, he placed them in the orbits in which the circle of the other was revolving, — in seven orbits seven stars.  First, there was the moon in the orbit nearest the earth, and next the sun, in the second orbit above the earth; then came the morning star and the star sacred to Hermes, moving in orbits which have an equal swiftness with the sun, but in an opposite direction;  and this is the reason why the sun and Hermes and Lucifer overtake and are overtaken by each other.  To enumerate the places which he assigned to the other stars, and to give all the reasons why he assigned them, although a secondary matter, would give more trouble than the primary.  These things at some future time, when we are at leisure, may have the consideration which they deserve, but not at present.  (The circle of the Same controls the circle of the Other, which moves diagonally to it. Thus the planets in their revolutions describe spirals, and the slowest seem to overtake the fastest. The sun was created to afford a visible measure of the swiftness of the planets. Night and day. The month and year. The cyclic year.) Now, when all the stars which were necessary to the creation of time had attained a motion suitable to them,  and had become living creatures having bodies fastened by vital chains, and learnt their appointed task,  moving in the motion of the diverse, which is diagonal,  and passes through and is governed by the motion of the same, they revolved, some in a larger and some in a lesser orbit, — those which had the lesser orbit revolving faster, and those which had the larger more slowly.  Now by reason of the motion of the same, those which revolved fastest appeared to be overtaken by those which moved slower although they really overtook them;  for the motion of the same made them all turn in a spiral, and, because some went one way and some another, that which receded most slowly from the sphere of the same, which was the swiftest, appeared to follow it most nearly.  That there might be some visible measure of their relative swiftness and slowness as they proceeded in their eight courses, God lighted a fire, which we now call the sun, in the second from the earth of these orbits,  that it might give light to the whole of heaven, and that the animals, as many as nature intended, might participate in number, learning arithmetic from the revolution of the same and the like.  Thus, then, and for this reason the night and the day were created, being the period of the one most intelligent revolution.  And the month is accomplished when the moon has completed her orbit and overtaken the sun, and the year when the sun has completed his own orbit.  Mankind, with hardly an exception, have not remarked the periods of the other stars, and they have no name for them, and do not measure them against one another by the help of number,  and hence they can scarcely be said to know that their wanderings, being infinite in number and admirable for their variety, make up time.  And yet there is no difficulty in seeing that the perfect number of time fulfils the perfect year when all the eight revolutions, having their relative degrees of swiftness, are accomplished together and attain their completion at the same time, measured by the rotation of the same and equally moving.  After this manner, and for these reasons, came into being such of the stars as in their heavenly progress received reversals of motion,  the end that the created heaven might imitate the eternal nature, and be as like as possible to the perfect and intelligible animal. 
Als nun aber der Vater, welcher das All erzeugt hatte, es ansah, wie es bewegt und belebt und ein Bild der ewigen Götter geworden war, da empfand er Wohlgefallen daran, und in dieser seiner Freude beschloß er denn, es noch mehr seinem Urbilde ähnlich zu machen.  Gleichwie nun dieses selber ein unvergängliches Lebendiges ist, ebenso unternahm er es daher, auch dieses All nach Möglichkeit zu einem eben solchen zu machen.  Nun war aber die Natur des höchsten Lebendigen eine ewige, und diese auf das Entstandene vollständig zu übertragen war eben nicht möglich;  aber ein bewegtes Bild der Ewigkeit beschließt er zu machen und bildet, um zugleich dadurch dem Weltgebäude seine innere Einrichtung zu geben, von der in der Einheit beharrenden Ewigkeit ein nach der Vielheit der Zahl sich fortbewegendes dauerndes Abbild, nämlich eben das, was wir Zeit genannt haben.  Nämlich Tage, Nächte, Monate und Jahre, welche es vor der Entstehung des Weltalls nicht gab, läßt er jetzt bei der Zusammenfügung desselben zugleich mit ins Entstehen treten.  Dies alles aber sind Teile der Zeit, und das War und Wirdsein sind Formen der entstandenen Zeit, obwohl wir mit Unrecht, ohne dies zu bedenken, diese dem ewigen Sein beilegen.  Denn wir sagen ja von ihm: »es war, ist und wird sein«, während ihm doch nach der wahren Rede weise allein das »es ist« zukommt,  wogegen man die Ausdrücke »es war« und »es wird sein« lediglich von dem in der Zeit fortschreitenden Werden gebrauchen darf. Denn beides bezeichnet Bewegungen;  demjenigen aber, welches sich unbeweglich stets auf die gleiche Weise verhält, kommt es nicht zu, weder älter noch jünger zu werden im Verlaufe der Zeit, noch es ehemals oder jetzt geworden zu sein oder es in Zukunft werden zu sollen;  kurz, es kommt ihm überhaupt nichts von alledem zu, was das Werden mit den im Gebiete der Sinnenwelt sich bewegenden Dingen verknüpft hat,  sondern es sind dies alles die Formen der die Ewigkeit nachahmenden und nach den Zahlenverhältnissen im Kreise sich fortbewegenden Zeit geworden.  Und ebenso steht es mit Ausdrücken folgender Art: das Entstandene sei ein Entstandenes, und das Entstehende sei ein Entstehendes, und das Entstehenwerdende sei ein Entstehenwerdendes, und das Nichtseiende sei ein Nichtseiendes, welches alles keine genauen Bezeichnungen sind.  Doch dürfte gegenwärtig vielleicht nicht der schickliche Zeitpunkt dazu sein, hierüber Bestimmungen zu treffen, wie es, genau genommen, heißen müßte.  So entstand denn also die Zeit zugleich mit der Welt, damit beide, zugleich ins Leben gerufen, auch zugleich wieder aufgelöst würden, wenn ja einmal ihre Auflösung eintreten sollte,  und nach dem Urbilde der schlechthin ewigen Natur, damit die Welt ihr so ähnlich als möglich werde.  Denn das Urbild ist ein durch alle Ewigkeit Seiendes, sie aber immerfort durch alle Zeit geworden, seiend und sein werdend.  Zufolge solcher Betrachtung und Überlegung Gottes in bezug auf die Zeit entstanden, damit diese hervorgebracht werde.  Sonne, Mond und die fünf anderen Sterne, welche den Namen der Wandelsterne tragen, zur Unterscheidung und Bewahrung der Zeitmaße.  Und nachdem Gott den Körper eines jeden von ihnen gebildet hatte, setzte er sie ihrer sieben in die sieben Kreise hinein,  welche der Umlauf des Anderen beschrieb, den Mond in den, welcher zunächst um die Erde kreiste, die Sonne in den zweiten oberhalb ihrer, den Morgenstern (Venus) aber und den, welcher dem Hermes (Merkur) heilig ist und nach ihm genannt wird, in die zwei nächsten, dem der Sonne an Geschwindigkeit gleichen Kreise, versah sie jedoch mit einer der Sonne entgegenstrebenden Kraft der Bewegung,  weshalb denn die Sonne und der Hermes (Merkur) und Morgenstern auf gleiche Weise einander einholen und von einander eingeholt werden.  Was aber die übrigen anlangt, so würde, wenn man von allen angeben sollte, wohin und aus welchen Gründen er sie dahin versetzte, diese Ausein andersetzung, die doch nur eine beiläufige wäre, umständlicher sein als die Erörterung selber, welche uns hierauf geführt hat.  Vielleicht wird denn auch dieser Gegenstand späterhin bei größerer Muße eine Darlegung finden, wie er sie verdient.  Nachdem nun also alle die Sterne, welche zur Erzeugung der Zeit mitwirken sollten, in den einem jeden zukommenden Umschwung gebracht  und durch beseelte Bänder, die ihre Körper zusammenhielten, zu lebendigen Wesen erhoben und des ihnen Aufgetragenen inne geworden waren,  so gingen sie in dem Umschwunge des Anderen, welcher schräg ist,  indem er den Umschwung des Selbigen durchschneidet und von ihm beherrscht wird, herum, indem sie teils eine größere, teils eine kleinere Kreisbahn umschrieben, und zwar die, welche eine kleinere beschrieben, schneller, und die, welche eine größere, langsamer.  Und durch den Umschwung des Selbigen schienen nun dabei die, welche am schnellsten herumgingen, von den langsamer sich bewegenden eingeholt zu werden, während doch vielmehr diese die ersteren einholten;  denn da die Umkreisung des Selbigen alle Kreisbahnen dieser Gestirne sich schraubenförmig zu drehen zwang, insofern diese Bahnen durch ihre Einwirkung zwiefach in entgegengesetzter Richtung fortrücken, so bewirkte sie den Schein, als ob die sich am langsamsten von ihr, die sie das Schnellste ist, entfernenden ihrer Geschwindigkeit am nächsten kämen.  Damit aber ein deutliches Maß für das gegenseitige Verhältnis von Langsamkeit und Geschwindigkeit vorhanden wäre, mit welcher die acht Umläufe sich bewegten, so zündete Gott in dem zweiten derselben von der Erde ab ein Licht an, eben das, was wir jetzt Sonne nennen,  auf daß es möglichst durch das ganze Weltall schiene und die belebten Wesen, so vielen immer dies zukam, des Zahlenmaßes teilhaftig würden, dessen sie durch die Umkreisung des Selbigen und Gleichartigen innegeworden.  Tag und Nacht entstanden auf diese Weise und durch diese Veranstaltung als der Umlauf der einigen und vernünftigsten Kreisbewegung,  der Monat aber, wenn der Mond seinen Kreislauf vollendet und die Sonne eingeholt hat, endlich das Jahr, sooft die Sonne ihre Bahn umschrieben hat.  Die Umläufe der übrigen aber haben die Menschen bis auf wenige unter den vielen nicht beachtet und geben ihnen daher weder besondere Namen, noch messen sie sie gegen einander zufolge angestellter Beobachtungen nach Zahlen ab,  so daß sie geradezu nicht einmal wissen, daß auch ihre Bahnen, deren Menge verwirrt und deren Mannigfaltigkeit wunderbar ist, eine Zeit bezeichnen.  Es ist jedoch nichtsdestoweniger möglich, zu beobach ten, daß die vollständige Zeitenzahl auch das vollständige große Jahr voll macht, dann, wenn die gegenseitigen Geschwindigkeiten aller acht Umläufe zugleich beendigt zu ihrem Ausgangspunkte zurückkehren, sofern man sie nach dem Kreise des Selbigen und sich gleichartig Bewegenden mißt.  Auf diese Weise also und zu diesem Zwecke wurden alle die Sterne hervorgebracht, welche den Weltenraum in gewundener Linie durchwandern,  auf daß diese lebendige Welt dem vollkommenen und nur dem Gedanken erfaßbaren Lebendigen so ähnlich als möglich werde in Nachahmung seiner schlechthin ewigen Natur. 
(θεοὶ ὁρατοὶ καὶ γενητοί) Καὶ τὰ μὲν ἄλλα ἤδη μέχρι χρόνου γενέσεως ἀπείργαστο εἰς ὁμοιότητα ᾧπερ ἀπεικάζετο, τὸ δὲ μήπω τὰ πάντα ζῷα ἐντὸς αὑτοῦ γεγενημένα περιειληφέναι, ταύτῃ ἔτι εἶχεν ἀνομοίως.  τοῦτο δὴ τὸ κατάλοιπον ἀπηργάζετο αὐτοῦ πρὸς τὴν τοῦ παραδείγματος ἀποτυπούμενος φύσιν.  ᾗπερ οὖν νοῦς ἐνούσας ἰδέας τῷ ὃ ἔστιν ζῷον, οἷαί τε ἔνεισι καὶ ὅσαι, καθορᾷ, τοιαύτας καὶ τοσαύτας διενοήθη δεῖν καὶ τόδε σχεῖν.  εἰσὶν δὴ τέτταρες, μία μὲν οὐράνιον θεῶν γένος,  ἄλλη δὲ πτηνὸν καὶ ἀεροπόρον, τρίτη δὲ ἔνυδρον εἶδος, πεζὸν δὲ καὶ χερσαῖον τέταρτον.  τοῦ μὲν οὖν θείου τὴν πλείστην ἰδέαν ἐκ πυρὸς ἀπηργάζετο, ὅπως ὅτι λαμπρότατον ἰδεῖν τε κάλλιστον εἴη, τῷ δὲ παντὶ προσεικάζων εὔκυκλον ἐποίει,  τίθησίν τε εἰς τὴν τοῦ κρατίστου φρόνησιν ἐκείνῳ συνεπόμενον, νείμας περὶ πάντα κύκλῳ τὸν οὐρανόν, κόσμον ἀληθινὸν αὐτῷ πεποικιλμένον εἶναι καθ’ ὅλον.  κινήσεις δὲ δύο προσῆψεν ἑκάστῳ, τὴν μὲν ἐν ταὐτῷ κατὰ ταὐτά, περὶ τῶν αὐτῶν ἀεὶ τὰ αὐτὰ ἑαυτῷ διανοουμένῳ,  τὴν δὲ εἰς τὸ πρόσθεν, ὑπὸ τῆς ταὐτοῦ καὶ ὁμοίου περιφορᾶς κρατουμένῳ·  τὰς δὲ πέντε κινήσεις ἀκίνητον καὶ ἑστός, ἵνα ὅτι μάλιστα αὐτῶν ἕκαστον γένοιτο ὡς ἄριστον.  ἐξ ἧς δὴ τῆς αἰτίας γέγονεν ὅσ’ ἀπλανῆ τῶν ἄστρων ζῷα θεῖα ὄντα καὶ ἀίδια καὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἐν ταὐτῷ στρεφόμενα ἀεὶ μένει·  τὰ δὲ τρεπόμενα καὶ πλάνην τοιαύτην ἴσχοντα, καθάπερ ἐν τοῖς πρόσθεν ἐρρήθη, κατ’ ἐκεῖνα γέγονεν.  γῆν δὲ τροφὸν μὲν ἡμετέραν, ἰλλομένην δὲ τὴν περὶ τὸν διὰ παντὸς πόλον τεταμένον, φύλακα καὶ δημιουργὸν νυκτός τε καὶ ἡμέρας ἐμηχανήσατο, πρώτην καὶ πρεσβυτάτην θεῶν ὅσοι ἐντὸς οὐρανοῦ γεγόνασιν.  χορείας δὲ τούτων αὐτῶν καὶ παραβολὰς ἀλλήλων, καὶ περὶ τὰς τῶν κύκλων πρὸς ἑαυτοὺς ἐπανακυκλήσεις καὶ προχωρήσεις,  ἔν τε ταῖς συνάψεσιν ὁποῖοι τῶν θεῶν κατ’ ἀλλήλους γιγνόμενοι καὶ ὅσοι καταντικρύ, μεθ’ οὕστινάς τε ἐπίπροσθεν ἀλλήλοις ἡμῖν τε κατὰ χρόνους οὕστινας ἕκαστοι κατακαλύπτονται καὶ πάλιν ἀναφαινόμενοι φόβους καὶ σημεῖα τῶν μετὰ ταῦτα γενησομένων τοῖς οὐ δυναμένοις λογίζεσθαι πέμπουσιν,  τὸ λέγειν ἄνευ δι’ ὄψεως τούτων αὖ τῶν μιμημάτων μάταιος ἂν εἴη πόνος·  ἀλλὰ ταῦτά τε ἱκανῶς ἡμῖν ταύτῃ καὶ τὰ περὶ θεῶν ὁρατῶν καὶ γεννητῶν εἰρημένα φύσεως ἐχέτω τέλος.  Περὶ δὲ τῶν ἄλλων δαιμόνων εἰπεῖν καὶ γνῶναι τὴν γένεσιν μεῖζον ἢ καθ’ ἡμᾶς,  πειστέον δὲ τοῖς εἰρηκόσιν ἔμπροσθεν, ἐκγόνοις μὲν θεῶν οὖσιν, ὡς ἔφασαν, σαφῶς δέ που τούς γε αὑτῶν προγόνους εἰδόσιν·  ἀδύνατον οὖν θεῶν παισὶν ἀπιστεῖν, καίπερ ἄνευ τε εἰκότων καὶ ἀναγκαίων ἀποδείξεων λέγουσιν, ἀλλ’ ὡς οἰκεῖα φασκόντων ἀπαγγέλλειν ἑπομένους τῷ νόμῳ πιστευτέον.  οὕτως οὖν κατ’ ἐκείνους ἡμῖν ἡ γένεσις περὶ τούτων τῶν θεῶν ἐχέτω καὶ λεγέσθω.  Γῆς τε καὶ Οὐρανοῦ παῖδες Ὠκεανός τε καὶ Τηθὺς ἐγενέσθην, τούτων δὲ Φόρκυς Κρόνος τε καὶ Ρέα καὶ ὅσοι μετὰ τούτων,  ἐκ δὲ Κρόνου καὶ Ρέας Ζεὺς ῞Ηρα τε καὶ πάντες ὅσους ἴσμεν ἀδελφοὺς λεγομένους αὐτῶν, ἔτι τε τούτων ἄλλους ἐκγόνους·  ἐπεὶ δ’ οὖν πάντες ὅσοι τε περιπολοῦσιν φανερῶς καὶ ὅσοι φαίνονται καθ’ ὅσον ἂν ἐθέλωσιν θεοὶ γένεσιν ἔσχον, λέγει πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὁ τόδε τὸ πᾶν γεννήσας τάδε Θεοὶ θεῶν, ὧν ἐγὼ δημιουργὸς πατήρ τε ἔργων, δι’ ἐμοῦ γενόμενα ἄλυτα ἐμοῦ γε μὴ ἐθέλοντος.  τὸ μὲν οὖν δὴ δεθὲν πᾶν λυτόν, τό γε μὴν καλῶς ἁρμοσθὲν καὶ ἔχον εὖ λύειν ἐθέλειν κακοῦ·  δι’ ἃ καὶ ἐπείπερ γεγένησθε, ἀθάνατοι μὲν οὐκ ἐστὲ οὐδ’ ἄλυτοι τὸ πάμπαν, οὔτι μὲν δὴ λυθήσεσθέ γε οὐδὲ τεύξεσθε θανάτου μοίρας, τῆς ἐμῆς βουλήσεως μείζονος ἔτι δεσμοῦ καὶ κυριωτέρου λαχόντες ἐκείνων οἷς ὅτ’ ἐγίγνεσθε συνεδεῖσθε.  νῦν οὖν ὃ λέγω πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐνδεικνύμενος, μάθετε.  θνητὰ ἔτι γένη λοιπὰ τρία ἀγέννητα·  τούτων δὲ μὴ γενομένων οὐρανὸς ἀτελὴς ἔσται·  τὰ γὰρ ἅπαντ’ ἐν αὑτῷ γένη ζῴων οὐχ ἕξει, δεῖ δέ, εἰ μέλλει τέλεος ἱκανῶς εἶναι.  δι’ ἐμοῦ δὲ ταῦτα γενόμενα καὶ βίου μετασχόντα θεοῖς ἰσάζοιτ’ ἄν·  ἵνα οὖν θνητά τε ᾖ τό τε πᾶν τόδε ὄντως ἅπαν ᾖ, τρέπεσθε κατὰ φύσιν ὑμεῖς ἐπὶ τὴν τῶν ζῴων δημιουργίαν, μιμούμενοι τὴν ἐμὴν δύναμιν περὶ τὴν ὑμετέραν γένεσιν.  καὶ καθ’ ὅσον μὲν αὐτῶν ἀθανάτοις ὁμώνυμον εἶναι προσήκει, θεῖον λεγόμενον ἡγεμονοῦν τε ἐν αὐτοῖς τῶν ἀεὶ δίκῃ καὶ ὑμῖν ἐθελόντων ἕπεσθαι, σπείρας καὶ ὑπαρξάμενος ἐγὼ παραδώσω·  τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν ὑμεῖς, ἀθανάτῳ θνητὸν προσυφαίνοντες, ἀπεργάζεσθε ζῷα καὶ γεννᾶτε τροφήν τε διδόντες αὐξάνετε καὶ φθίνοντα πάλιν δέχεσθε. 
Et cetera quidem usque ad temporis ortum impressa ab illis quae imitabatur ecfinxerat; sed quia nondum omne animal in mundo intus incluserat,  ex ea parte deficiebat4 ad propositum exemplar imaginis similitudo.  Quot igitur et quales animalum formas mens in speciem rerum intuens poterat cernere, totidem et tales in hoc mundo secum cogitavit effingere.  Erant autem animantium genera quattuor, quorum unum divinum atque caeleste,  alterum pinnigerum et aerium, tertium aquatile, pedestre et terrestre quartum.  Divinae animationis maxime speciem faciebat ex igne, ut et splendidissimus esset et aspectu pulcherrimus; cumque eum similem universi naturae efficere vellet, ad volubilitatem rotundavit  comitemque eum sapientiae quam optimae mentis efficit circumque omne caelum aeqaliter distribuit ut hunc varietate distinctum bene Graeci κόσμον, nos lucentem mundum nominaremus.  Dedit autem divinis duo genera motus, unum quod semper esset in eodem de quo et idem de omnibus atque uno modo cogitaret,  alterum quod in antiquam partem a conversione eiusdem et similis pelleretur,  quinque autem reliquis motibus orbum eum voluit esse et expertem, immobilem et stantem.  Ex quo genere ea sunt sidera quae infixa caelo non moventur loco, quae sunt animantia eaque divina, ob eamque causam suis sedibus inhaerent et perpetuo manent.  Quae autem vaga et mutabili erratione labuntur ita generata sunt ut supra diximus.  Iam vero terram altricem nostram, quae traiecto axi sustinetur, diei noctisque effectricem eandemque custodem, antiquissimam deorum omnium voluit esse eorum qui intra caelum gignerentur.  Lusiones autem deorum et inter ipsos deos concursiones, quaeque in orbibus eorum conversiones quaeque antecessiones eveniant,  cumque inter se paene contingant eorum qui prope copulentur contrariaque regione, et pone quos aut ante labantur, quisque temporibus a nostro aspectu oblitescant rursusque emersi terrorem incutiant rationis expertibus,  si verbis explicare conemur nullo posito ob oculos simulacro earum rerum, frustra suscipiatur labor.  Sed haec satis sint dicta nobis, quaeque de deorum qui cernuntur quique sunt orti natura praefati sumus habeant hunc terminum.  Reliquorum autem, quos Graeci daimonas appellant, nostri opinor lares, si modo hoc recte conversum videri potest, et nosse et nuntiare ortum eorum maius est quam ut profiteri nos scire audeamus.  Credendum nimirum est veteribus et priscis ut aiunt viris, qui se progeniem deorum esse dicebant itaque eorum vocabula nobis prodiderunt; nosse autem generatores suos optime poterant,  ac difficile factu est a deis ortis fidem non habere: quamquam nec argumentis nec rationibus certis eorum oratio confirmatur, sed quia de suis nobis rebus videntur loqui, veteri legi morique parendum est.  Sic igitur ut ab his est traditum horum deorum ortus habeatur atque dicatur,  ut Oceanum Salaciamque Caeli satu Terraeque conceptu generatos editoque memoremus, ex is Saturnum et Opem,  deinceps Iovem atque Iunonem, reliquos, quos fratres inter se agnatosque usurpari atque appellari videmus, et eorum, ut utamur veteri verbo, prosapiam.  Quando igitur omnes et qui moventur palamque se ostendunt et qui ea tenus nobis declarantur qua ipsi volunt creati sunt, tum ad eos is deus qui omnia genuit fatur haec: "Vos qui deorum satu orti estis adtendite. Quorum operum ego parens effectorque sum, haec sunt indissoluta me invito:  quamquam omne conligatum solvi potest, sed haud quaquam boni est ratione victum velle dissolvere.  Sed quoniam estis orti, inmortales vos quidem esse et indissolubiles non potestis, neutiquam tamen dissolvemini, neque vos ulla mortis fata perement nec fraus valentior quam consilium meum, quod maius est vinculum ad perpetuitatem vestram quam illa quibus estis tum cum gignebamini conligati.  Quid sentiam igitur cognoscite.  Tria genera nobis reliqua sunt eaque mortalia,  quibus praetermissis caeli absolutio perfecta non erit:  omnia enim genera animalium conplexu non tenebit, teneat autem oportebit, ut ex eodem ne quid absit.  Quae si a me ipso effecta sint, deorum vitam possint adaequare;  ut igitur mortali condicione generentur, vos suscipite ut illa gignatis imiteminique vim meam, qua me in vestro ortu usum esse meministis.  In quibus qui tales creantur ut deorum inmortalium quasi gentiles esse debeant, divini generis appellentur teneantque omnium animantum principatum vobisque iure et lege volentes pareant. Quorum vobis initium satusque tradetur a me,  vos autem ad id quod erit inmortale partem adtexitote mortalem: ita orientur animantes, quos et vivos alatis et consumptos sinu recipiatis." 
PARS SECUNDA TIMAEI PLATONIS
Et iam fere cuncta provenerant usque ad genituram temporis ad germanam composita similitudinem exempli et veritatis suae, nisi quod nondum hic mundus cuncta continebat animalia perinde ut intellegibilis, ad cuius aemulationem fiebat. 
Hoc igitur quod deerat addebat opifex deus;  atque ut mens, cuius visus contemplatioque intellectus est, idearum genera contemplatur in intellegibili mundo, quae ideae sunt illic animalia, sic deus in hoc opere suo sensili diversa animalium genera statuit esse debere  constituitque quattuor, primum caeleste plenum divinitatis,  aliud deinde praepes aerivagum, tertium aquae liquoribus accommodatum, quartum quod terrena soliditas sustineret.  Et divini quidem generis ex parte maxima speciem ignis serena claritudine perpolibat, ut propter eximium splendorem nitoremque videntibus esset visurisque venerabilis. Figuram porro eius figurae mundi intellegibilis accommodans indeclinabiliter evenustabat  totumque eum posuit in gremio prudentiae caeli undique ineffabilis pulchritudinis ornamentis stipans eum et convigetans ad aeternitatem,  motumque eius circulis convenientem et pro cuiusque natura commentus est, alterum circum se perque eandem orbitam semper obeuntem eademque semper deliberantem ac de isdem ratiocinantem,  alterum vero talem, qui semper ultra procedere gestiens eiusdem atque immutabilis naturae coercitione intra obiectum eius rotabundus teneretur  quinque illis erraticis et contrariis sibi invicem prohibitis motibus, ut uterque circulus esset in optimo beatissimoque agitationis statu.  Qua ex causa facti sunt summa divinitate praediti omnes illi ignes siderei, qui nullos errores exorbitationesque patiuntur proptereaque in semet ipsos convertuntur aeterno circuitu.  At vero alii uagi palantesque ignes erroris causam habent eam, cuius in superioribus habita commemoratio est.  Terram vero matrem et altricem omnium terrenorum animantium constrictam limitibus per omnia uadentis et cuncta continentis poli diei noctisque custodem locavit, antiquissimam et eximiae dignitatis deam ex eorum numero qui intra mundi ambitum continentur deorum.  Stellarum vero choreas et alterius applicationes ad alteram variosque gyros, quos edunt admirabili venustate iuxta ambitus circulorum, reditusque et anfractus ad eas sedes ex quibus progressae sunt,  accessus etiam et recessus, cumque contiguae sibi inuicem fiunt, quales ex contagione sua condiciones accipiant quamque et cuius modi nanciscantur qualitatem ex varia designatione, cumque -- quod aliquanto interuallo temporis fieri solet -- certae stellae mersae ac latentes operiuntur, quae significent et mox aut aliquanto post futura portendant, vel cum insolitis horis curriculisque temporum rursus emergunt et apparent, quantos denuntient metus his qui rationem motus earum intellegere possunt,  cunctaque huius modi ratione atque orationibus persequi nihil agentis ac frustra laborantis est, maxime cum motus earum descriptioque sit a visu atque oculis disputantis remota.  Quapropter ea quae de sideribus uisibilibusque diuinis potestatibus dicta sunt satis superque dicta finem habeant suum.  At vero invisibilium divinarum potestatum quae daemones nuncupantur praestare rationem maius est opus quam ferre valeat hominis ingenium; igitur compendium ex credulitate sumatur.  Credamus ergo his qui apud saeculum prius, cum ipsi cognationem propinquitatemque divini generis praeferrent, de natura deorum maiorum atque avorum deque genituris singulorum aeterna monumenta in libris posteritati reliquerunt.  Certe deorum hliis aut nepotibus non credi satis inreligiosum; quamvis incongruis nec necessariis probationibus dicant, tamen, quia de domesticis rebus pronun tiant, credendum esse merito puto.  Sit igitur nostra quoque credulitas comes asseverationi priscorum virorum,  quod Terrae Caelique filii sint Oceanus et Tethys, horum porro Saturnus et Rhea et Phorcus,  Saturni porro et Rheae proles Iupiter et Iuno et caeteri qui sunt in ore hominum ac mentibus et de quorum fraternitate fama celebratur; atque ex his alii nati sunt qui dii putantur.  His igitur omnibus, qui uel uidentur in convexis caelestibus flammanti corpore vel non uidentur, natis atque altis diuinitatemque obtinentibus conditor universitatis deus obseruanda iubet sancitque oratione tali: "Dii deorum quorum opifex idem paterque ego, opera siquidem uos mea, dissolubilia natura, me tamen ita volente indissolubilia,  omne siquidem quod iunctum est natura dissolubile, at vero quod bona ratione iunctum atquemodulatum est dissolui velle non est dei.  Quapropter, quia facti generatique estis, immortales quidem nequaquam nec omnino indissolubiles, nec tamen umquam dissoluemini nec mortis necessitatem subibitis, quia uoluntas mea maior est nexus et vegetatior ad aeternitatis custodiam quam illi nexus uitales ex quibus aeternitas uestra coagmentata atque composita est.  Iubendi ergo quod iubeo causa haec est:  Tria etiamnunc mortalia genera  desunt universitati quibus carens universa res perfectione indigebit.  Erit porro imperfecta, si universa mortalia genera intra conseptum suum minime continebit. Oportet autem, si erit mundus perfectus futurus.  Proveniet porro hoc idem virtute auctoritatis meae -- esse plenam uniuersi generis substantiam, quo animalibus singulis suppeditato vivendi vigore ea quae sunt meliora proximam divinitati fortunam dignitatemque sortiantur.  Quapropter, ut et mortalia sint et universa res non indigeat perfectione sed sit tota atque universa vere, iubeo aggrediamini secundum naturam mortalium generum institutionem. Imitantes ergo meam iuxta effectum uestrum sollertiam   ita instituite atque extricate mortalia ut, quibus consortium divinitatis et appellationis parilitas competit, divina praeditum firmitate fingatis; erit vero tale quod vobis obsequi iustitiamque colere prospexeritis. Huiusego universi generis sementem faciam vobisque tradam;  vos caetera exequi par est, ita ut immortalem caelestemque naturam mortali textu extrinsecus ambiatis iubeatisque nasci cibumque prouideatis et incrementa detis ac post dissolutionem id faenus quod credideratis facta secessione animi et corporis recipiatis." 
Iam vero caetera usque ad temporis ortum, ad imaginem propositi exemplaris effinxerat. Sed (44) quia mundus hic nondum animalia omnia inter suum ambitum continebat, ex ea parte deficie(45)bat ad illud exemplar imaginis huius similitudo.  Hoc igitur quod deerat, superni illius ex(46)emplo deus eplebat.  Quot igitur et quales mens ideas in eo quod est animal inspicit, to(47)tidem et tales hoc mundo contineri oportere excogitvit.  Sunt autem quatuor. Una qui(48)dem deorum caelestium genus continet  Alia volatile et aerivagum. Teria aquae liquori(49)bus accomodatum. Quarta terrenorum animantium genus.  Divini quidem animalis spe(50)ciem ex igni maxima ex parte componebat, ut splendidissimum esset visuque pulcherri(51)mum. Cumque illud universi figurae simile vellet fore, rotundum fecit,  posuitque in ipsius opti(52)mi sapientia, atque illud sequi iussit, circumque omne caelum distribuit, ut verus illi ubique ex (53) hac varietate ornatus accederet.  Dedit autem divinis duo genera motus. Alterum quo in (54) eodem semper et similiter volverentur, cum de eisdem semper secum ipsis eadem cogi(713,1)tent.  Alterum quo in anteriorem partem ab eiusdem ipsius similisque vertigine duceren(2)tur.  Reliquos autem quinque motus ab his esse voluit alienos, ut unumquodque illo(3)rum quoad fieri potest, optimum esset.  Qua ex causa facta sunt astra illa erroris expertia, (4) quae divina animalia sunt, proptereaque in eodem semper circuitu perseverant.  Quae ve(5)ro vaga sunt, et mutabili ratione labuntur, ita deinceps ut supra diximus sunt.  Terram (6) autem altricem nostram circa polum per universum extensum alligatam, diei noctisque (7) effectricem et custodem esse voluit, nec non primam antiquissimamque deorum om(8)nium qui intra coelum sunt geniti.  Horum vero deorum choreas, et inter ipsos concur(9)siones, circulorumque ipsorum revolutiones varias et accessus,  quales praeterea fiant (10) coniuncti sibi invicem vel oppositi, sive ante inter se, sive retro, quidve ex illorum serie (11) nobis proveniat, quibus temporibus et quo pacto delitescant singuli, vel emergant, quidve (12) portendant quando orientes hominibus harum rerum peritis timorem incutiunt:  Haec (13) inquam omnia absque diligenti simulacrorum ipsorum inspectione explicare velle, in(14)anis est labor.  Sed de his fatis: et iam quae de natura deorum illorum qui tales geniti sunt (15) ut cernantur dicenda erant, finem habeant.  Ceterorum vero qui daemones appellan(16)tur, et cognoscere et enuntiare ortum, maius est opus quam ferre nostrum valeat in(17)genium.  Priscis itaque viris hac in re credendum est, qui diis geniti ut ipsi dicebant, pa(18)rentes suos optime noverant.  Impossibile sane deorum filiis fidem non habere, licet nec (19) necessariis nec verissimilibus rationibus eorum oratio confirmetur. Verum quia de do(20)mesticis rebus loqui se affirmabant, nos legem secuti fidem praestabimus.  Sic igitur ut ab (21) his est traditum, horum deorum generatio habeatur atque dicatur.  Terrae coelique filii O(22)ceanus et Tethys fuisse traduntur. Ab iis Phorcyn, Saturnus, et Rhea geniti, et reliqui (23) horum fratres.  Ex Saturno et Rhea Iupiter, et Iuno, et reliqui, quos eorum fratres quo(24)tidie memorari audimus, nati dicuntur. Ex his deinceps ut traditur alii.  Postquam orti (25) sunt omnes, et qui coelo volvuntur dii nostris oculis manifesti, et qui eatenus nobis con(26)spicui fiunt quatenus ipsi volunt, tum ad eos mundi genitoria ita fatur. Dii deorum quo(27)rum opifex ego et pater sum, haec attendite. Quae a me facta sunt, me ita volente indisso(28)lubilia sunt.  Omne siquidem quod vinctum est, solvi potest. Sed mali est, quod pulchre (29) compositum est, seque habet bene, velle dissolvere.  Quapropter quia generati estis, im(30)mortales quidem et indissolubiles omnino non estis. Nec tamen unquam dissolvemini, (31) nec mortis fatum subitis. Nam voluntas mea maius praestantiusque vobis est vinculum ad (32) vitae custodiam, quam nexus illi, quibus estis tunc cum gignebamini, colligati.  Sed nunc (33) iam quid iubeam, cognoscite.  Tria adhuc genera mortalium nobis generande restant,  (34) absque horum generatione coelum imperfectum erit.  Omnia enim animantium genera am(35)bitu suo non continebit. Contineat autem oportet, si est mundus omnino perfectus fu(36)turus.  Haec vero si a me fiant solo, vitaeque donentur, diis adaequabuntur.  Quapropter ac(37)cedite vos secundum naturam ad animalium generationem, ita ut vim imitemini meam, (38) qua in ortu vestro sum usus.  Atque eius quidem animalis quod in ipsis tale futurum est ut (39) cum immortalibus appellatione conveniat, divinumque vocetur, principatumque teneat, (40) et iustitiam simul ac vos ultro colat, ego vobis semen et initium tradam:  vos cetera exequi (41) par est, ut immortali naturae mortalem attexentes, faciatis generetisque animalia, submini(42)strantesque alimenta augeatis, et consumpta rursum recipiatis. 
[After the creation of time God fashions in the created animal four species like those which exist in the ideal: e. g. the gods of heaven (i. e. fixed stars and planets), birds, sea and land animals. The fixed stars revolve on their axes and are carried round in the sphere of the Same. The motions of the planets have been already (38 ff.) described. The earth is the immoveable(?) centre of the universe.]
Thus far and until the birth of time the created universe was made in the likeness of the original, but inasmuch as all animals were not yet comprehended therein, it was still unlike. 
What remained, the creator then proceeded to fashion after the nature of the pattern.  Now as in the ideal animal the mind perceives ideas or species of a certain nature and number, he thought that this created animal ought to have species of a like nature and number.  There are four such; one of them is the heavenly race of the gods;  another, the race of birds whose way is in the air; the third, the watery species; and the fourth, the pedestrian and land creatures.  Of the heavenly and divine, he created the greater part out of fire, that they might be the brightest of all things and fairest to behold, and he fashioned them after the likeness of the universe in the figure of a circle,  and made them follow the intelligent motion of the supreme, distributing them over the whole circumference of heaven, which was to be a true cosmos or glorious world spangled with them all over.  And he gave to each of them two movements: the first, a movement on the same spot after the same manner, whereby they ever continue to think consistently the same thoughts about the same things;  the second, a forward movement, in which they are controlled by the revolution of the same and the like;  but by the other five motions they were unaffected (cp. 43 B), in order that each of them might attain the highest perfection.  Aus dieser Ursache also sind alle die Sterne geworden, welche wandellos als lebendige Wesen göttlich und unsterblich und gleichmäßig in demselben Räume sich drehend ewig verharren;  and the other stars which reverse their motion and are subject to deviations of this kind, were created in the manner already described.  The earth, which is our nurse, clinging around the pole which is extended through the universe, he framed to be the guardian and artificer of night and day, first and eldest of gods that are in the interior of heaven.  Vain would be the attempt to tell all the figures of them circling as in dance, and their juxtapositions, and the return of them in their revolutions upon themselves, and their approximations,  and to say which of these deities in their conjunctions meet, and which of them are in opposition, and in what order they get behind and before one another, and when they are severally eclipsed to our sight and again reappear, sending terrors and intimations of the future to those who cannot calculate their movements  — to attempt to tell of all this without a visible representation of the heavenly system would be labour in vain.  Enough on this head; and now let what we have said about the nature of the created and visible gods have an end.  [As for the Gods of mythology, we must accept the statements of their children about them.]
To know or tell the origin of the other divinities is beyond us, 
and we must accept the traditions of the men of old time who affirm themselves to be the offspring of the gods — that is what they say — and they must surely have known their own ancestors.  How can we doubt the word of the children of the gods? Although they give no probable or certain proofs, still, as they declare that they are speaking of what took place in their own family, we must conform to custom and believe them.  In this manner, then, according to them, the genealogy of these gods is to be received and set forth.  Oceanus and Tethys were the children of Earth and Heaven, and from these sprang Phorcys and Cronos and Rhea, and all that generation;  and from Cronos and Rhea sprang Zeus and Herè, and all those who are said to be their brethren, and others who were the children of these.  [The creator of the universe bids the created gods fashion the mortal bodies of man and of the lower animals: he himself will furnish the immortal principle of the soul.]
Now, when all of them, both those who visibly appear in their revolutions as well as those other gods who are of a more retiring nature, had come into being, the creator of the universe addressed them in these words: ‘Gods, children of gods, who are my works, and of whom I am the artificer and father, my creations are indissoluble, if so I will. 
All that is bound may be undone, but only an evil being would wish to undo that which is harmonious and happy.  Wherefore, since ye are but creatures, ye are not altogether immortal and indissoluble, but ye shall certainly not be dissolved, nor be liable to the fate of death, having in my will a greater and mightier bond than those with which ye were bound at the time of your birth.  And now listen to my instructions:  — Three tribes of mortal beings remain to be created  — without them the universe will be incomplete,  for it will not contain every kind of animal which it ought to contain, if it is to be perfect.  On the other hand, if they were created by me and received life at my hands, they would be on an equality with the gods.  In order then that they may be mortal, and that this universe may be truly universal, do ye, according to your natures, betake yourselves to the formation of animals, imitating the power which was shown by me in creating you.  The part of them worthy of the name immortal, which is called divine and is the guiding principle of those who are willing to follow justice and you — of that divine part I will myself sow the seed, and having made a beginning, I will hand the work over to you.  And do ye then interweave the mortal with the immortal, and make and beget living creatures, and give them food, and make them to grow, and receive them again in death.’ 
Und in allen übrigen Stücken bis zu der Entstehung der Zeit hin war sie nun bereits dem Urbilde, welchem sie nachgebildet wurde, entsprechend vollendet; aber darin, daß sie noch nicht alle lebenden Wesen in sich faßte, so daß diese schon innerhalb ihrer entstanden waren, verhielt sie sich noch unähnlich gegen dasselbe.  Und so vollendete der Bildner denn auch dies, was ihr noch mangelte, indem er es nach der Natur des Urbildes ausprägte.  Wie viel nämlich und welcherlei Gestalten die Vernunft nur immer in dem wahrhaft seienden Lebendigen als ihm einwohnende erblickt, so viel und solcherlei, glaubte er, müsse auch dieses Gewordene empfangen.  Es gibt aber deren vier: die eine das himmlische Geschlecht der Götter,  die andere die geflügelte und die Lüfte durchschwebende, die dritte die im Wasser lebende Gattung, und die vierte die, welche sich auf ihren Füßen bewegt und auf dem Erdboden wohnt.  Die Gestalt des Göttlichen nun bildete er größtenteils aus Feuer, damit es so glänzend und schön als möglich anzuschauen wäre, machte es in Nachbildung des Weltganzen wohlgerundet  und versetzte es in das vernunftmäßige Denken des Mächtigsten als dessen Begleiter, indem er es im Umkreise rings um das ganze Weltgebäude verteilte, auf daß es diesem ein wahrhafter Schmuck und eine bunte Zierde nach dessen ganzem Umfange sei.  Bewegungen aber heftete er ihrer zwei einem jeglichen aus diesem Kreise an: die eine in demselben Räume und in gleichmäßiger Weise als einem solchen, welches über dasselbe stets dasselbe bei sich selber denkt,  die andere nach vorne als einem solchen, welches von dem Umschwunge des Selbigen und Gleichartigen beherrscht wird;  hinsichtlich der fünf anderen Bewegungen aber ließ er es unbewegt und stillstehend, damit ein jedes dieser Wesen so vollkommen als möglich würde.  And for this reason the fixed stars were created, to be divine and eternal animals, ever-abiding and revolving after the same manner and on the same spot;  diejenigen aber, welche ihre Stellung verändern und somit dem Wandel unterworfen sind, entstanden aus den Gründen, welche schon im Vorigen auseinandergesetzt sind.  Die Erde aber, unsere Ernährerin, welche um die durch das All gezogene Achse herumgeballt ist, bildete er zur Wächterin und Werkmeisterin von Tag und Nacht als die erste und älteste von den Gottheiten, so viel ihrer innerhalb des Weltgebäudes entstanden sind.  Die Reigenbewegungen aber von diesen selber und ihre gegenseitigen Annäherungen und Begegnungen, und was sich auf die Rückkehr ihrer Bahnen in sich selber und ihr Vorrücken bezieht,  ferner, welche von den Göttern bei den Vereinigungen einander nahe und wie viele einander gegenüber treten, und hinter welchen die einzelnen, indem sie einander ins Licht treten, und zu welchen Zeiten sie sich für uns verbergen und, wenn sie dann wieder zum Vorschein kommen, Furcht vor dem, was bevorsteht, und Vorzeichen desselben für die, welche nicht zu rechnen verstehen, mit sich bringen,  – dies darzustellen ohne Anschauung von Abbildungen, die wieder von ihnen gemacht wären, würde eine vergebliche Mühe sein,  und so möge uns vielmehr das Gesagte in der obigen Weise hinreichen und die Erörterung über die Natur der sichtbaren und geschaffenen Götter hiermit ihr Ende haben.  Über die sonstigen götterartigen Wesen aber zu sprechen und ihre Entstehung zu erkennen, übersteigt unsere Kräfte,  und wir werden denjenigen glauben müssen, welche ehedem darüber gesprochen haben, da sie ja, wie sie sagten, Abkömmlinge der Götter waren und doch wohl genau ihre Vorfahren gekannt haben werden.  Unmöglich also ist es, den Sprößlingen der Götter den Glauben zu versagen, wenn sie auch ohne wahrscheinliche oder gar zwingende Beweisgründe sprechen; sondern als solchen, welche Familienverhältnisse mitzuteilen behaupten, müssen wir ihnen, dem Herkommen folgend, Vertrauen schenken.  Folgendermaßen möge daher nach ihrem Bericht hinsichtlich dieser Götter ihre Entstehung für uns sich verhalten und von uns angegeben werden:  Der Ge und dem Uranos wurden Okeanos und Tethys geboren, diesen aber wiederum Phorkys, Kronos und Rhea und so viele mit ihnen entstanden;  vom Kronos und der Rhea aber entsprossen Zeus und Hera und alle, so viel wir ihrer wissen, welche als ihre Geschwister und von diesen allen selbst noch wieder als Abkömmlinge bezeichnet werden.  Als nun aber die Götter alle, sowohl die, welche sichtbar herumkreisen, als auch die, welche nur erscheinen, je nachdem sie es selber wollen, ihre Entstehung hatten, da spricht zu ihnen der Erzeuger des Alls folgendermaßen: »Göttliche Göttersöhne, deren Bildner ich bin und Vater von Werken, welche, durch mich entstanden, unauflösbar sind, weil ich es so will.  Denn alles, was zusammengebunden ist, läßt sich zwar auch wieder auflösen, aber das, was schön zusammengefügt ist und sich wohl verhält, würde nur ein Frevler wieder auflösen wollen.  Deshalb seid ihr denn auch, weil ihr entstanden seid, zwar nicht schlechterdings unsterblich und unauflösbar; aber nichtsdestoweniger sollt ihr nimmer aufgelöst noch des Todesgeschickes teilhaftig werden, weil ihr an meinem Willen ein noch stärkeres und mächtigeres Band als jene Bänder erlangt habt, mit denen ihr zusammengebunden wurdet, als ihr entstandet.  So merket denn nun, was euch meine Rede verkündet!  Es sind noch sterbliche Geschlechter, und zwar ihrer drei übrig, die noch unerzeugt sind:  träten nun sie nicht ins Leben, so würde das Weltgebäude unvollständig sein:  denn es würde dann nicht alle Geschlechter lebendiger Wesen in sich tragen, und das muß es, wenn es schlechthin vollständig sein soll.  Wenn sie aber durch mich entständen und mit Leben begabt würden, so würden sie den Göttern gleich werden.  Damit sie also zu Sterblichen werden und dieses All ein wirkliches All sei, so kommt es euch naturgemäß zu, euch an die Hervorbringung der lebendi gen Geschöpfe zu machen, indem ihr meine Tätigkeit, wie sie bei eurer Entstehung stattfand, nachahmt.  Und so viel an ihnen dem Unsterblichen gleichnamig zu sein verdient, nämlich das Göttlichzunennende und Leitende in ihnen, soweit sie stets dem Rechte und euch zu folgen geneigt sind, von dem will ich die Samen und Keime selber bilden und euch dann übergeben;  in ihren übrigen Teilen aber sollt ihr, indem ihr mit diesem Unsterblichen Sterbliches verwebt, die lebendigen Geschöpfe vollenden und erzeugen und, indem ihr ihnen Nahrung gebt, sie wachsen lassen und, wenn sie dahingeschwunden sind, wieder in euch aufnehmen.« 
(δημιουργία τῶν ψυχῶν) Ταῦτ’ εἶπε, καὶ πάλιν ἐπὶ τὸν πρότερον κρατῆρα, ἐν ᾧ τὴν τοῦ παντὸς ψυχὴν κεραννὺς ἔμισγεν, τὰ τῶν πρόσθεν ὑπόλοιπα κατεχεῖτο μίσγων τρόπον μέν τινα τὸν αὐτόν, ἀκήρατα δὲ οὐκέτι κατὰ ταὐτὰ ὡσαύτως, ἀλλὰ δεύτερα καὶ τρίτα.  συστήσας δὲ τὸ πᾶν διεῖλεν ψυχὰς ἰσαρίθμους τοῖς ἄστροις,  ἔνειμέν θ’ ἑκάστην πρὸς ἕκαστον,  καὶ ἐμβιβάσας ὡς ἐς ὄχημα τὴν τοῦ παντὸς φύσιν ἔδειξεν, νόμους τε τοὺς εἱμαρμένους εἶπεν αὐταῖς,  ὅτι γένεσις πρώτη μὲν ἔσοιτο τεταγμένη μία πᾶσιν, ἵνα μήτις ἐλαττοῖτο ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ,  δέοι δὲ σπαρείσας αὐτὰς εἰς τὰ προσήκοντα ἑκάσταις ἕκαστα ὄργανα χρόνων φῦναι ζῴων τὸ θεοσεβέστατον,  διπλῆς δὲ οὔσης τῆς ἀνθρωπίνης φύσεως, τὸ κρεῖττον τοιοῦτον εἴη γένος ὃ καὶ ἔπειτα κεκλήσοιτο ἀνήρ.  ὁπότε δὴ σώμασιν ἐμφυτευθεῖεν ἐξ ἀνάγκης, καὶ τὸ μὲν προσίοι, τὸ δ’ ἀπίοι τοῦ σώματος αὐτῶν,  πρῶτον μὲν αἴσθησιν ἀναγκαῖον εἴη μίαν πᾶσιν ἐκ βιαίων παθημάτων σύμφυτον γίγνεσθαι, δεύτερον δὲ ἡδονῇ καὶ λύπῃ μεμειγμένον ἔρωτα,  πρὸς δὲ τούτοις φόβον καὶ θυμὸν ὅσα τε ἑπόμενα αὐτοῖς καὶ ὁπόσα ἐναντίως πέφυκε διεστηκότα·  ὧν εἰ μὲν κρατήσοιεν, δίκῃ βιώσοιντο, κρατηθέντες δὲ ἀδικίᾳ.  καὶ ὁ μὲν εὖ τὸν προσήκοντα χρόνον βιούς, πάλιν εἰς τὴν τοῦ συννόμου πορευθεὶς οἴκησιν ἄστρου, βίον εὐδαίμονα καὶ συνήθη ἕξοι,  σφαλεὶς δὲ τούτων εἰς γυναικὸς φύσιν ἐν τῇ δευτέρᾳ γενέσει μεταβαλοῖ·  μὴ παυόμενός τε ἐν τούτοις ἔτι κακίας, τρόπον ὃν κακύνοιτο, κατὰ τὴν ὁμοιότητα τῆς τοῦ τρόπου γενέσεως εἴς τινα τοιαύτην ἀεὶ μεταβαλοῖ θήρειον φύσιν,  ἀλλάττων τε οὐ πρότερον πόνων λήξοι, πρὶν τῇ ταὐτοῦ καὶ ὁμοίου περιόδῳ τῇ ἐν αὑτῷ συνεπισπώμενος τὸν πολὺν ὄχλον καὶ ὕστερον προσφύντα ἐκ πυρὸς καὶ ὕδατος καὶ ἀέρος καὶ γῆς, θορυβώδη καὶ ἄλογον ὄντα,  λόγῳ κρατήσας εἰς τὸ τῆς πρώτης καὶ ἀρίστης ἀφίκοιτο εἶδος ἕξεως.  διαθεσμοθετήσας δὲ πάντα αὐτοῖς ταῦτα, ἵνα τῆς ἔπειτα εἴη κακίας ἑκάστων ἀναίτιος, ἔσπειρεν τοὺς μὲν εἰς γῆν, τοὺς δ’ εἰς σελήνην, τοὺς δ’ εἰς τἆλλα ὅσα ὄργανα χρόνου·  τὸ δὲ μετὰ τὸν σπόρον τοῖς νέοις παρέδωκεν θεοῖς σώματα πλάττειν θνητά, τό τ’ ἐπίλοιπον, ὅσον ἔτι ἦν ψυχῆς ἀνθρωπίνης δέον προσγενέσθαι,  τοῦτο καὶ πάνθ’ ὅσα ἀκόλουθα ἐκείνοις ἀπεργασαμένους ἄρχειν, καὶ κατὰ δύναμιν ὅτι κάλλιστα καὶ ἄριστα τὸ θνητὸν διακυβερνᾶν ζῷον, ὅτι μὴ κακῶν αὐτὸ ἑαυτῷ γίγνοιτο αἴτιον.  Καὶ ὁ μὲν δὴ ἅπαντα ταῦτα διατάξας ἔμενεν ἐν τῷ ἑαυτοῦ κατὰ τρόπον ἤθει·  μένοντος δὲ νοήσαντες οἱ παῖδες τὴν τοῦ πατρὸς τάξιν ἐπείθοντο αὐτῇ,  καὶ λαβόντες ἀθάνατον ἀρχὴν θνητοῦ ζῴου, μιμούμενοι τὸν σφέτερον δημιουργόν, πυρὸς καὶ γῆς ὕδατός τε καὶ ἀέρος ἀπὸ τοῦ κόσμου δανειζόμενοι μόρια ὡς ἀποδοθησόμενα πάλιν,  εἰς ταὐτὸν τὰ λαμβανόμενα συνεκόλλων, οὐ τοῖς ἀλύτοις οἷς αὐτοὶ συνείχοντο δεσμοῖς, ἀλλὰ διὰ σμικρότητα ἀοράτοις πυκνοῖς γόμφοις συντήκοντες,  ἓν ἐξ ἁπάντων ἀπεργαζόμενοι σῶμα ἕκαστον, τὰς τῆς ἀθανάτου ψυχῆς περιόδους ἐνέδουν εἰς ἐπίρρυτον σῶμα καὶ ἀπόρρυτον.  αἱ δ’ εἰς ποταμὸν ἐνδεθεῖσαι πολὺν οὔτ’ ἐκράτουν οὔτ’ ἐκρατοῦντο, βίᾳ δὲ ἐφέροντο καὶ ἔφερον,  ὥστε τὸ μὲν ὅλον κινεῖσθαι ζῷον, ἀτάκτως μὴν ὅπῃ τύχοι προϊέναι καὶ ἀλόγως, τὰς ἓξ ἁπάσας κινήσεις ἔχον·  εἴς τε γὰρ τὸ πρόσθε καὶ ὄπισθεν καὶ πάλιν εἰς δεξιὰ καὶ ἀριστερὰ κάτω τε καὶ ἄνω καὶ πάντῃ κατὰ τοὺς ἓξ τόπους πλανώμενα προῄειν.  πολλοῦ γὰρ ὄντος τοῦ κατακλύζοντος καὶ ἀπορρέοντος κύματος ὃ τὴν τροφὴν παρεῖχεν, ἔτι μείζω θόρυβον ἀπηργάζετο τὰ τῶν προσπιπτόντων παθήματα ἑκάστοις,  ὅτε πυρὶ προσκρούσειε τὸ σῶμά τινος ἔξωθεν ἀλλοτρίῳ περι τυχὸν ἢ καὶ στερεῷ γῆς πάγῳ ὑγροῖς τε ὀλισθήμασιν ὑδάτων, εἴτε ζάλῃ πνευμάτων ὑπὸ ἀέρος φερομένων καταληφθείη,  καὶ ὑπὸ πάντων τούτων διὰ τοῦ σώματος αἱ κινήσεις ἐπὶ τὴν ψυχὴν φερόμεναι προσπίπτοιεν·  αἳ δὴ καὶ ἔπειτα διὰ ταῦτα ἐκλήθησάν τε καὶ νῦν ἔτι αἰσθήσεις συνάπασαι κέκληνται.  καὶ δὴ καὶ τότε ἐν τῷ παρόντι πλείστην καὶ μεγίστην παρεχόμεναι κίνησιν,  μετὰ τοῦ ῥέοντος ἐνδελεχῶς ὀχετοῦ κινοῦσαι καὶ σφοδρῶς σείουσαι τὰς τῆς ψυχῆς περιόδους,  τὴν μὲν ταὐτοῦ παντάπασιν ἐπέδησαν ἐναντία αὐτῇ ῥέουσαι καὶ ἐπέσχον ἄρχουσαν καὶ ἰοῦσαν, τὴν δ’ αὖ θατέρου διέσεισαν,  ὥστε τὰς τοῦ διπλασίου καὶ τριπλασίου τρεῖς ἑκατέρας ἀποστάσεις καὶ τὰς τῶν ἡμιολίων καὶ ἐπιτρίτων καὶ ἐπογδόων μεσότητας καὶ συνδέσεις,  ἐπειδὴ παντελῶς λυταὶ οὐκ ἦσαν πλὴν ὑπὸ τοῦ συνδήσαντος,  πάσας μὲν στρέψαι στροφάς, πάσας δὲ κλάσεις καὶ διαφθορὰς τῶν κύκλων ἐμποιεῖν, ὁσαχῇπερ ἦν δυνατόν,  ὥστε μετ’ ἀλλήλων μόγις συνεχομένας φέρεσθαι μέν, ἀλόγως δὲ φέρεσθαι, τοτὲ μὲν ἀντίας, ἄλλοτε δὲ πλαγίας, τοτὲ δὲ ὑπτίας·  οἷον ὅταν τις ὕπτιος ἐρείσας τὴν κεφαλὴν μὲν ἐπὶ γῆς, τοὺς δὲ πόδας ἄνω προσβαλὼν ἔχῃ πρός τινι,  τότε ἐν τούτῳ τῷ πάθει τοῦ τε πάσχοντος καὶ τῶν ὁρώντων τά τε δεξιὰ ἀριστερὰ καὶ τὰ ἀριστερὰ δεξιὰ ἑκατέροις τὰ ἑκατέρων φαντάζεται.  ταὐτὸν δὴ τοῦτο καὶ τοιαῦτα ἕτερα αἱ περιφοραὶ πάσχουσαι σφοδρῶς,  ὅταν τέ τῳ τῶν ἔξωθεν τοῦ ταὐτοῦ γένους ἢ τοῦ θατέρου περιτύχωσιν, τότε ταὐτόν τῳ καὶ θάτερόν του τἀναντία τῶν ἀληθῶν προσαγορεύουσαι  ψευδεῖς καὶ ἀνόητοι γεγόνασιν, οὐδεμία τε ἐν αὐταῖς τότε περίοδος ἄρχουσα οὐδ’ ἡγεμών ἐστιν·  αἷς δ’ ἂν ἔξωθεν αἰσθήσεις τινὲς φερόμεναι καὶ προσπεσοῦσαι συνεπισπάσωνται καὶ τὸ τῆς ψυχῆς ἅπαν κύτος, τόθ’ αὗται κρατούμεναι κρατεῖν δοκοῦσι.  καὶ διὰ δὴ ταῦτα πάντα τὰ παθήματα νῦν κατ’ ἀρχάς τε ἄνους ψυχὴ γίγνεται τὸ πρῶτον, ὅταν εἰς σῶμα ἐνδεθῇ θνητόν.  ὅταν δὲ τὸ τῆς αὔξης καὶ τροφῆς ἔλαττον ἐπίῃ ῥεῦμα, πάλιν δὲ αἱ περίοδοι λαμβανόμεναι γαλήνης τὴν ἑαυτῶν ὁδὸν ἴωσι καὶ καθιστῶνται μᾶλλον ἐπιόντος τοῦ χρόνου,  τότε ἤδη πρὸς τὸ κατὰ φύσιν ἰόντων σχῆμα ἑκάστων τῶν κύκλων αἱ περιφοραὶ κατευθυνόμεναι,  τό τε θάτερον καὶ τὸ ταὐτὸν προσαγορεύουσαι κατ’ ὀρθόν, ἔμφρονα τὸν ἔχοντα αὐτὰς γιγνόμενον ἀποτελοῦσιν.  ἂν μὲν οὖν δὴ καὶ συνεπιλαμβάνηταί τις ὀρθὴ τροφὴ παιδεύσεως, ὁλόκληρος ὑγιής τε παντελῶς, τὴν μεγίστην ἀποφυγὼν νόσον, γίγνεται·  καταμελήσας δέ, χωλὴν τοῦ βίου διαπορευθεὶς ζωήν, ἀτελὴς καὶ ἀνόητος εἰς Ἅιδου πάλιν ἔρχεται.  ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ὕστερά ποτε γίγνεται·  περὶ δὲ τῶν νῦν προτεθέντων δεῖ διελθεῖν ἀκριβέστερον, τὰ δὲ πρὸ τούτων, περὶ σωμάτων κατὰ μέρη τῆς γενέσεως καὶ περὶ ψυχῆς, δι’ ἅς τε αἰτίας καὶ προνοίας γέγονε θεῶν,  τοῦ μάλιστα εἰκότος ἀντεχομένοις, οὕτω καὶ κατὰ ταῦτα πορευομένοις διεξιτέον. 
Haec ille dixit; deinde ad temperationem superiorem revertit, in qua omnem animum universae naturae temperans permiscebat superiorisque permixtionis reliquias fundens aequabat eodem modo ferme, nisi quod non ita incorrupta ut ea quae semper isdem, sed ab iis secundum sumebat atque etiam tertium.  Toto igitur omni constituto sideribus parem numerum distribuit animorum  et singulos adiunxit ad singula  atque ita quasi in currum universitatis imposuit commonstravitque leges fatales ac necessarias et ostendit  primum ortum unum fore omnibus eumque moderatum atque constantem nec ab ullo inminutum;  satis autem et quasi sparsis animis fore uti certis temporum intervallis oreretur animal quod esset ad cultum deorum aptissimum.  Sed cum duplex esset natura generis humani, sic se res habebat ut praestantius genus esset eorum qui essent futuri viri.  Cum autem animis corpora necessitate insevisset cumque ad corpora [necessitate] tum accessio fieret tum abscessio,  principio necesse erat sensum exsistere unum communemque omnium vehementiore motu excitatum coniunctumque naturae, deinde voluptate et molestia mixtum amorem,  post iram et metum et reliquos motus animi comites superiorum et his etiam contrarios dissidentes.  "Quos qui ratione rexerit, iuste vixerit, qui autem iis se dederit, iniuste.  Atque ille qui recte atque honeste curriculum vivendi a natura datum confecerit ad illud astrum quocum aptus fuerit revertetur;  qui autem inmoderate et intemperate vixerit, eum secundus ortus in figuram muliebrem transferet,  et si ne tum quidem finem vitiorum faciet gravius etiam iactabitur et in suis moribus simillimas figuras pecudum et ferarum transferetur  neque terminum malorum prius aspiciet quam illam sequi coeperit conversionem quam habebit in se ipse eiusdem et uni similis innatam et insitam: quod tum eveniet cum illa quae ex igni anima aqua terra turbulenta et rationis expertia insederint  ratione depulerit et ad primam atque optimam affectionem animi pervenerit."  Quae cum ita designasset seseque, si quid postea fraudis aut vitii evenisset, extra omnem culpam causamque posuisset, alios[que] in terram alios in lunam alios in reliquas mundi partes, quae sunt [ad] spatiorum temporis signa et notae constitutae, spargens quasi serebat.  Post autem eam sationem dis ut ita dicam iunioribus permisit ut corpora mortalia effingerent, quantumque esset reliquum ex humano animo quod deberet accedere,  id omne et quae consequentia essent perpolirent et absolverent, deinde ut huic animanti principes se ducesque praeberent vitamque eius quam pulcherrime regerent et gubernarent, quatenus non ipse bene factus sua culpa sibi aliquid miseriae quaereret.  Atque is quidem qui cuncta conposuit constanter in suo manebat statu;  qui autem erant ab eo creati, cum parentis ordinem cognovissent, hunc sequebantur.  Itaque cum accepissent inmortale principium mortalis animantis, imitantes genitorem et effectorem sui particulas ignis et terrae et atque et animae a mundo, quas rursus redderent, mutuabantur  easque inter se copulabant, haud isdem vinclis quibus ipsi erant conligati, sed talibus quae cerni non possent propter parvitatem crebris quasi cuneolis inliquefactis  unum efficiebant ex omnibus corpus atque in eo influente atque affluente animi divini ambitus inligabant.  Itaque illi in flumen inmersi neque tenebant neque tenebantur, sed vi magna tum ferebant tum ferebantur.  Ita totum animal movebantur illud quidem, sed inmoderate et fortuito, ut sex motibus veheretur:  nam et ante et pone et ad laevam et ad dextram et sursum et deorsum, modo huc modo illuc....[lacuna]...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ... 
Haec dixit et demum reliquias prioris concretionis, ex qua mundi animam commiscuerat, in eiusdem crateris sinum refundens eodem propemodum genere atque eadem ratione miscebat, nec tamen eadem exoriebatur puritas serenitasque prouentuum nec tam immutabilis perseverantiae sed secundae ac tertiae dignitatis;  coagmentataque mox universae rei machina delegit animas stellarum numero pares  singulasque singulis comparavit  easdemque uehiculis competentibus superimpositas uniuersae rei naturam spectare iussit legesque immutabilis decreti docuit ostendens,  quod prima quidem generatio uniformis in omnibus eiusdemque ordinis esset futura, ne cui competens iustum aliqua ex parte a se minueretur.  Oportebat porro satas eas certis legitimisque temporum uicibus piae nationis animalium quaeque praeter caeteras animantes deum suspiciant afferre frugem,  esse autem naturam hominis geminam, cuius quod melius sit genus censendum fore viri nomine.  Cumque necessitate decreti corporibus inserentur corporeaque supellex varie mutabitur quibusdam labentibus et aliis invicem succedentibus membris,  primo quidem sensum ex violentis passionibus excitari, post quem mixtam ex voluptate tristitiaque cupidinem nasci,  tum uero metum atque iracundiam caeterasque pedissequas earum perturbationes diverso affectu pro natura sua permoventes;  quas quidem si frenarent ac subiugarent, iustam his lenemque uitam fore, sin vincerentur, iniustam et confragosam.  Et victricibus quidem ad comparis stellae contubernium sedemque reditum patere acturis deinceps vitam veram et beatam,  victas porro mutare sexum atque ad infirmitatem naturae muliebris relegari secundae generationis tempore;  nec a vitiis intemperantiaque desciscentibus tamen poenam reiectionemque in deteriora non cessare, donec instituto meritisque congruas immanium ferarum induant formas,  pausamque malorum non prius fore quam consecuta eas rata et eadem semper volucris illa mundi circumactio cuncta earum vitia ex igni et aqua terraque et aere contracta omnemque illuviem deterserit inconsultis et immoderatis erroribus ad modum rationis temperiemque redactis,  quo positis sordibus expiatae purificataeque demum ad antiqui uultus honestatem pertingere mereantur.  Quibus cunctis fatalium legum promulgationibus in istum modum patefactis et expositis, ne qua penes se deinceps ex reticentia noxae resideret auctoritas, sementem fecit eius modi deus, ut partim in terra, partim in luna generis humani iacerentur exordia, partim in caeteris quae instrumenta sunt temporis.  Ea porro officia quae sementem sequuntur factis a se diis iniunxit, ut dixeram, maximeque formandorum corporum curam mortalium; ac si qua pars etiam tunc hominis animae residua superesset,  cuius constitutioni nauanda opera videretur, caeteraque omnia consequenter aggrederentur hortatus est, quae operis perfectio rerumque ordo deposceret proque viribus eniterentur, ut quam optime mortalis natura regeretur exceptis improsperitatibus, quarum esset auctoritas et causa penes ipsos.  Quibus in istum modum digestis omnibus cum in proposito rerum creator maneret,  intellegentes iussionem patris filii iuxta mandatam  informationem immortali sumpto initio mortalis animantis ex mundi materiis igni terraque et aqua cum spiritu faenus elementarium mutuati, quod redderetur cum opus foret,  ea quae acceperant conglutinabant non isdem quibus ipsi nexibus, sed aliis ob incomprehensibilem brevitatem invisibilibus gomphis.  Itaque apparata materia circuitus immortalis animae circumligabant inriguo fluidoque corpori;  circuitus porro ut torrenti rapido defluoque obligati neque tenebant neque tenebantur, sed ita vi ferebant et inuicem ferebantur,  ut totum quidem animal moueretur, praecipiti tamen et inordinata iactatione, quippe cum sex sine ratione raptaretur motibus,  ultro citro, dextrorsum sinistrorsum et item sursum deorsumque pergens atque oberrans.  Immenso quippe inrigante et immoderate effluente gurgite, ex quo cibus et alimenta comparabantur, multo maior extrinsecus turba conflicta tioque vexabat,  cum corpus aliquod in raptatu incurrisset ignis offensionem uel etiam terrenam complosionem, similiter aquae lubricas uiolentasque uentorum procellas  hisque interpellationibus omnibus per corpus ad animam commeantibus stimulate mens aestuaret;  qui quidem aestus propterea et initio et nunc usque sensus cognominantur.  Maximos violentosque motus cientes cum naturali derivatione  iugiter et sine intermissione effluente circuitus animae quasi quibusdam turbinibus simul quatiunt, ilium quidem prouidum eius consultumque motum,  scilicet eiusdem circuli, cuius est orbiculata circumuolutatio, statuentes et contra quam illa mouetur operantes imperiumque eius respuentes, at uero diuersi circuli diuersis motibus incertisque famulantes  usque adeo ut -- quia limites duplicis illius et triplicis quantitatis et item interualla terna per utrumque latus epitritorum sescuplorumque et epogdoorum medietatibus confirmata  dissolvi a nullo quam ab eo solo qui iunxerat poterant,  omni tamen iactationis genere diuexarent adversis sibi inuicem motibus animam, totem eius substantiam diverse distrahentes,  ut una quidem feratur cum confirmationis suae nexibus, verum sine ratione utpote discordantibus motibus et depravante rectum iter sensuum illecebra. Propterea varias inclinationes existere obliquae, contraries et item resupinis casibus similes,  ut si quis naturalem memoris regionem mutans caput pro pedibus solo figat, pedes in altum pro capite sustollat;  tunc, opinor, tam eius qui patitur quam eorum qui spectant dextrae quidem parses sinistrae, sinistrae vero dextrae videntur invicem.  Id ipsum animae quoque circuitus patiuntur  proptereaque errant in eiusdem diversique generis contemplatione, cum quod diversum idem, et quod est idem diversum imbecillitate discernendi autumant  estque haec eorum plena erroris et falsitatis opinio orta ex depravatione sensuum nec habet ullum certum ducem talis peragratio;  cumque extra positi sensus pulsaverint animam vehementius omnemque eam possederint, tunc illa subiugata et serviens pontificium aliquod potestatemque retinere falso putatur  eademque passionibus aegra et initio, cum incorporata est, et quamdiu perinde afficietur amens erit.  At postquam incrementi nutricationisque tenui iam rivo meatus effluet animaeque circuitus tranquilliore motu viam suam peragent processuque temporis sedatiores erunt,  utpote qui a naturae suae competenti motu minime exorbitent,  facile iam diversae naturae vitia bonitatemque et honestatem semper eiusdem cum alterius appetitu, alterius vero detestatione secernent hominemque ita institutum plena et incolumi prudentia tuebuntur.  Ac si ad hunc statum accedat auxiliatrix eruditionis honestae moderationisque diligentia, immunis omni perturbatione atque aegritudine ducet aevum;  si negleget, claudum iter vitae serpens cum familiari demum stultitia revocabitur ad inferna.  Sed haec quidem novissime provenient meritis iam vitae locatis;  nunc vero divinae providentiae spectari pensum convenit ex membrorum rationabili conformatione, quae suscipiendo vitali vigori caelestis apparabat prospicientia. 
Haec fatus, in eodem rursus (43) cratere, in quo mundi totius animam permiscens temperaverat, superioris temperatio(44)nis reliquias miscendo perfudit, modo quodam eodem, non tamen perfectas similiter, sed (45) et secundo et tertio gradu a primis deficientes.  Denique cum universum constituisset, a(46)stris parem numerum distribuit animarum,  singulis singulas adhibens,  eiusque tanquam vehi(47)culo impositis monstravit universi naturam, ac leges fatales edixit:  ostendens quidem pri(48)mam omnibus generationem ordine quodam unam fore, nequis ab eo minis aliquid for(49)tiatur.  Satis autem et quasi sparsis animis per singula singulis convenientia temporum in(50)strumenta, fore ut animal nasceretur, quod omnium animalium maxime esset divino cul(51)tui deditum.  Esse autem naturam hominis geminam: cuius id genus fore praestantius quod (52) viri nomine sit appellandum.  Cum vero animae corporibus necessitate quadam insertae fu(53)erint, et corporalibus earum accesserit aliquid vicissimque abscesserit,  primum utique necessa(54)rio sensum unum omnibus intimum, et naturae coniunctum illic violentis passionibus (1) excitari, deinde voluptate et dolore mixtum amorem,  post haec metum et iram, et quae(2)cunque vel ista sequuntur, vel ab istis ut contraria dissident.  Haec qui superaverint, eos iu(3)ste victuros, iniuste vero qui ab his fuerint superati.  Atque illum qui recte curriculum(4) vivendi a natura datum confecerit, ad illud astrum cui accommodatus fuerit, reversum (5) beatam vitam acturum.  Contra vero agentem cogi in ortu secundo sexu mutato fieri mu(6)lierem.  Et qui ne tum quidem finem peccandi faciet, quatenus depravatur, eatenus in (7) brutorum naturam suis moribus similem permutari:  nec prius a mutationibus labori(8)busque cessare, quam illam sibi infitam eiusdem ipsius similsue naturae conversionem se(9)curus ipse, eique subiiciens turbulentos multiplicesque affectus postea ex igni, aqua, aere, (10) et terra contractos,  ratione sedaverit, et ad primum optimumque sui habitum iam redie(11)rit.  Quae cum illis ita designavisset, nequa penes se futurae pravitatis causa esset, alios in (12) terram, alios in lunam, alios in alia temporis instrumenta spargens quasi ferebat.  Post hu(13)iusmodi sementem, quod reliquum erat, diis iunioribus agendum mandavit, ut corpora (14) mortalia fingerent, quantumque esset humanae animae quod reliquum huic deberet acce(15)dere,  id omne et quae consequentia essent, adiungerent regerentque, et quam optime et (16) pulcherrime fieri posset mortalis animalis animalis naturam gubernarent, nisi ipsum sibimet ma(17)lorum causa esset.  Atque is quidem qui haec cincta disposuit, rite in suo habitu permane(18)bat.  Quo quidem permanente, eius filii cum parentis ordinem cognovissent, eum pro(19)tinus sequebantur.  Itaque accepto ab illo mortalis animantis immortali principio, sui (20) effectorem imitati, ignis, aeris, aquae, terrae particulas, quas rursus redderent, a mundo (21) mutuebantur:  easque inter se copulabant, haud iisdem illis indissolubilibus vinculis, quibus (22) ipsi fuerant colligati, sed talibus quae propter parvitatem cerni non possent: crebrisque hu(23)iusmodi clavis coniunctis  unum ex omnibus corpus efficiebant, atque in hoc ipsum tum (24) influente, tum effluente corpore animae divinae, circuitus illigabant.  Itaque hi circuitus (25) in profundum flumen immersi, neque tenebant neque tenebantur, sed vi ferebantur, at(26)que ferebant.  Ex quo factum est, ut totum animal moveretur, sine ordine tamen, et for(27)tuita quadam iactatione. Cui quidem sex pervagari motibus contingit undique per sex (28) loci differentias progrediendo,  videlicet ante et retro, ad dexteram et laevam, sursum at(29)que deorsum.  Cum vero plurimus inundaret fluctus atque deflueret unde animal nutri(30)retur, multo etiam maior a passionibus extrinsecus illatis turba sequebatur,  cum corpus (31) aliquod ignis exterioris incurrisset offensionem, vel a terra soliditate, aut aquae humore, (32) aut aeris flatu laesum esset.  Porro ab iis omnibus per corpus motus usque ad animam (33) transeunt,  qui propterea et initio et nunc sensus cognominati sunt.  Hi quidem ab initio (34) continue multos et maximos motus cient,  rivo illo iugiter fluente, atque his fluctibus (35) vehementer animae circuitus quatiunt.  Et circuitum quidem illum eiusdem similisque (36) naturae in ipso cursu prorsus impediunt: alterius vero circuitum distrahunt:  usqueadeo (37) ut dupla illa et tripla utrinque disposita intervalla tria, medietatesque et colligationes ses(38)quitertia, sesquialtera, sesquioctava ratione interiectas,  quae dissolvi a nullo nisi ab eo qui (39) coniunxit possunt,  omni revolutionis genere torqueant, omnesque anfractus et varietates (40) orbium, quotcunque contingere queunt, inducantia  ut ambitus ipsi vix sibi invicem (41) connexi, ferantur quidem, sed sine ratione ferantur, tum contra, tum ex obliquo, tum re(42)supina quadam dispositione,  ceu siquis caput pro pedibus humi figat, pedes vero pro ca(43)pite tollat in altum.  Tunc arbitror tam eius qui sic affectus est, quam eorum qui spectant, (44) dextrae partes sinistrae, et contra sinistrae dexterae sibi invicem esse videntur.  Itaque cum (45) hoc ipsum ceterave huiusmodi animi quoque ambitu maxime patiuntur,  si tunc extrinse(46)cum aliquid eiusdem ipsius vel alterius generis inciderint, falso quid idem alicui sit, quid(47)ve alterum ab aliquo iudicant.  Ideoque mendaces tunc dementes sunt, nec ullus princeps (48) et dux in eis tunc est circuitus.  Cumque extra positi sensus pulsaverint animam vehemen(49)tius, totamque possederint, tunc illi subiugati quidem et servientes dominari videntur.  (50) Quas ob res ab initio anima cum mortalis corporis vinculis includitur, amens efficitur.  (51) At postquam nutritionis et augmenti rivus lenius minusque fluit, animaeque circuitus tran(52)quilliore motu iter suum peragunt, processuque temporis sedatiores fiunt,  et in figuram na(53)turae congruam restituuntur:  tunc singulorum circulorum directae conversiones, eius(54)dem et alterius naturam probe discernunt, hominemque sic institutum prudentem efficiunt.  (1) Quod si quis educationi rectaeue nutritioni quoque et eruditionem conve(2)nientem adiunxerit, morbo gravissimo devitato fanus et integer prorsus evadet:  sin au(3)tem neglexerit, claudum vitae iter ingresus, tanquam mancus et omnino inutilis rursus (4) ad inferos decidit.  Sed haec quidem post ortum contingunt.  Nunc vero de prima homi((5)nis compositione exactius differendum, ac probabili ratione monstrandum, qua cau(6)sa et providentia deorum singula membra corporis ad singula animae officia sint accom(7)modata. 
[He makes the human soul of the same elements as the universal; and having distributed it into souls equal in number to the stars, sets one soul in each star and reveals to them their future life on the planets, when they will have mortal bodies.
Those who then live well will return to their original star; those who live badly will take a lower form at their next birth.]
Thus he spake, and once more into the cup in which he had previously mingled the soul of the universe he poured the remains of the elements, and mingled them in much the same manner; they were not, however, pure as before, but diluted to the second and third degree. 
And having made it he divided the whole mixture into souls equal in number to the stars,  assigned each soul to a star;  and having there placed them as in a chariot, he showed them the nature of the universe, and declared to them the laws of destiny,  according to which their first birth would be one and the same for all, — no one should suffer a disadvantage at his hands;  they were to be sown in the instruments of time severally adapted to them, and to come forth the most religious of animals;  and as human nature was of two kinds, the superior race would hereafter be called man.  Now, when they should be implanted in bodies by necessity, and be always gaining or losing some part of their bodily substance,  then in the first place it would be necessary that they should all have in them one and the same faculty of sensation, arising out of irresistible impressions; in the second place, they must have love, in which pleasure and pain mingle;  also fear and anger, and the feelings which are akin or opposite to them;  if they conquered these they would live righteously, and if they were conquered by them, unrighteously.  He who lived well during his appointed time was to return and dwell in his native star, and there he would have a blessed and congenial existence.  But if he failed in attaining this, at the second birth he would pass into a woman,  and if, when in that state of being, he did not desist from evil, he would continually be changed into some brute who resembled him in the evil nature which he had acquired,  and would not cease from his toils and transformations until he followed the revolution of the same and the like within him, and overcame by the help of reason the turbulent and irrational mob of later accretions, made up of fire and air and water and earth,  and returned to the form of his first and better state.2   Having given all these laws to his creatures, that he might be guiltless of future evil in any of them, the creator sowed some of them in the earth, and some in the moon, and some in the other instruments of time;  and when he had sown them he committed to the younger gods the fashioning of their mortal bodies, and desired them to furnish what was still lacking to the human soul,  and having made all the suitable additions, to rule over them, and to pilot the mortal animal in the best and wisest manner which they could, and avert from him all but self-inflicted evils.  [The created gods provide for the human soul bodies compounded of earth, air, fire and water. The courses of the soul, when placed in them, are so disturbed by the ebbing and flowing stream of nutriment and by external sensations, that the revolution of the same is stopped, and the mean terms which unite the sphere of the other are disordered. Thus at first the soul does not attain to truth and wisdom.] When the creator had made all these ordinances he remained in his own accustomed nature,  and his children heard and were obedient to their father’s word,  and receiving from him the immortal principle of a mortal creature, in imitation of their own creator they borrowed portions of fire, and earth, and water, and air from the world, which were hereafter to be restored —  these they took and welded them together, not with the indissoluble chains by which they were themselves bound, but with little pegs too small to be visible,  making up out of all the four elements each separate body, and fastening the courses of the immortal soul in a body which was in a state of perpetual influx and efflux.  Now these courses, detained as in a vast river, neither overcame nor were overcome; but were hurrying and hurried to and fro,  so that the whole animal was moved and progressed, irregularly however and irrationally and anyhow, in all the six directions of motion,  wandering backwards and forwards, and right and left, and up and down, and in all the six directions.  For great as was the advancing and retiring flood which provided nourishment, the affections produced by external contact caused still greater tumult  — when the body of any one met and came into collision with some external fire, or with the solid earth or the gliding waters, or was caught in the tempest borne on the air,  and the motions produced by any of these impulses were carried through the body to the soul.  All such motions have consequently received the general name of ‘sensations,’ which they still retain.  And they did in fact at that time create a very great and mighty movement;  uniting with the ever-flowing stream in stirring up and violently shaking the courses of the soul,  they completely stopped the revolution of the same by their opposing current, and hindered it from predominating and advancing; and they so disturbed the nature of the other or diverse,  that the three double intervals [i. e. between 1, 2, 4, 8], and the three triple intervals [i. e. between 1, 3, 9, 27], together with the mean terms and connecting links which are expressed by the ratios of 3 : 2, and 4 : 3, and of 9 : 8,  — these, although they cannot be wholly undone except by him who united them,  were twisted by them in all sorts of ways, and the circles were broken and disordered in every possible manner,  so that when they moved they were tumbling to pieces, and moved irrationally, at one time in a reverse direction, and then again obliquely, and then upside down,  as you might imagine a person who is upside down and has his head leaning upon the ground and his feet up against something in the air;  and when he is in such a position, both he and the spectator fancy that the right of either is his left, and the left right.  If, when powerfully experiencing these and similar effects,  the revolutions of the soul come in contact with some external thing, either of the class of the same or of the other, they speak of the same or of the other in a manner the very opposite of the truth;  and they become false and foolish, and there is no course or revolution in them which has a guiding or directing power;  and if again any sensations enter in violently from without and drag after them the whole vessel of the soul, then the courses of the soul, though they seem to conquer, are really conquered.  [As the stream of nutriment abates, the courses of the soul regain their proper motions, and the man becomes a rational creature. True education renders him perfect.] And by reason of all these affections, the soul, when encased in a mortal body, now, as in the beginning, is at first without intelligence;  but when the flood of growth and nutriment abates, and the courses of the soul, calming down, go their own way and become steadier as time goes on,  then the several circles return to their natural form, and their revolutions are corrected,  and they call the same and the other by their right names, and make the possessor of them to become a rational being.  And if these combine in him with any true nurture or education, he attains the fulness and health of the perfect man, and escapes the worst disease of all;  but if he neglects education he walks lame to the end of his life, and returns imperfect and good for nothing to the world below.  This, however, is a later stage;  at present we must treat more exactly the subject before us, which involves a preliminary enquiry into the generation of the body and its members, and as to how the soul was created,—for what reason and by what providence of the gods;  and holding fast to probability, we must pursue our way. 
So sprach er und goß wiederum in dasselbe Mischgefäß, in welchem er zuvor die Seele des Alls zusammengemischt hatte, die Überreste derselben Bestandteile hinein und vermischte sie zwar ungefähr auf die gleiche Weise, nahm sie aber nicht von derselben gleichmäßigen Reinheit, sondern vom zweiten und dritten Range.  Und nachdem er aus ihnen ein Ganzes gebildet hatte, verteilte er dies in Seelen von gleicher Zahl mit den Sternen  und teilte je eine einem jeden zu,  und nachdem er sie so auf dieselben wie au fein Fahrzeug gesetzt hatte, zeigte er ihnen die Natur des Alls und verkündete ihnen die vom Schicksal verhängten Gesetze,  daß nämlich die erste Geburt auf die gleiche Weise für sie alle bestimmt sein werde, auf daß keine von ihnen in Nachteil durch ihn gesetzt würde,  und daß sie auf die einzelnen, einer jeden entsprechenden Werkzeuge der Zeit verpflanzt, zu demjenigen aller lebendigen Geschöpfe werden sollten, welches am meisten die Götter verehre;  und da die menschliche Natur eine zwiespältige sei, so solle das edlere von beiden Geschlechtern mit einer solchen Beschaffenheit vorgebildet werden, wie sie hernach mit dem Namen Mann verbunden sein sollte.                                                                                             
(σῶμα καὶ αἰσθήσεις) Τὰς μὲν δὴ θείας περιόδους δύο οὔσας, τὸ τοῦ παντὸς σχῆμα ἀπομιμησάμενοι περιφερὲς ὄν, εἰς σφαιροειδὲς σῶμα ἐνέδησαν,  τοῦτο ὃ νῦν κεφαλὴν ἐπονομάζομεν, ὃ θειότατόν τέ ἐστιν καὶ τῶν ἐν ἡμῖν πάντων δεσποτοῦν·  ᾧ καὶ πᾶν τὸ σῶμα παρέδοσαν ὑπηρεσίαν αὐτῷ συναθροίσαντες θεοί, κατανοήσαντες ὅτι πασῶν ὅσαι κινήσεις ἔσοιντο μετέχοι.  ἵν’ οὖν μὴ κυλινδούμενον ἐπὶ γῆς ὕψη τε καὶ βάθη παντοδαπὰ ἐχούσης ἀποροῖ τὰ μὲν ὑπερβαίνειν, ἔνθεν δὲ ἐκβαίνειν, ὄχημα αὐτῷ τοῦτο καὶ εὐπορίαν ἔδοσαν·  ὅθεν δὴ μῆκος τὸ σῶμα ἔσχεν, ἐκτατά τε κῶλα καὶ καμπτὰ ἔφυσεν τέτταρα θεοῦ μηχανησαμένου πορείαν,  οἷς ἀντιλαμβανόμενον καὶ ἀπερειδόμενον διὰ πάντων τόπων πορεύεσθαι δυνατὸν γέγονε, τὴν τοῦ θειοτάτου καὶ ἱερωτάτου φέρον οἴκησιν ἐπάνωθεν ἡμῶν.  σκέλη μὲν οὖν χεῖρές τε ταύτῃ καὶ διὰ ταῦτα προσέφυ πᾶσιν·  τοῦ δ’ ὄπισθεν τὸ πρόσθεν τιμιώτερον καὶ ἀρχικώτερον νομίζοντες θεοὶ ταύτῃ τὸ πολὺ τῆς πορείας ἡμῖν ἔδοσαν.  ἔδει δὴ διωρισμένον ἔχειν καὶ ἀνόμοιον τοῦ σώματος τὸ πρόσθεν ἄνθρωπον.  διὸ πρῶτον μὲν περὶ τὸ τῆς κεφαλῆς κύτος, ὑποθέντες αὐτόσε τὸ πρόσωπον,  ὄργανα ἐνέδησαν τούτῳ πάσῃ τῇ τῆς ψυχῆς προνοίᾳ, καὶ διέταξαν τὸ μετέχον ἡγεμονίας τοῦτ’ εἶναι, τὸ κατὰ φύσιν πρόσθεν·  τῶν δὲ ὀργάνων πρῶτον μὲν φωσφόρα συνετεκτήναντο ὄμματα, τοιᾷδε ἐνδήσαντες αἰτίᾳ.  τοῦ πυρὸς ὅσον τὸ μὲν κάειν οὐκ ἔσχε, τὸ δὲ παρέχειν φῶς ἥμερον, οἰκεῖον ἑκάστης ἡμέρας, σῶμα ἐμηχανήσαντο γίγνεσθαι.  τὸ γὰρ ἐντὸς ἡμῶν ἀδελφὸν ὂν τούτου πῦρ εἰλικρινὲς ἐποίησαν διὰ τῶν ὀμμάτων ῥεῖν λεῖον καὶ πυκνὸν ὅλον μέν, μάλιστα δὲ τὸ μέσον συμπιλήσαντες τῶν ὀμμάτων,  ὥστε τὸ μὲν ἄλλο ὅσον παχύτερον στέγειν πᾶν, τὸ τοιοῦτον δὲ μόνον αὐτὸ καθαρὸν διηθεῖν.  ὅταν οὖν μεθημερινὸν ᾖ φῶς περὶ τὸ τῆς ὄψεως ῥεῦμα, τότε ἐκπῖπτον ὅμοιον πρὸς ὅμοιον, συμπαγὲς γενόμενον, ἓν σῶμα οἰκειωθὲν συνέστη κατὰ τὴν τῶν ὀμμάτων εὐθυωρίαν, ὅπῃπερ ἂν ἀντερείδῃ τὸ προσπῖπτον ἔνδοθεν πρὸς ὃ τῶν ἔξω συνέπεσεν.  ὁμοιοπαθὲς δὴ δι’ ὁμοιότητα πᾶν γενόμενον,  ὅτου τε ἂν αὐτό ποτε ἐφάπτηται καὶ ὃ ἂν ἄλλο ἐκείνου, τούτων τὰς κινήσεις διαδιδὸν εἰς ἅπαν τὸ σῶμα μέχρι τῆς ψυχῆς αἴσθησιν παρέσχετο ταύτην ᾗ δὴ ὁρᾶν φαμεν.  ἀπελθόντος δὲ εἰς νύκτα τοῦ συγγενοῦς πυρὸς ἀποτέτμηται·  πρὸς γὰρ ἀνόμοιον ἐξιὸν ἀλλοιοῦταί τε αὐτὸ καὶ κατασβέννυται, συμφυὲς οὐκέτι τῷ πλησίον ἀέρι γιγνόμενον, ἅτε πῦρ οὐκ ἔχοντι.  παύεταί τε οὖν ὁρῶν, ἔτι τε ἐπαγωγὸν ὕπνου γίγνεται·  σωτηρίαν γὰρ ἣν οἱ θεοὶ τῆς ὄψεως ἐμηχανήσαντο, τὴν τῶν βλεφάρων φύσιν,  ὅταν ταῦτα συμμύσῃ, καθείργνυσι τὴν τοῦ πυρὸς ἐντὸς δύναμιν,  ἡ δὲ διαχεῖ τε καὶ ὁμαλύνει τὰς ἐντὸς κινήσεις,  ὁμαλυνθεισῶν δὲ ἡσυχία γίγνεται, γενομένης δὲ πολλῆς μὲν ἡσυχίας βραχυόνειρος ὕπνος ἐμπίπτει,  καταλειφθεισῶν δέ τινων κινήσεων μειζόνων, οἷαι καὶ ἐν οἵοις ἂν τόποις λείπωνται,  τοιαῦτα καὶ τοσαῦτα παρέσχοντο ἀφομοιωθέντα ἐντὸς ἔξω τε ἐγερθεῖσιν ἀπομνημονευόμενα φαντάσματα.  τὸ δὲ περὶ τὴν τῶν κατόπτρων εἰδωλοποιίαν καὶ πάντα ὅσα ἐμφανῆ καὶ λεῖα, κατιδεῖν οὐδὲν ἔτι χαλεπόν.  ἐκ γὰρ τῆς ἐντὸς ἐκτός τε τοῦ πυρὸς ἑκατέρου κοινωνίας ἀλλήλοις, ἑνός τε αὖ περὶ τὴν λειότητα ἑκάστοτε γενομένου καὶ πολλαχῇ μεταρρυθμισθέντος,  πάντα τὰ τοιαῦτα ἐξ ἀνάγκης ἐμφαίνεται, τοῦ περὶ τὸ πρόσωπον πυρὸς τῷ περὶ τὴν ὄψιν πυρὶ περὶ τὸ λεῖον καὶ λαμπρὸν συμπαγοῦς γιγνομένου.  δεξιὰ δὲ φαντάζεται τὰ ἀριστερά, ὅτι τοῖς ἐναντίοις μέρεσιν τῆς ὄψεως περὶ τἀναντία μέρη γίγνεται ἐπαφὴ παρὰ τὸ καθεστὸς ἔθος τῆς προσβολῆς·  δεξιὰ δὲ τὰ δεξιὰ καὶ τὰ ἀριστερὰ ἀριστερὰ τοὐναντίον, ὅταν μεταπέσῃ συμπηγνύμενον ᾧ συμπήγνυται φῶς,  τοῦτο δέ, ὅταν ἡ τῶν κατόπτρων λειότης, ἔνθεν καὶ ἔνθεν ὕψη λαβοῦσα, τὸ δεξιὸν εἰς τὸ ἀριστερὸν μέρος ἀπώσῃ τῆς ὄψεως καὶ θάτερον ἐπὶ θάτερον.  κατὰ δὲ τὸ μῆκος στραφὲν τοῦ προσώπου ταὐτὸν τοῦτο ὕπτιον ἐποίησεν πᾶν φαίνεσθαι, τὸ κάτω πρὸς τὸ ἄνω τῆς αὐγῆς τό τ’ ἄνω πρὸς τὸ κάτω πάλιν ἀπῶσαν.  Ταῦτ’ οὖν πάντα ἔστιν τῶν συναιτίων οἷς θεὸς ὑπηρετοῦσιν χρῆται τὴν τοῦ ἀρίστου κατὰ τὸ δυνατὸν ἰδέαν ἀποτελῶν·  δοξάζεται δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν πλείστων οὐ συναίτια ἀλλὰ αἴτια εἶναι τῶν πάντων, ψύχοντα καὶ θερμαίνοντα πηγνύντα τε καὶ διαχέοντα καὶ ὅσα τοιαῦτα ἀπεργαζόμενα.  λόγον δὲ οὐδένα οὐδὲ νοῦν εἰς οὐδὲν δυνατὰ ἔχειν ἐστίν.  τῶν γὰρ ὄντων ᾧ νοῦν μόνῳ κτᾶσθαι προσήκει, λεκτέον ψυχήν - τοῦτο δὲ ἀόρατον, πῦρ δὲ καὶ ὕδωρ καὶ γῆ καὶ ἀὴρ σώματα πάντα ὁρατὰ γέγονεν  - τὸν δὲ νοῦ καὶ ἐπιστήμης ἐραστὴν ἀνάγκη τὰς τῆς ἔμφρονος φύσεως αἰτίας πρώτας μεταδιώκειν,  ὅσαι δὲ ὑπ’ ἄλλων μὲν κινουμένων, ἕτερα δὲ κατὰ ἀνάγκης κινούντων γίγνονται, δευτέρας.  ποιητέον δὴ κατὰ ταῦτα καὶ ἡμῖν·  λεκτέα μὲν ἀμφότερα τὰ τῶν αἰτιῶν γένη, χωρὶς δὲ ὅσαι μετὰ νοῦ καλῶν καὶ ἀγαθῶν δημιουργοὶ καὶ ὅσαι μονωθεῖσαι φρονήσεως τὸ τυχὸν ἄτακτον ἑκάστοτε ἐξεργάζονται.  τὰ μὲν οὖν τῶν ὀμμάτων συμμεταίτια πρὸς τὸ σχεῖν τὴν δύναμιν ἣν νῦν εἴληχεν εἰρήσθω·  τὸ δὲ μέγιστον αὐτῶν εἰς ὠφελίαν ἔργον, δι’ ὃ θεὸς αὔθ’ ἡμῖν δεδώρηται, μετὰ τοῦτο ῥητέον.  ὄψις δὴ κατὰ τὸν ἐμὸν λόγον αἰτία τῆς μεγίστης ὠφελίας γέγονεν ἡμῖν, ὅτι τῶν νῦν λόγων περὶ τοῦ παντὸς λεγομένων οὐδεὶς ἄν ποτε ἐρρήθη μήτε ἄστρα μήτε ἥλιον μήτε οὐρανὸν ἰδόντων.  νῦν δ’ ἡμέρα τε καὶ νὺξ ὀφθεῖσαι μῆνές τε καὶ ἐνιαυτῶν περίοδοι καὶ ἰσημερίαι καὶ τροπαὶ μεμηχάνηνται μὲν ἀριθμόν, χρόνου δὲ ἔννοιαν περί τε τῆς τοῦ παντὸς φύσεως ζήτησιν ἔδοσαν·  ἐξ ὧν ἐπορισάμεθα φιλοσοφίας γένος, οὗ μεῖζον ἀγαθὸν οὔτ’ ἦλθεν οὔτε ἥξει ποτὲ τῷ θνητῷ γένει δωρηθὲν ἐκ θεῶν.  λέγω δὴ τοῦτο ὀμμάτων μέγιστον ἀγαθόν·  τἆλλα δὲ ὅσα ἐλάττω τί ἂν ὑμνοῖμεν, ὧν ὁ μὴ φιλόσοφος τυφλωθεὶς ὀδυρόμενος ἂν θρηνοῖ μάτην;  ἀλλὰ τούτου λεγέσθω παρ’ ἡμῶν αὕτη ἐπὶ ταῦτα αἰτία, θεὸν ἡμῖν ἀνευρεῖν δωρήσασθαί τε ὄψιν, ἵνα τὰς ἐν οὐρανῷ τοῦ νοῦ κατιδόντες περιόδους χρησαίμεθα ἐπὶ τὰς περιφορὰς τὰς τῆς παρ’ ἡμῖν διανοήσεως,  συγγενεῖς ἐκείναις οὔσας, ἀταράκτοις τεταραγμένας,  ἐκμαθόντες δὲ καὶ λογισμῶν κατὰ φύσιν ὀρθότητος μετασχόντες, μιμούμενοι τὰς τοῦ θεοῦ πάντως ἀπλανεῖς οὔσας, τὰς ἐν ἡμῖν πεπλανημένας καταστησαίμεθα.  φωνῆς τε δὴ καὶ ἀκοῆς πέρι πάλιν ὁ αὐτὸς λόγος, ἐπὶ ταὐτὰ τῶν αὐτῶν ἕνεκα παρὰ θεῶν δεδωρῆσθαι.  λόγος τε γὰρ ἐπ’ αὐτὰ ταῦτα τέτακται, τὴν μεγίστην συμβαλλόμενος εἰς αὐτὰ μοῖραν,  ὅσον τ’ αὖ μουσικῆς φωνῇ χρήσιμον πρὸς ἀκοὴν ἕνεκα ἁρμονίας ἐστὶ δοθέν.  ἡ δὲ ἁρμονία, συγγενεῖς ἔχουσα φορὰς ταῖς ἐν ἡμῖν τῆς ψυχῆς περιόδοις, τῷ μετὰ νοῦ προσχρωμένῳ Μούσαις οὐκ ἐφ’ ἡδονὴν ἄλογον καθάπερ νῦν εἶναι δοκεῖ χρήσιμος,  ἀλλ’ ἐπὶ τὴν γεγονυῖαν ἐν ἡμῖν ἀνάρμοστον ψυχῆς περίοδον εἰς κατακόσμησιν καὶ συμφωνίαν ἑαυτῇ σύμμαχος ὑπὸ Μουσῶν δέδοται·  καὶ ῥυθμὸς αὖ διὰ τὴν ἄμετρον ἐν ἡμῖν καὶ χαρίτων ἐπιδεᾶ γιγνομένην ἐν τοῖς πλείστοις ἕξιν ἐπίκουρος ἐπὶ ταὐτὰ ὑπὸ τῶν αὐτῶν ἐδόθη. 
...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...urere...lucere...  ...per oculos emicare...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  defenstrix...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ... ii splendore consedit, tum vel eadem species  vel interdum inmutata redditur, cum ignis oculorum cum eo igne qui est ob os effusus se confudit et contulit.  Dextra autem videntur quae laeva sunt, quia contrariis partibus oculorum contrarias partes adtingunt.  Respondent autem dextra dexteris, laeva laevis conversione luminum, cum ea inter se non cohaerescunt:  id fit cum speculorum levitas hinc illincque altitudinem adsumpsit et ita dexteram detrusit in laevam partem oculorum laevamque in dexteram.  Supina etiam ora cernuntur depulsione luminum, quae convertens inferiora reddit quae sunt superiora.  Atque haec omnia ex eo genere sunt quae rerum adiuvant causas, quibus utitur ministeriis deus cum optimi speciem quoad fieri potest efficit;  sed existimant plerique non haec adiuvantia causarum sed has ipsas esse omnium causas, [quae vim habeant frigoris et caloris] quae vim habeant refrigerandi calefaciendi concrescendi liquendi,  careant autem omni intellegentia atque ratione,  quae nisi in animo nulla alia in natura reperiantur; animus autem sensum omnem effugit oculorum, at ignis aqua terra anima corpora sunt eaque cernuntur.  Illum autem qui intellegentiae sapientiaeque se amatorem profitetur necesse est intellegentis sapientisque naturae primas causas conquirere,  dein secundas earum rerum quae necessario movent alias cum ipsae ab aliis moventur.  Quocirca nobis sic cerno esse faciendum  ut de utroque nos quidem dicamus genere causarum, separatim autem de is quae cum intellegentia sunt efficientes pulcherrimarum rerum atque optumarum et de is quae vacantes prudentia inconstantia perturbataque efficiunt.  Ac de oculorum quidem causis, ut haberent eam vim quam nunc habent, satis ferme esse dictum puto;  maxuma autem eorum utilitas donata hominum generi deorum munere deinceps explicetur.  Rerum enim optumarum cognitionem nobis oculi adtulerunt. Nam haec quae est habita de universitate oratio a nobis haud umquam esset inventa, si neque sidera neque sol neque caelum sub oculorum aspectum cadere potuissent.  Nunc vero dies noctesque oculis cognitae, tum mensum annorumque conversiones et numerum machinatae sunt et spatium temporis dimensae, et ad quaestionem totius naturae inpulerunt;  quibus ex rebus philosophiam adepti sumus, quo bono nullum optabilius nullum praestantius neque datum est mortalium generi deorum concessu atque munere neque dabitur. [Hic finit Cicero]                       
Principio figuram capitis divinae potestates, quibus informandi corporis erat officium concreditum, ex mundi figura mutuatae teretem globosamque finxerunt eidemque duos circuitus venerandae divinitatis innexuerunt.  Est autem caput praeter caeterum corpus honoratius et optimati quadam eminentia;  cui reliqua membra dominanti parent atque obsequuntur iure meritoque subiecta,11   ne sine sede humiliter in imo plane iacens asperas, cum moveretur, terrenarum lacunarum offensiones proclivitatis et item declivitatis incurreret, maxime cui esset necesse cuncta motuum genera experiri. Hac igitur de causa vehiculo corporis utpote arx sustinetur.  Addita est crurum quoque et brachiorum porrigibilis et flexuosa substantia,  ut tenendi omittendi progrediendi resistendique usus ex arbitrio praesto foret eminente divino capitis gestamine.  See record above  Progrediendi porro commodius officium quam recedendi rata divina mens ire ulterius mage quam recessim voluit moveri; priores quoque corporis partes meliores posterioribus iudicans    in homine primo omnium e regione certa capitis personam subdidit vultus eamque appellavit faciem  eidemque instrumenta quae adminicularentur providis animae motibus assignavit.  E quibus primi luciferi oculorum orbes coruscant hac de causa dati.  Duae sunt, opinor, virtutes ignis, altera edax et peremptoria, altera mulcebris innoxio lumine. Huic igitur, ex qua lux diem invehens panditur, domesticum et familiare corpus oculorum divinae potestates commentae sunt,  intimum siquidem nostri corporis ignem, utpote germanum ignis perlucidi sereni et defaecati liquoris, per oculos fluere ac demanare voluerunt,  ut per leves congestosque et tamquam firmiore soliditate probatos orbes luminum, quorum tamen esset angusta medietas subtilior, serenus ignis per eandem efflueret medietatem.  Itaque cum diurnum iubar applicat se uisus fusioni, tunc nimirum incurrentia semet invicem duo similia in unius corporis speciem cohaerent, quo concurrunt oculorum acies emicantes quoque effluentis intimae fusionis acies contiguae imaginis occursu repercutitur.  Totum igitur hoc similem eandemque sortitum passionem  et ob indifferentem similitudinem eiusdem passionis effectum, cum quid aliud tangit uel ipsum ab alio tangitur, tactuum motu diffundens se per omne corpus perque corpus usque ad animam porrigens sensum efficit qui visus vocatur.  At postquam in noctem discesserit cognatus ignis, desertum lucis eius auxilio consortioque velut viduatum hebet,  ut quippe ad dissimile procedens, proptereaque immutatum extinguitur nullam habens cum proximo tunc aere naturae communicationem, utpote splendore ignis carenti,  videreque desinit factum illecebra somni.  Etenim divinae potestates salubre oculis tegmen palpebrarum machinatae sunt,  quibus obductis vis illa ignis intimi coniventia tegminis coercetur  compressaque fundit se per membra mollitisque  et relaxatis convalescit quies.  Quae cum est vehementior motuum reliquiis, cuius modi erunt et quibus in locis reliquiae,  talia pariaque somniorum simulacra nascentur eorumque expergefactos quoque memoria comitabitur.  At vero simulacrorum quae in speculis oboriuntur, umbrarum etiam quae in humida cernuntur superficie, facilis assecutio est,  siquidem utriusque ignis tam intimi quam extra positi concursu incidente in tersam aliquam levemque materiae superficie in formatique in multas et varias liguras  12 simulacra ex levigati corporis conspectu resultant.  Dextrae porro partes quae sunt sinistrae videntur in isdem speculis insolito quodam more, propterea quod dextris partibus visus contra sinistram partem speculi, sinistris item contra dextram positis, motu facto corporis ex adverso partis eius unde motus fit gesticulatur motus imago.  At uero dextrae corporis partes dextrae ita ut sunt in speculis quoque sinistraeque item sinistrae uidentur, cum ex coitu visus et splendoris e speculo corpulentior conglobata imago recidet;  quod fit, quotiens teres speculi serenitas hinc inde tumidioribus et provectis in molem lateribus dextram uisus partem in laeuam speculi, laevam item in dexteriora deiecit.  Cuius speculi demum si talis facta erit conversio, ut elatiores illae partes altera superior altera inferior locentur, resupini vultus apparebunt videntis splendore luminis e superiore margine cum summis oris partibus et ipso capite ad inferiora deiectis, similis porro ut mento genisque ad superiora sublatis.  Qui quidem sensus famulantur actibus opificis dei summam optimamque et primariam speciem molientis,  sed uulgo per semet ipsos sentire existimantur et agere aliquid, ut si quis non opifici sed serrae vel asciae tribuat effecti operis auctoritatem, cum a se plurimum distent causae et ea quae causam sequuntur. Licet enim corporea sint fundamenta omnium sensuum, quod tamen sentit, alienum a natura corporis, excipit sensus puro et incorporeo uigore; quippe corpora frigus et calorem, astrictionem et relaxationem recipiunt,  non sentiunt nec vero rationem intellectumque in rebus ratione prudentiaque agendis sciunt,  sed quod ex omnibus quae sunt intellectum prudentiamque habet, sola anima. Hoc porro inuisibile, at vero ignis et aqua caeteraeque materiae visibilia sunt corpora.  Oportet autem intellectus et disciplinae amatorem prudentissimae naturae principalem causam, non adminicula causae principalis inquirere,  illas uero, quae ab aliis motae mouent alias, secundas existimandum.  Nobis quoque igitur in eundem modum faciendum est  et de utroque causarum genere disserendum, sed separatim quidem de optimis, quae cum intellectu prudentiaque cuncta honesta et bona moliuntur, seorsum vero de his quae mente prudentiaque cassae temere et ut libet confusa et inordinata quae faciunt relinquunt.  Et de oculorum quidem ministerii causa, ob quam nacti sunt eam quam habent uirtutem, satis dictum,  de praecipua tamen utilitate operis eorum mox erit aptior disserendi locus.  Visus enim iuxta meam sententiam causa est maximi commodi plerisque non otiose natis atque institutis ob id ipsum quod nunc agimus; neque enim de universa re quisquam quaereret nisi prius stellis sole caeloque visis.  At nunc diei noctisque insinuata nobis alterna vice menses annorumque obitus et anfractus nati sunt eorumque ipsorum dinumeratio et ex dinumeratione perfectus et absolutus extitit numerus, tum temporis recordatio, quae naturam universae rei quaeri docuit curamque investigationis iniecit mentibus,  quasi quoddam seminarium philosophiae pangens, quo bono nihil umquam maius ad hominum genus divina munificentia commeavit.  Hoc igitur maximum beneficium visus oculorumque esse dico;  minora alia praetereo quibus qui a philosophia remoti sunt carentes debiles caecique maestam vitam lugubremque agunt.  Nobis vero causa dicenda demonstrandaque videtur divini muneris quod prouidentia commenta est salubriter hactenus: deum oculos hominibus idcirco dedisse, ut mentis prouidentiaeque circuitus, qui fiunt in caelo, notantes eorum similes cognatosque in usum redigerent suae mentis, circuitusque animae, qui animadversiones seu deliberationes vocantur,  quam simillimos efficerent divinae mentis providis motibus placidis tranquillisque, perturbatos licet,  confirmatoque ingeneratae rationis examine, dum imitantur aplanem mundi intellegibilis circumactionem, suae mentis motus erraticos corrigant.  Eadem uocis quoque et auditus ratio est ad eosdem usus atque ad plenam vitae hominum instructionem datorum,  siquidem propterea sermonis est ordinata communicatio, ut praesto forent mutuae voluntatis indicia;  quantumque per vocem utilitatis capitur ex musica, totum hoc constat hominum generi propter harmoniam tributum.  Harmonia vero, id est modulatio, utpote intentio modificata, cognatas et velut consanguineas habens commotiones animae nostrae circuitionibus, prudenter utentibus Musarum munere temperantiaeque causa potius quam oblectationis satis est commoda,  quippe quae discrepantes et inconsonantes animae commotiones ad concentum exornationemque concordiae Musis auxiliantibus revocet;  rhythmus autem datus ut medela contra illepidam numerorumque et modorum nesciam gratiaeque expertem in plerisque naturam. 
Principio dii figuram capitis ad rotunditatem mundi finxere, in eoque duos illos (8) animae divinos circuitus statuerunt.  Est autem caput membrorum corporis divinissimum,  (9) reliquorumque membrorum princeps: cui totum corpus connexum dii subesse et parere (10) iusserunt. Excogitaverunt enim motuum omnium quotcunque esse queant, compos id (11) fore.  Cum vero inaequalis et aspera, ac partim quidem acclivis, partim declivis terra sit, (12) si humi caput serperet, perque terrae superficiem volveretur, hos anfractus sine offensione (13) transire non posset. Quod sane malum ut vitaretur, procerum hunc habitum corporis (14) ad faciliorem progressum dii pro vehiculo capiti subiecerunt.  Corpori praeterea quatu(15)or in longum porrecta et flexibilia membra annexerunt,  quibus facile divina providen(16)tia moveretur, apprehenderet videlicet obiecta quaeque, staret, et sisteret, perque omnia (17) graderetur caput superne subsistens divinissimi sacrasissimique habitaculum.  Hanc igitur (18) ob causam nobis crura manusque dedere.  Anteriores autem partes posterioribus praestan(19)tiores et ad imperandum aptiores arbitrati, in anteriorem quoque partem moveri nos (20) ut plurimum volverunt.  Oportebat porro anteriora discreta et dissimilia esse.  Quapro(21)pter primum globo capitis faciem adiecere,  facieique instrumenta quae adminicularentur (22) omni animae providentiae, assignaverunt, decreveruntque naturale hominis imperium in (23) hac parte interiori priorique consistere.  Sed ex omnibus faciei partibus primi luciferi ocu(24)lorum orbes coruscant, hac causa dati.  Ignis certe illius qui non urit quidem sed illumi(25)nando suaviter diem invehit mundo, participes oculorum orbes dii fecerunt.  Intimum (26) siquidem nostri corporis ignem huius ignis germanum syncerumque per oculos emanare (27) volvuerunt,  in quibus lenis congestusque ubique ignis huiusmodi sit, sed per eorum dun(28)taxat solidiorem angustamque medietatem ignis purior evolet, crassior vero cohibeatur.  (29) Itaque cum diurnum lumen applicat se visus ratio, tunc ea duo inter se similia concurren(30)tia atque commixta, quo oculorum acies diriguntur, ibi in unius iam domestici corporis (31) cohaerent speciem, ubicunque videlicet tam intimi quam externi luminis concursus.  (32) Totum igitur hoc propter similitudinem passionem eandem fortitum,  cum quid aliud tan(33)git, vel ipsum ab alio tangitur, motum huiusmodi ad corpus omne perque id ad animam (34) usque ad diffundens sensum efficit, qui visus vocatur.  At postquam in noctem disscesserit co(35)gnatus ignis, visionis radius evanescit.  Nam in aerem sibi dissimilem erumpens permuta(36)tur atque extinguitur, cum nullam habeat cum proximo aere, utpote ignis splendore (37) carente, naturae communionem.  Idcirco videre definit, somnumque inducit.  Etenim salu(38)bre palpebrarum tegmen dii oculis machinati sunt:  quibus obductis vis illa ignis intimi (39) conniventia tegminis coercetur,  compressaque interiores motus perfundit et mulcet,  qui(40)bus relaxatis atque mollitis quies oritur. Si profundus ob multam quietem motuum nos oc(41)cupat sopor, exigua sequuntur insomnia.  Sin vehementiores aliqui motus quasi vigiliarum (42) reliquiae relicti sint, quales quidem et qualibus ex locis haustae reliquiae sunt,  talia somnio(43)rum simulacra nascuntur, eorumque nobis expergefactis restat memoria.  At vero simula(44)crorum quae vel in speculis oboriuntur, vel in perspicua lenique cernuntur superficie, faci(45)lis assecutio est.  Nam ex utriusque ignis tam intimi quam extra positi communione, eiusque (46) rursus concursu et congruentia, qui passim terso lenique corpori accommodatus est,  ne(47)cessario haec omnia oriuntur, cum ignis oculorum cum igne qui est e conspectu effusus, (48) circa lene nitidumque corpus sese confudit.  Dextera vero videntur quae laeve sunt, qui con(49)trariis partibus oculorum in solito more contrarias partes attingimus.  Respondent au(50)tem dextera dexteris, laeva laevis, quando commixtum lumen cum eo cui permiscetur; (51) transilit.  Id cum speculorum lenitas hinc illinque altitudinem assumpsit, et ita dextram o(52)culorum partem in laevam speculi, laevamque in dextram detorsit.  Quod si speculum ad (53) vultus lingitudinem convertatur, vultum reddit resupinum, cum superior luminis pars (54) ad inferiora, inferior vero ad superiora vertatur.  Atque haec omnia ex eorum genere(1)sunt, quae principiales rerum adiuvant causas, quibus ut ministris utitur deus ad optimi, (2) quoad fieri potest, ideam perficiendam.  Sed existimant plerique non adminacula haec (3) principalium causarum, sed has ipsas esse omnium causas, quae frigoris et caloris, rari et (4) densi, ceterorumque similium natura habeant,  rationem vero mentemque nequaquam.  (5) Mentem enim a nulla re alia nisi ab anima possideri convenit. hac [sic est] vero aspectum effu(6)git oculorum. Sed ignis, aqua, aer, ac terra corpora sunt, atque cernuntur.  Oportet au(7)tem mentis et scientiae amatorem principales sapientis naturae causas quaerere:  atque eas (8) quae necessario ab aliis quidem moventur, alia vero movent, secundas causas arbitrari.  (9) Quocirca a nobis sic censeo faciendum,  ut de utroque causarum genere differamus, sepa(10)ratim autem de his quae cum intelligentia effectrices sunt pulchrarum rerum atque bona(11)rum, de iis rursus quae vacantes prudentia quodlibet passim sine ordine faciunt.  Ac de (12) secundis quidem causis oculorum ad aem vim quam habent conducentibus, satis esse di(13)ctum puto.  Maximum vero opus cuius gratia utiliter nobis a deo donati sunt, deinceps (14) explicandum censeo.  Rerum enim optimarum, ut arbitror, cognitionem nobis oculi at(15)tulerunt. Nam haec quae de mundo disputantur, numquam inventa essent, si neque side(16)ra, neque sol, neque coelum suspici potuissent.  Cognitio vero diei ac noctis ab oculis orta (17) fecit, ut dinumeratione quadam mensium annorumque metiremur, tempus cog(18)nosceremus, universae naturae ordinem scrutaremur.  Quibus ex rebus philosophiam a(19)depti sumus. Quo bono nihil unquam maius mortalium generi datum est deorum munere, (20) neque dabitur.  Hoc igitur maximum oculorum beneficium esse dico.  Minora alia prae(21)tereo. Quibus qui a philosophia alieni sunt, orbati si querantur, frustra querentur.  No(22)bis vero asserendum est ob hanc potissimum rationem deum oculos genuisse, ut mentis (23) circuitus qui in coelo peraguntur, intuiti, in usum redigamus nostrae mentis:  cogitationis(24)que nostrae discursiones illis cognatas, sed perturbatas quodammodo ad illorum tempe(25)riem revocemus.  Et cum illos agnorevimus, et recta ratione secundum naturam praediti (26) singulorum ordinem percepimus, conversiones dei quae sine ullo errore aguntur, imi(27)temur, atque ad earum exemplum discursiones nostrae cogitationis vagas et erraticas con(28)ponamus.  Vocem quoque auditumque eiusdem rei gratia deos dedisse nobis existimo.  (29) Nam ad haec ipsa sermo pertinet, plurimumque conducit,  omnisque musicae vocis usus harmo(30)niae gratia est tributus.  Atqui et harmonia, quae motiones habet animae nostrae discursi(31)onibus congruas atque cognatas, homini prudenter musis utenti non ad voluptatem ra(32)tionis expertem, ut nunc videtur, est utilis:  sed a musis ideo data est, ut per dissonan(33)tem circuitum animae componamus, et ad concentum sibi congruum redigamus.  Rhyth(34)mus quoque ad hoc videtur esse tributus, ut habitum in nobis immoderatum gratiaque (35) carentem aptissime temperemus. 
[These courses were encased in the head, which, like the universe, is in the form of a sphere. The body, with its four limbs, is the vehicle of the head; it moves forward because the front part of us is the more honourable. In the front part of the head the face was inserted, and in the face, eyes. Sight arises thus:—The light from the eyes and the light of day, which is akin to it, combine; and when they meet with the light from an object, all three form one body, which transmits to the soul the motions of the object. In the case of reflections in plane mirrors, the transposition of right and left is due to the fact that the light from the eye and the object meet in an unusual manner. In a concavemirror, if held horizontally, there is no transposition; but if it be held vertically.] First, then, the gods, imitating the spherical shape of the universe, enclosed the two divine courses in a spherical body,  that, namely, which we now term the head, being the most divine part of us and the lord of all that is in us:  to this the gods, when they put together the body, gave all the other members to be servants, considering that it partook of every sort of motion.  In order then that it might not tumble about among the high and deep places of the earth, but might be able to get over the one and out of the other, they provided the body to be its vehicle and means of locomotion;  which consequently had length and was furnished with four limbs extended and flexible;  these God contrived to be instruments of locomotion with which it might take hold and find support, and so be able to pass through all places, carrying on high the dwelling-place of the most sacred and divine part of us.  Such was the origin of legs and hands, which for this reason were attached to every man;  and the gods, deeming the front part of man to be more honourable and more fit to command than the hinder part, made us to move mostly in a forward direction.  Wherefore man must needs have his front part unlike and distinguished from the rest of his body.  And so in the vessel of the head, they first of all put a face  in which they inserted organs to minister in all things to the providence of the soul, and they appointed this part, which has authority, to be by nature the part which is in front.  And of the organs they first contrived the eyes to give light, and the principle according to which they were inserted was as follows:  So much of fire as would not burn, but gave a gentle light, they formed into a substance akin to the light of every-day life;  and the pure fire which is within us and related thereto they made to flow through the eyes in a stream smooth and dense, compressing the whole eye, and especially the centre part,  so that it kept out everything of a coarser nature, and allowed to pass only this pure element.  When the light of day surrounds the stream of vision, then like falls upon like, and they coalesce, and one body is formed by natural affinity in the line of vision, wherever the light that falls from within meets with an external object.  And the whole stream of vision, being similarly affected in virtue of similarity,  diffuses the motions of what it touches or what touches it over the whole body, until they reach the soul, causing that perception which we call sight.  But when night comes on and the external and kindred fire departs, then the stream of vision is cut off;  for going forth to an unlike element it is changed and extinguished, being no longer of one nature with the surrounding atmosphere which is now deprived of fire;  and so the eye no longer sees, and we feel disposed to sleep.  For when the eyelids, which the gods invented for the preservation of sight,  are closed, they keep in the internal fire;  and the power of the fire diffuses and equalizes the inward motions;  when they are equalized, there is rest, and when the rest is profound, sleep comes over us scarce disturbed by dreams;  but where the greater motions still remain, of whatever nature and in whatever locality,  they engender corresponding visions in dreams, which are remembered by us when we are awake and in the external world.  And now there is no longer any difficulty in understanding the creation of images in mirrors and all smooth and bright surfaces.  For from the communion of the internal and external fires, and again from the union of them and their numerous transformations when they meet in the mirror,  all these appearances of necessity arise, when the fire from the face coalesces with the fire from the eye on the bright and smooth surface.  And right appears left and left right, because the visual rays come into contact with the rays emitted by the object in a manner contrary to the usual mode of meeting;  but the right appears right, and the left left, when the position of one of the two concurring lights is reversed;  and this happens when the mirror is concave and its smooth surface repels the right stream of vision to the left side, and the left to the right.  Or if the mirror be turned vertically, then the concavity makes the countenance appear to be all upside down, and the lower rays are driven upwards and the upper downwards the image is inverted.  [Enough of the secondary or irrational causes of sight; the first or intelligent cause is the purpose for which God gave it. From sight we derive number and philosophy; and the observation of the intelligent motions of the heavens enables us to correct the erring courses of our souls. Speech, hearing, harmony, and rhythm have the same object in view.] All these are to be reckoned among the second and co-operative causes which God, carrying into execution the idea of the best as far as possible, uses as his ministers.  They are thought by most men not to be the second, but the prime causes of all things, because they freeze and heat, and contract and dilate, and the like.  But they are not so, for they are incapable of reason or intellect;  the only being which can properly have mind is the invisible soul, whereas fire and water, and earth and air, are all of them visible bodies.   The lover of intellect and knowledge ought to explore causes of intelligent nature first of all,  and, secondly, of those things which, being moved by others, are compelled to move others.  And this is what we too must do.  Both kinds of causes should be acknowledged by us, but a distinction should be made between those which are endowed with mind and are the workers of things fair and good, and those which are deprived of intelligence and always produce chance effects without order or design.  Of the second or co-operative causes of sight, which help to give to the eyes the power which they now possess, enough has been said.  I will therefore now proceed to speak of the higher use and purpose for which God has given them to us.  The sight in my opinion is the source of the greatest benefit to us, for had we never seen the stars, and the sun, and the heaven, none of the words which we have spoken about the universe would ever have been uttered.  But now the sight of day and night, and the months and the revolutions of the years, have created number, and have given us a conception of time, and the power of enquiring about the nature of the universe;  and from this source we have derived philosophy, than which no greater good ever was or will be given by the gods to mortal man.  This is the greatest boon of sight:  and of the lesser benefits why should I speak? even the ordinary man if he were deprived of them would bewail his loss, but in vain.  Thus much let me say however: God invented and gave us sight to the end that we might behold the courses of intelligence in the heaven, and apply them to the courses of our own intelligence  which are akin to them, the unperturbed to the perturbed;  and that we, learning them and partaking of the natural truth of reason, might imitate the absolutely unerring courses of God and regulate our own vagaries.  The same may be affirmed of speech and hearing: they have been given by the gods to the same end and for a like reason.  For this is the principal end of speech, whereto it most contributes.  Moreover, so much of music as is adapted to the sound of the voice and to the sense of hearing is granted to us for the sake of harmony;  and harmony, which has motions akin to the revolutions of our souls, is not regarded by the intelligent votary of the Muses as given by them with a view to irrational pleasure, which is deemed to be the purpose of it in our day,  but as meant to correct any discord which may have arisen in the courses of the soul, and to be our ally in bringing her into harmony and agreement with herself;  and rhythm too was given by them for the same reason, on account of the irregular and graceless ways which prevail among mankind generally, and to help us against them. 
                                                                                                                   
(ἀνάγκη) Τὰ μὲν οὖν παρεληλυθότα τῶν εἰρημένων πλὴν βραχέων ἐπιδέδεικται τὰ διὰ νοῦ δεδημιουργημένα·  δεῖ δὲ καὶ τὰ δι’ ἀνάγκης γιγνόμενα τῷ λόγῳ παραθέσθαι.  μεμειγμένη γὰρ οὖν ἡ τοῦδε τοῦ κόσμου γένεσις ἐξ ἀνάγκης τε καὶ νοῦ συστάσεως ἐγεννήθη·  νοῦ δὲ ἀνάγκης ἄρχοντος τῷ πείθειν αὐτὴν τῶν γιγνομένων τὰ πλεῖστα ἐπὶ τὸ βέλτιστον ἄγειν,  ταύτῃ κατὰ ταῦτά τε δι’ ἀνάγκης ἡττωμένης ὑπὸ πειθοῦς ἔμφρονος οὕτω κατ’ ἀρχὰς συνίστατο τόδε τὸ πᾶν.  εἴ τις οὖν ᾗ γέγονεν κατὰ ταῦτα ὄντως ἐρεῖ, μεικτέον καὶ τὸ τῆς πλανωμένης εἶδος αἰτίας, ᾗ φέρειν πέφυκεν·  ὧδε οὖν πάλιν ἀναχωρητέον, καὶ λαβοῦσιν αὐτῶν τούτων προσήκουσαν ἑτέραν ἀρχὴν αὖθις αὖ, καθάπερ περὶ τῶν τότε νῦν οὕτω περὶ τούτων πάλιν ἀρκτέον ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς.  τὴν δὴ πρὸ τῆς οὐρανοῦ γενέσεως πυρὸς ὕδατός τε καὶ ἀέρος καὶ γῆς φύσιν θεατέον αὐτὴν καὶ τὰ πρὸ τούτου πάθη·  νῦν γὰρ οὐδείς πω γένεσιν αὐτῶν μεμήνυκεν, ἀλλ’ ὡς εἰδόσιν πῦρ ὅτι ποτέ ἐστιν καὶ ἕκαστον αὐτῶν λέγομεν ἀρχὰς αὐτὰ τιθέμενοι στοιχεῖα τοῦ παντός,  προσῆκον αὐτοῖς οὐδ’ ἂν ὡς ἐν συλλαβῆς εἴδεσιν μόνον εἰκότως ὑπὸ τοῦ καὶ βραχὺ φρονοῦντος ἀπεικασθῆναι.  νῦν δὲ οὖν τό γε παρ’ ἡμῶν ὧδε ἐχέτω·  τὴν μὲν περὶ ἁπάντων εἴτε ἀρχὴν εἴτε ἀρχὰς εἴτε ὅπῃ δοκεῖ τούτων πέρι τὸ νῦν οὐ ῥητέον,  δι’ ἄλλο μὲν οὐδέν, διὰ δὲ τὸ χαλεπὸν εἶναι κατὰ τὸν παρόντα τρόπον τῆς διεξόδου δηλῶσαι τὰ δοκοῦντα,  μήτ’ οὖν ὑμεῖς οἴεσθε δεῖν ἐμὲ λέγειν, οὔτ’ αὐτὸς αὖ πείθειν ἐμαυτὸν εἴην ἂν δυνατὸς ὡς ὀρθῶς ἐγχειροῖμ’ ἂν τοσοῦτον ἐπιβαλλόμενος ἔργον·  τὸ δὲ κατ’ ἀρχὰς ῥηθὲν διαφυλάττων, τὴν τῶν εἰκότων λόγων δύναμιν, πειράσομαι μηδενὸς ἧττον εἰκότα,  μᾶλλον δὲ καὶ ἔμπροσθεν ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς περὶ ἑκάστων καὶ συμπάντων λέγειν.  θεὸν δὴ καὶ νῦν ἐπ’ ἀρχῇ τῶν λεγομένων σωτῆρα ἐξ ἀτόπου καὶ ἀήθους διηγήσεως πρὸς τὸ τῶν εἰκότων δόγμα διασῴζειν ἡμᾶς ἐπικαλεσάμενοι πάλιν ἀρχώμεθα λέγειν.  Ἡ δ’ οὖν αὖθις ἀρχὴ περὶ τοῦ παντὸς ἔστω μειζόνως τῆς πρόσθεν διῃρημένη·  τότε μὲν γὰρ δύο εἴδη διειλόμεθα, νῦν δὲ τρίτον ἄλλο γένος ἡμῖν δηλωτέον.  τὰ μὲν γὰρ δύο ἱκανὰ ἦν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἔμπροσθεν λεχθεῖσιν, ἓν μὲν ὡς παραδείγματος εἶδος ὑποτεθέν, νοητὸν καὶ ἀεὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ὄν, μίμημα δὲ παραδείγματος δεύτερον, γένεσιν ἔχον καὶ ὁρατόν.  τρίτον δὲ τότε μὲν οὐ διειλόμεθα, νομίσαντες τὰ δύο ἕξειν ἱκανῶς·  νῦν δὲ ὁ λόγος ἔοικεν εἰσαναγκάζειν χαλεπὸν καὶ ἀμυδρὸν εἶδος ἐπιχειρεῖν λόγοις ἐμφανίσαι.  τίν’ οὖν ἔχον δύναμιν καὶ φύσιν αὐτὸ ὑποληπτέον;  τοιάνδε μάλιστα· πάσης εἶναι γενέσεως ὑποδοχὴν αὐτὴν οἷον τιθήνην.  εἴρηται μὲν οὖν τἀληθές, δεῖ δὲ ἐναργέστερον εἰπεῖν περὶ αὐτοῦ, χαλεπὸν δὲ ἄλλως τε καὶ διότι προαπορηθῆναι περὶ πυρὸς καὶ τῶν μετὰ πυρὸς ἀναγκαῖον τούτου χάριν·  τούτων γὰρ εἰπεῖν ἕκαστον ὁποῖον ὄντως ὕδωρ χρὴ λέγειν μᾶλλον ἢ πῦρ, καὶ ὁποῖον ὁτιοῦν μᾶλλον ἢ καὶ ἅπαντα καθ’ ἕκαστόν τε, οὕτως ὥστε τινὶ πιστῷ καὶ βεβαίῳ χρήσασθαι λόγῳ, χαλεπόν.  πῶς οὖν δὴ τοῦτ’ αὐτὸ καὶ πῇ καὶ τί περὶ αὐτῶν εἰκότως διαπορηθέντες ἂν λέγοιμεν;  πρῶτον μέν, ὃ δὴ νῦν ὕδωρ ὠνομάκαμεν, πηγνύμενον ὡς δοκοῦμεν λίθους καὶ γῆν γιγνόμενον ὁρῶμεν,  τηκόμενον δὲ καὶ διακρινόμενον αὖ ταὐτὸν τοῦτο πνεῦμα καὶ ἀέρα,  συγκαυθέντα δὲ ἀέρα πῦρ, ἀνάπαλιν δὲ συγκριθὲν καὶ κατασβεσθὲν εἰς ἰδέαν τε ἀπιὸν αὖθις ἀέρος πῦρ, καὶ πάλιν ἀέρα συνιόντα καὶ πυκνούμενον νέφος καὶ ὁμίχλην,  ἐκ δὲ τούτων ἔτι μᾶλλον συμπιλουμένων ῥέον ὕδωρ, ἐξ ὕδατος δὲ γῆν καὶ λίθους αὖθις, κύκλον τε οὕτω διαδιδόντα εἰς ἄλληλα, ὡς φαίνεται, τὴν γένεσιν.  οὕτω δὴ τούτων οὐδέποτε τῶν αὐτῶν ἑκάστων φανταζομένων, ποῖον αὐτῶν ὡς ὂν ὁτιοῦν τοῦτο καὶ οὐκ ἄλλο παγίως διισχυριζόμενος οὐκ αἰσχυνεῖταί τις ἑαυτόν;  οὐκ ἔστιν, ἀλλ’ ἀσφαλέστατα μακρῷ περὶ τούτων τιθεμένους ὧδε λέγειν·  ἀεὶ ὃ καθορῶμεν ἄλλοτε ἄλλῃ γιγνόμενον, ὡς πῦρ, μὴ τοῦτο ἀλλὰ τὸ τοιοῦτον ἑκάστοτε προσαγορεύειν πῦρ, μηδὲ ὕδωρ τοῦτο ἀλλὰ τὸ τοιοῦτον ἀεί,  μηδὲ ἄλλο ποτὲ μηδὲν ὥς τινα ἔχον βεβαιότητα, ὅσα δεικνύντες τῷ ῥήματι τῷ τόδε καὶ τοῦτο προσχρώμενοι δηλοῦν ἡγούμεθά τι·  φεύγει γὰρ οὐχ ὑπομένον τὴν τοῦ τόδε καὶ τοῦτο καὶ τὴν τῷδε καὶ πᾶσαν ὅση μόνιμα ὡς ὄντα αὐτὰ ἐνδείκνυται φάσις.  ἀλλὰ ταῦτα μὲν ἕκαστα μὴ λέγειν, τὸ δὲ τοιοῦτον ἀεὶ περιφερόμενον ὅμοιον ἑκάστου πέρι καὶ συμπάντων οὕτω καλεῖν,  καὶ δὴ καὶ πῦρ τὸ διὰ παντὸς τοιοῦτον, καὶ ἅπαν ὅσονπερ ἂν ἔχῃ γένεσιν·  ἐν ᾧ δὲ ἐγγιγνόμενα ἀεὶ ἕκαστα αὐτῶν φαντάζεται καὶ πάλιν ἐκεῖθεν ἀπόλλυται, μόνον ἐκεῖνο αὖ προσαγορεύειν τῷ τε τοῦτο καὶ τῷ τόδε προσχρωμένους ὀνόματι,  τὸ δὲ ὁποιονοῦν τι, θερμὸν ἢ λευκὸν ἢ καὶ ὁτιοῦν τῶν ἐναντίων, καὶ πάνθ’ ὅσα ἐκ τούτων, μηδὲν ἐκεῖνο αὖ τούτων καλεῖν.  ἔτι δὲ σαφέστερον αὐτοῦ πέρι προθυμητέον αὖθις εἰπεῖν.  εἰ γὰρ πάντα τις σχήματα πλάσας ἐκ χρυσοῦ μηδὲν μεταπλάττων παύοιτο ἕκαστα εἰς ἅπαντα, δεικνύντος δή τινος αὐτῶν ἓν καὶ ἐρομένου τί ποτ’ ἐστί,  μακρῷ πρὸς ἀλήθειαν ἀσφαλέστατον εἰπεῖν ὅτι χρυσός, τὸ δὲ τρίγωνον ὅσα τε ἄλλα σχήματα ἐνεγίγνετο,  μηδέποτε λέγειν ταῦτα ὡς ὄντα, ἅ γε μεταξὺ τιθεμένου μεταπίπτει,  ἀλλ’ ἐὰν ἄρα καὶ τὸ τοιοῦτον μετ’ ἀσφαλείας ἐθέλῃ δέχεσθαί τινος, ἀγαπᾶν.  ὁ αὐτὸς δὴ λόγος καὶ περὶ τῆς τὰ πάντα δεχομένης σώματα φύσεως.  ταὐτὸν αὐτὴν ἀεὶ προσρητέον·  ἐκ γὰρ τῆς ἑαυτῆς τὸ παράπαν οὐκ ἐξίσταται δυνάμεως  - δέχεταί τε γὰρ ἀεὶ τὰ πάντα, καὶ μορφὴν οὐδεμίαν ποτὲ οὐδενὶ τῶν εἰσιόντων ὁμοίαν εἴληφεν οὐδαμῇ οὐδαμῶς·  ἐκμαγεῖον γὰρ φύσει παντὶ κεῖται, κινούμενόν τε καὶ διασχηματιζόμενον ὑπὸ τῶν εἰσιόντων, φαίνεται δὲ δι’ ἐκεῖνα ἄλλοτε ἀλλοῖον  - τὰ δὲ εἰσιόντα καὶ ἐξιόντα τῶν ὄντων ἀεὶ μιμήματα, τυπωθέντα ἀπ’ αὐτῶν τρόπον τινὰ δύσφραστον καὶ θαυμαστόν, ὃν εἰς αὖθις μέτιμεν.  ἐν δ’ οὖν τῷ παρόντι χρὴ γένη διανοηθῆναι τριττά,  τὸ μὲν γιγνόμενον, τὸ δ’ ἐν ᾧ γίγνεται, τὸ δ’ ὅθεν ἀφομοιούμενον φύεται τὸ γιγνόμενον.  καὶ δὴ καὶ προσεικάσαι πρέπει τὸ μὲν δεχόμενον μητρί, τὸ δ’ ὅθεν πατρί, τὴν δὲ μεταξὺ τούτων φύσιν ἐκγόνῳ,  νοῆσαί τε ὡς οὐκ ἂν ἄλλως, ἐκτυπώματος ἔσεσθαι μέλλοντος ἰδεῖν ποικίλου πάσας ποικιλίας, τοῦτ’ αὐτὸ ἐν ᾧ ἐκτυπούμενον ἐνίσταται γένοιτ’ ἂν παρεσκευασμένον εὖ,  πλὴν ἄμορφον ὂν ἐκείνων ἁπασῶν τῶν ἰδεῶν ὅσας μέλλοι δέχεσθαί ποθεν.  ὅμοιον γὰρ ὂν τῶν ἐπεισιόντων τινὶ τὰ τῆς ἐναντίας τά τε τῆς τὸ παράπαν ἄλλης φύσεως ὁπότ’ ἔλθοι δεχόμενον κακῶς ἂν ἀφομοιοῖ, τὴν αὑτοῦ παρεμφαῖνον ὄψιν.  διὸ καὶ πάντων ἐκτὸς εἰδῶν εἶναι χρεὼν τὸ τὰ πάντα ἐκδεξόμενον ἐν αὑτῷ γένη,  καθάπερ περὶ τὰ ἀλείμματα ὁπόσα εὐώδη τέχνῃ μηχανῶνται πρῶτον τοῦτ’ αὐτὸ ὑπάρχον, ποιοῦσιν ὅτι μάλιστα ἀώδη τὰ δεξόμενα ὑγρὰ τὰς ὀσμάς·  ὅσοι τε ἔν τισιν τῶν μαλακῶν σχήματα ἀπομάττειν ἐπιχειροῦσι, τὸ παράπαν σχῆμα οὐδὲν ἔνδηλον ὑπάρχειν ἐῶσι, προομαλύναντες δὲ ὅτι λειότατον ἀπεργάζονται.  ταὐτὸν οὖν καὶ τῷ τὰ τῶν πάντων ἀεί τε ὄντων κατὰ πᾶν ἑαυτοῦ πολλάκις ἀφομοιώματα καλῶς μέλλοντι δέχεσθαι πάντων ἐκτὸς αὐτῷ προσήκει πεφυκέναι τῶν εἰδῶν.  διὸ δὴ τὴν τοῦ γεγονότος ὁρατοῦ καὶ πάντως αἰσθητοῦ μητέρα καὶ ὑποδοχὴν μήτε γῆν μήτε ἀέρα μήτε πῦρ μήτε ὕδωρ λέγωμεν, μήτε ὅσα ἐκ τούτων μήτε ἐξ ὧν ταῦτα γέγονεν·  ἀλλ’ ἀνόρατον εἶδός τι καὶ ἄμορφον, πανδεχές, μεταλαμβάνον δὲ ἀπορώτατά πῃ τοῦ νοητοῦ καὶ δυσαλωτότατον αὐτὸ λέγοντες οὐ ψευσόμεθα.  καθ’ ὅσον δ’ ἐκ τῶν προειρημένων δυνατὸν ἐφικνεῖσθαι τῆς φύσεως αὐτοῦ, τῇδ’ ἄν τις ὀρθότατα λέγοι·  πῦρ μὲν ἑκάστοτε αὐτοῦ τὸ πεπυρωμένον μέρος φαίνεσθαι, τὸ δὲ ὑγρανθὲν ὕδωρ, γῆν τε καὶ ἀέρα καθ’ ὅσον ἂν μιμήματα τούτων δέχηται.  λόγῳ δὲ δὴ μᾶλλον τὸ τοιόνδε διοριζομένους περὶ αὐτῶν διασκεπτέον·  ἆρα ἔστιν τι πῦρ αὐτὸ ἐφ’ ἑαυτοῦ καὶ πάντα περὶ ὧν ἀεὶ λέγομεν οὕτως αὐτὰ καθ’ αὑτὰ ὄντα ἕκαστα,  ἢ ταῦτα ἅπερ καὶ βλέπομεν, ὅσα τε ἄλλα διὰ τοῦ σώματος αἰσθανόμεθα, μόνα ἐστὶν τοιαύτην ἔχοντα ἀλήθειαν, ἄλλα δὲ οὐκ ἔστι παρὰ ταῦτα οὐδαμῇ οὐδαμῶς,  ἀλλὰ μάτην ἑκάστοτε εἶναί τί φαμεν εἶδος ἑκάστου νοητόν, τὸ δ’ οὐδὲν ἄρ’ ἦν πλὴν λόγος;  οὔτε οὖν δὴ τὸ παρὸν ἄκριτον καὶ ἀδίκαστον ἀφέντα ἄξιον φάναι διισχυριζόμενον ἔχειν οὕτως, οὔτ’ ἐπὶ λόγου μήκει πάρεργον ἄλλο μῆκος ἐπεμβλητέον·  εἰ δέ τις ὅρος ὁρισθεὶς μέγας διὰ βραχέων φανείη, τοῦτο μάλιστα ἐγκαιριώτατον γένοιτ’ ἄν.  ὧδε οὖν τήν γ’ ἐμὴν αὐτὸς τίθεμαι ψῆφον.  εἰ μὲν νοῦς καὶ δόξα ἀληθής ἐστον δύο γένη, παντάπασιν εἶναι καθ’ αὑτὰ ταῦτα, ἀναίσθητα ὑφ’ ἡμῶν εἴδη, νοούμενα μόνον·  εἰ δ’, ὥς τισιν φαίνεται, δόξα ἀληθὴς νοῦ διαφέρει τὸ μηδέν, πάνθ’ ὁπόσ’ αὖ διὰ τοῦ σώματος αἰσθανόμεθα θετέον βεβαιότατα.  δύο δὴ λεκτέον ἐκείνω, διότι χωρὶς γεγόνατον ἀνομοίως τε ἔχετον.  τὸ μὲν γὰρ αὐτῶν διὰ διδαχῆς, τὸ δ’ ὑπὸ πειθοῦς ἡμῖν ἐγγίγνεται·  καὶ τὸ μὲν ἀεὶ μετ’ ἀληθοῦς λόγου, τὸ δὲ ἄλογον·  καὶ τὸ μὲν ἀκίνητον πειθοῖ, τὸ δὲ μεταπειστόν·  καὶ τοῦ μὲν πάντα ἄνδρα μετέχειν φατέον, νοῦ δὲ θεούς, ἀνθρώπων δὲ γένος βραχύ τι.  τούτων δὲ οὕτως ἐχόντων ὁμολογητέον ἓν μὲν εἶναι τὸ κατὰ ταὐτὰ εἶδος ἔχον, ἀγέννητον καὶ ἀνώλεθρον, οὔτε εἰς ἑαυτὸ εἰσδεχόμενον ἄλλο ἄλλοθεν οὔτε αὐτὸ εἰς ἄλλο ποι ἰόν, ἀόρατον δὲ καὶ ἄλλως ἀναίσθητον, τοῦτο ὃ δὴ νόησις εἴληχεν ἐπισκοπεῖν·  τὸ δὲ ὁμώνυμον ὅμοιόν τε ἐκείνῳ δεύτερον, αἰσθητόν, γεννητόν, πεφορημένον ἀεί, γιγνόμενόν τε ἔν τινι τόπῳ καὶ πάλιν ἐκεῖθεν ἀπολλύμενον, δόξῃ μετ’ αἰσθήσεως περιληπτόν·  τρίτον δὲ αὖ γένος ὂν τὸ τῆς χώρας ἀεί, φθορὰν οὐ προσδεχόμενον, ἕδραν δὲ παρέχον ὅσα ἔχει γένεσιν πᾶσιν, αὐτὸ δὲ μετ’ ἀναισθησίας ἁπτὸν λογισμῷ τινι νόθῳ, μόγις πιστόν,  πρὸς ὃ δὴ καὶ ὀνειροπολοῦμεν βλέποντες καί φαμεν ἀναγκαῖον εἶναί που τὸ ὂν ἅπαν ἔν τινι τόπῳ καὶ κατέχον χώραν τινά, τὸ δὲ μήτ’ ἐν γῇ μήτε που κατ’ οὐρανὸν οὐδὲν εἶναι.  ταῦτα δὴ πάντα καὶ τούτων ἄλλα ἀδελφὰ καὶ περὶ τὴν ἄυπνον καὶ ἀληθῶς φύσιν ὑπάρχουσαν ὑπὸ ταύτης τῆς ὀνειρώξεως οὐ δυνατοὶ γιγνόμεθα ἐγερθέντες διοριζόμενοι τἀληθὲς λέγειν,  ὡς εἰκόνι μέν, ἐπείπερ οὐδ’ αὐτὸ τοῦτο ἐφ’ ᾧ γέγονεν ἑαυτῆς ἐστιν, ἑτέρου δέ τινος ἀεὶ φέρεται φάντασμα, διὰ ταῦτα ἐν ἑτέρῳ προσήκει τινὶ γίγνεσθαι, οὐσίας ἁμωσγέπως ἀντεχομένην, ἢ μηδὲν τὸ παράπαν αὐτὴν εἶναι,  τῷ δὲ ὄντως ὄντι βοηθὸς ὁ δι’ ἀκριβείας ἀληθὴς λόγος, ὡς ἕως ἄν τι τὸ μὲν ἄλλο ᾖ, τὸ δὲ ἄλλο, οὐδέτερον ἐν οὐδετέρῳ ποτὲ γενόμενον ἓν ἅμα ταὐτὸν καὶ δύο γενήσεσθον.  Οὗτος μὲν οὖν δὴ παρὰ τῆς ἐμῆς ψήφου λογισθεὶς ἐν κεφαλαίῳ δεδόσθω λόγος, ὄν τε καὶ χώραν καὶ γένεσιν εἶναι, τρία τριχῇ, καὶ πρὶν οὐρανὸν γενέσθαι·  τὴν δὲ δὴ γενέσεως τιθήνην ὑγραινομένην καὶ πυρουμένην καὶ τὰς γῆς τε καὶ ἀέρος μορφὰς δεχομένην, καὶ ὅσα ἄλλα τούτοις πάθη συνέπεται πάσχουσαν, παντοδαπὴν μὲν ἰδεῖν φαίνεσθαι,  διὰ δὲ τὸ μήθ’ ὁμοίων δυνάμεων μήτε ἰσορρόπων ἐμπίμπλασθαι κατ’ οὐδὲν αὐτῆς ἰσορροπεῖν,  ἀλλ’ ἀνωμάλως πάντῃ ταλαντουμένην σείεσθαι μὲν ὑπ’ ἐκείνων αὐτήν, κινουμένην δ’ αὖ πάλιν ἐκεῖνα σείειν·  τὰ δὲ κινούμενα ἄλλα ἄλλοσε ἀεὶ φέρεσθαι διακρινόμενα,  ὥσπερ τὰ ὑπὸ τῶν πλοκάνων τε καὶ ὀργάνων τῶν περὶ τὴν τοῦ σίτου κάθαρσιν σειόμενα καὶ ἀνικμώμενα τὰ μὲν πυκνὰ καὶ βαρέα ἄλλῃ, τὰ δὲ μανὰ καὶ κοῦφα εἰς ἑτέραν ἵζει φερόμενα ἕδραν·  τότε οὕτω τὰ τέτταρα γένη σειόμενα ὑπὸ τῆς δεξαμενῆς, κινουμένης αὐτῆς οἷον ὀργάνου σεισμὸν παρέχοντος, τὰ μὲν ἀνομοιότατα πλεῖστον αὐτὰ ἀφ’ αὑτῶν ὁρίζειν, τὰ δὲ ὁμοιότατα μάλιστα εἰς ταὐτὸν συνωθεῖν,  διὸ δὴ καὶ χώραν ταῦτα ἄλλα ἄλλην ἴσχειν, πρὶν καὶ τὸ πᾶν ἐξ αὐτῶν διακοσμηθὲν γενέσθαι.  καὶ τὸ μὲν δὴ πρὸ τούτου πάντα ταῦτ’ εἶχεν ἀλόγως καὶ ἀμέτρως·  ὅτε δ’ ἐπεχειρεῖτο κοσμεῖσθαι τὸ πᾶν, πῦρ πρῶτον καὶ ὕδωρ καὶ γῆν καὶ ἀέρα, ἴχνη μὲν ἔχοντα αὑτῶν ἄττα,  παντάπασί γε μὴν διακείμενα ὥσπερ εἰκὸς ἔχειν ἅπαν ὅταν ἀπῇ τινος θεός, οὕτω δὴ τότε πεφυκότα ταῦτα πρῶτον διεσχηματίσατο εἴδεσί τε καὶ ἀριθμοῖς.  τὸ δὲ ᾗ δυνατὸν ὡς κάλλιστα ἄριστά τε ἐξ οὐχ οὕτως ἐχόντων τὸν θεὸν αὐτὰ συνιστάναι, παρὰ πάντα ἡμῖν ὡς ἀεὶ τοῦτο λεγόμενον ὑπαρχέτω·  νῦν δ’ οὖν τὴν διάταξιν αὐτῶν ἐπιχειρητέον ἑκάστων καὶ γένεσιν ἀήθει λόγῳ πρὸς ὑμᾶς δηλοῦν,  ἀλλὰ γὰρ ἐπεὶ μετέχετε τῶν κατὰ παίδευσιν ὁδῶν δι’ ὧν ἐνδείκνυσθαι τὰ λεγόμενα ἀνάγκη, συνέψεσθε. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                       
Nunc quoniam cuncta exceptis admodum paucis executi sumus, quae providae mentis intellectus instituit,  oportet de illis etiam, quae necessitas invehit, dicere,  mixta siquidem mundi sensilis ex necessitatis intellegentiaeque coetu constitit generatio  dominante intellectu et salubri persuasione rigorem necessitatis assidue trahente ad optimos actus.  Itaque uicta et parente providis auctoritatibus necessitate prima rerum mundique exordia constiterunt.  Si quis ergo vere iuxtaque meram fidem mundi huius institutionem insinuaturus erit, hunc oportet erraticae quoque causae speciem demonstrare.  Quod ita demum commode fiet, si ad eorum quae erroribus implicant originem facto recursu, perinde ut in his quae ex mente sunt fecimus,  genituram substantiamque eorum ab exordio retexamus naturamque ignis et terrae, caeterarum item materiarum, ex quibus mundi sensilis coagmentata molitio est, consideremus nec naturam modo veram illam veterem, quae fuit ante concretionem, sed antiquas etiam ipsorum elementorum perpessiones.  Nullus quippe ad hoc usque tempus genituram eorum indicavit, sed tamquam scientibus, quid sit ignis et caetera, sic loquimur et dicimus initia uniuersitatis,  constituentes ea quae ne syllabarum quidem locum vicemque pro veri examinis ratione obtinent.  Nostra igitur haec est professio  nihil ad praesens de universitatis vel initio vel initiis, ut quidam putant, esse dicendum,  non quo sit ullum impedimentum praeter inextricabilem difficultatem, sed quod ita instituto sermone sit impossibile admodum perueniri ad explanationem rei.  Neque igitur vos id expectetis nec ego mihi persuadeam posse me tantum et tanti oneris sustinere.  Atque illud potius observabo, quod initio sermonis precario petivi, in rebus imaginariis proclivibusque ad fallendum rationibus rerum earundem verisimilibus assertionibus imaginariisque contentus sim  nitia singulorum et universorum originem pandens.  Deum ergo etiam nunc auxiliatorem invocabimus ante auspicium dictionis, liberatorem ex turbida et procellosa coepti sermonis iactatione.  Erit ergo initium tale demum universae imaginariae rei, eademque magnificentius dividetur.  Etenim tunc duae modo species veniebant in divisionem, at nunc tertium quoque aliud oborietur genus.  Quippe in prioribus duo nobis satis abunde sufficere videbantur, unum perpetuum carens generatione exemplaris eminentiae, alterum simulacrum et imago eius aeternitati propagata secundae generationis idque visibile.  At vero tertium tunc quidem minime divisimus;  at nunc impositura nobis necessitatem ratio videtur ire obuiam manumque conserere adversum inexpugnabilem omni ratione et omni eloquio fraudem crassis tenebris involutam.  Quam igitur eius vim quamue esse naturam putandum est?  Opinor, omnium quae gignuntur receptaculum est, quasi quaedam nutricula.  Atque hoc quod de ea dicitur verum est quidem, sed dicendum videtur paulo apertius; est tamen arduum eo magis, quod praeconfundi mentis aciem necesse est et aestuare tam de igni quam de caeteris materiis,  qui magis aquam iure aquam dici putarique oporteat quam terram,  cum nulla sit certa et stabilis proprietas corporum quae cuiusque indicet naturalem germanitatem.  Principio ut de aqua, cuius modo fecimus mentionem, ordiamur: cum astringitur in glaciem, certe saxum terrenaeque soliditatis corpus  et minime fusile apparet, eadem haec ignita et diffluens discretaque uarie in humorem, spiritum et aereas auras dissoluitur;  aer porro exustus ignem creat rursumque extinctus ignis aera corpulentior factus instituit, aer item crassior factus in nubes nebulasque concrescit,  quibus elisis et expressis pluviae stagnorumque et fontium largitas demumque ex aqua terrenae moles aggerantur. Atque ita circuitu quodam uires fomentaque generationis corporibus invicem sibi mutuantibus  nec in una eademque forma perseverantibus quae tandem erit certa eorum et a cunctatione semota comprehensio?  Nulla certe. Quapropter de cunctis huius modi mutabilibus ita est habendum:  hoc quod saepe alias aliter formatum nobis videtur et plerumque iuxta ignis effigiem non est, opinor, ignis sed igneum quiddam, nec aer sed aereum,  nec omnino quicquam velut habens ullam stabilitatem. Denique ne pronominibus quidem ullis signanda sunt quibus in demonstratione uti solemus, cum dicimus 'hoc', vel 'illud';  fugiunt enim nec expectant eam appellationem quae de his tamquam existentibus habetur.    Igitur ignem quoque eum esse vere putandum, qui semper idem est, et omne cuius proprietas manet.  At vero id, in quo fieri singula haec uidentur et demum dissolui pereuntiaque ad alias inde transire formas, solum illud appellandum puto certo pronomine recte quippe de eo dici posse 'hoc' uel 'illud' --  porro quod recipit qualitatem vel etiam verti potest in contrarias qualitates calidum dici uel candidum, proprioque et certo nomine appellari quod sit incertum et mutabile minime convenire.  Sed, opinor, apertius etiamnunc de eodem erit dissertare conandum.  Si quis enim cunctas formas figurasque ex una eademque auri materia fictas iugiter et sine intermissione in alias atque alias reformet, tunc, si quis electa qualibet una figura quaerat quae sit,  opinor posse firme et diligenter ac sine reprehensione responderi aurum illud esse nec addere trianguli cylindriue cuiusue alterius videbitur.      Eadem et consimilis ratio difficultasque in ea natura, quae cuncta recipit corpora, reperitur.    Haec quippe minime recedit ex condicione propria;  recipit enim cuncta nec ullam ex isdem formam trahit, et cum velut intra gremium eius formentur quae recipiuntur, ipsa informis manet  estque usus eius similis molli cedentique materiae, in quam imprimuntur varia signacula, moveturque et conformatur omnimode ab introeuntibus, ipsa nec formam nec motum habens ex natura sua.  Quae vero ingrediuntur, formas mutant aliasque alia et diuersa cernuntur, eademque quae introeunt et egrediuntur simulacra sunt uere existentium rerum miro quodam uixque explicabili modo formata ab isdem vere existentibus rebus, quem ad modum mox demonstrare nitemur pro viribus.  At vero nunc trinum genus animo sumendum est:  quod gignitur, item aliud in quo gignitur, praeterea tertium ex quo similitudinem trahit mutuaturque quod gignitur.  Decet ergo facere comparationem similitudinemque impertiri illi quidem quod suscipit matris, at vero unde obvenit patris, illi autem naturae quae inter haec duo est prolis.  Simul ita intellegendum, fieri non posse, ut una existat facies, quae omnes rerum omnium formas uultusque contineat variaque corporis undique ora demonstret,  nisi subiecto prius informi aliquo corporum gremio, perinde ut quae in picturis substernitur infectio decolor ad colorum lumina subvehenda.  Etenim si erit alicuius eorum quae in se recipit simile receptaculum, cum quid obueniet dissimile his quibus simile est, discordabit, opinor, vultus eius cum introgressi corporis vultu nullamque exprimet similitudinem.  Ex quo fit, ut receptaculi sinus nullam propriam naturaliterque expressam habeat figuram proptereaque informis intellegatur omni quippe forma carens,  ut qui odora pigmenta conficiunt ante omnia curant, ut nullius sint odoris proprii quae condientur, susceptura uidelicet humidos sucos odoraminum,  et qui materiis mollibus impressionique cedentibus insignire formas aliquas uolunt, pure leuigatas apparant nec ullam omnino formam in apparata leuigatione apparere patiuntur;  sic ei, quod omnibus rerum omnium formis et figuris aeternae vitae mansurisque per saecula recte insignietur, nulla omnino propria species falsa opinione tribuenda est.  Ideoque facti generati uisibilis animalis matrem corporeaeque substantiae receptaculum neque terram neque aquam nec vero ignem vel aera nec quicquam aliud, quod ex his creatum est, nec vero ex quibus haec ipsa subsistunt appellandum,  sed inuisibilem potius speciem quandam et informem capacitatem mira quadam et incomprehensibili ratione inter nullam et aliquam substantiam nec plane intellegibilem nec plane sensibilem positam, sed quae ex his quae in ea commutantur intellegi tamen posse videatur.    Ignis quidem pars eius ignita, humectata vero pars eiusdem aqua, si modo expertis rei pars ulla dici potest; terra quoque et aer ratione illa, si forte qua simulacra eorum recipit in se,  de quibus singulis huius modi tractatus instituendus videtur:  estne aliquis ignis seorsum positus et incommunicabilis, item caeterae species, quas concipientes mente dicimus semper separatas a coetu corporearum specierum fore archetypa exemplaria rei sensilis,  an haec sola sunt quae videntur quaeque corporis intentione sentimus, nec praeter haec ulla sunt uspiam,  sed frustra praesumitur esse intellegibiles species, quarum sint imagines sensiles, easque nihil aliud esse quam verba?  Quod quidem neque inexaminatum relinqui placet nec ad prolixum natura sua tractatum minime pertinens ad rem verborum agmen addendum;  at uero si quis amplae rei finis disceptationem compendio: dirimet, hunc certe asciscere operae pretium facientis est.  Ipse igitur, quid de hac re sentiam, dicam.  Si intellectus itemque vera opinio duae res sunt, necesse est haec ipsa per semet esse intellectu potius quam sensibus assequenda;  sin vero, ut quibusdam videtur, vera opinio ab intellectu nihil differt, omnia quae corpore[a] sentimus certa habenda sunt.  Sed opinor duo esse dicendum, propterea quod utraque magna differentia distant,  quippe quorum alterum doctrina nobis insinuet, alterum persuasionis assumptio,  et alterum quidem semper cum ratione vera, porro sine ulla ratione alterum,  item alterum nulla persuasione transducibile, alterum nutans, incertum semper et derivabile.  Quid quod rectae opinionis omnis vir particeps, intellectus vero dei proprius et paucorum admodum lectorum hominum?  Quod cum ita sit, fatendum est esse eius modi speciem semotam a sensibus in semet locatam sine ortu sine occasu, quae neque in se recipit quicquam aliunde neque ipsa procedit ad aliud quicquam, inuisibilem insensilem, soli mentis intentioni animadversionique perspicuam;  porro quod ab hoc secundum est, natiuum sensile sustentabile consistens aliquo in loco et rursum cum immutatione et interitu recedens, sensibus et opinione noscendum.  Tertium genus est loci, quod ne ad interitum quidem pertinet; sedem porro praebet his quae generantur, sed ipsum sine sensu tangentis tangitur, adulterina quadam ratione opinabile.  cum id animo intuemur, patimur quod somniantes: putamus enim necesse esse, ut omne quod est in aliquo sit loco positum regionemque obtineat ullam, porro quod neque in terra neque in caelo sit minime existere.  Ob quam depravationem itemque alias consanguineas ne in reputatione quidem et consideratione vere existentis uereque peruigilis naturae mente consistimus propter huius modi somnia, cum ne imaginari quidem ullam huius lubricae speciem formamque valeamus;  propriam quippe nullam habet et habere omnes videtur, cum intra gremium eius conversione ad aliud ex alio formae transfigurantur. Idemque hoc in altero, inter aliquam et nullam substantiam positum, invenitur suam nullam habet nec tamen nihil est,  at enim vere existentium rerum assertio perspicua rationis luce firmatur docens, dum quidem erit hoc aliud itemque illud aliud, neutrum in neutro posse consistere nec simul idem unum et duo fieri.  Haec est meae quidem sententiae mens esse et ante mundi quoque sensilis exornationem fuisse tria haec: existens locum generationem.  Igitur generationis nutriculam humectatam modo, modo ignitam, terraeque item et aeris formas suscipientem caeterasque pedissequas passiones perpetientem omniformem visu videri;  quod tamen privatim neque similibus viribus neque exaequatis potentiis instruatur, nihil esse eius aequale,  sed undique uergentem et in pronum vel absonum praeponderantem agitari quidem materiis agitantibus invicemque reciproco pulsu pulsare atque agitare materias.  Ex quo fluctu turbatas materias in diuersa raptari discernique a se,  perinde ut quae in frumenti purgatione pistoriis instrumentis motu et excussione discerni videmus, gravia quidem et solida seorsum, tenuia vero et levia in aliam partem;    nequaquam disparari proptereaque sedibus fuisse diuisa ante mundi scilicet exornationem.  Ac tunc quidem erat huius modi rationis expers rerum inordinata confusio,  sed ubi cuncta redigi ad modum placuit, ignem primo terramque et aera atque aquam continuavit opifex deus, non talia ut nunc sunt, sed quae praeferrent elementorum vestigia  in eo squalore ac deformitate qui apparet in his quibus divina deest prospicientia; nunc uero singulis luce ac specie tributa numerus  quoque illustratorum omnium genituram sequebatur pulchris omnibus ex non talibus quondam institutis.  Nunc iam ordinationem genituramque eorum singillatim demonstrari conuenit nouo quidem et inusitato genere demonstrationis, verum vobis,  qui omnes eruditionis ingenuae vias peragraveritis, neque incognito et ex levi admonitione perspicuo. 
Hactenus opera mentis paucis exceptis tractavimus.  (36) Oportet autem de his quoque quae necessitas invehit, dicere.  Mundi enim huius genera(37)tio ex necessitatis mentisque coitu mixta est.  Nam cum mens necessitati dominaretur, pro(38)pterea quod persuadendo eam ad optimos ut plurimum rerum eventus induceret,  ipsaque (39) hac ratione cedens sapienti persuasioni pareret, mundi huius exordia constiterunt.  O(40)portet igitur eum qui mundi constitutionem vere narratus erit, erraticae quoque causae (41) speciem pro naturae ipsius instinctu miscere.  Quod ita commode fiet, si horum ipsorum (42) convenienti principio sumpto, sic de his quemadmodum de superioribus ab ipsa rursus (43) origine differamus.  Naturam ergo et passiones ignis, aquae, aeris, atque terrae, generatio(44)nem coeli praecedentes consideremus.  Nullus profecto ad hoc usque tempus eorum gene(45)rationem ostendit, sed quasi notum sit quid sit ignis et reliqua, sic de illis erba facimus, (46) eaque mundi primordia constituimus,  cum nec syllabarum quidem nedum elementorum (47) vicem tenere apud homines mentis quoquo modo compotes debeant.  Nos vero in (48) praesenti nihil de principio universorum, sive principiis, sive quomodocunque aliter id ap(49)pelletur, dicendum putamus.  ….?  Cui quidem disputationi nihil aliud impedimento est, ni(50)si quod difficile sit praesenti disputandi modo quae de his videntur exprimere.  Neque igi(51)tur vos id expectabitis, neque ego mihi persuadebo recte me tantum opus aggredi posse.  (52) Quod autem ab initio dixi, verisimilitudinis vim servabimus, studebimusque in rationi(53)bus verisimilibus circa haec assignandis nulli cedere.  Atque ita et singula et universe (54) a principio exponemus.  Deum igitur etiam nunc disputationis servatorem in primis (1) oremus, ut nos ex admirabili et insolita expositione ad verisimilem doctrinam traducat, (2) atque ita institut disputationem exordiamur.  Sed hanc de universo disputationem ab am(3)pliori divisione quam supra ducamus.  Tunc enim duas in species facta divisio est. Nunc (4) tertium genus addendum.  Duo enim in superioribus sufficiebant. Unum quidem exem(5)plaris loco, semper idem, solaque intelligentia comprehendum. Alterum simulacrum (6) ab hoc exemplari deductum, generationi oculisque subiectum.  Cum vero duo haec suffi(7)cere putaremus, tertium non adiunximus.  Nunc autem cogere nos ratio videtur, ut dif(8)ficilem et obscuram speciem declarare conemur.  Quam igitur vim, quamve naturam ha(9)bere putandum.  Hanc utique, generationis horum omnium receptaculum et quasi nu(10)tricem esse.  Quod quamvis vere dicatur, paulo tamen apertius est dicendum. Arduum id qui(11)dem, eo maxime, quod ad huius rei demonstrationem dubitare prius necesse est et inquirere (12) de igni et reliquis quae elementa vocantur,  quid istorum aquam potius quam ignem, aut ae(13)rem potius quam terram, aut certum aliquid unum magis quam cuncta vocare oporte(14)at. Difficile sane certum aliquid et firmum de istis asserere.  Quonam igitur pacto, et qua (15) ratione, et quod probabile in huiusmodi inquisitione dicemus.  Principio id corpus (16) quod modo aquam nominavimus, quando in solidam concrescit materiam, lapis et ter(17)ra fieri videtur:  quando vero liquescit et diffluit, spiritus atque aer.  Item aer exustus (18) ignis efficitur. Ignis extinctus et corpulentior factus creat. Rursus crassior fa(19)ctus aer, in nebulas nubesque concrescit.  His etiam magis compressis pluviae defluunt. (20) Ex aqua rursus terra lapidesque gignuntur. Atque ita videmus haec omnia circuitu quo(21)dam sibi invicem vires fomentaque generationis vicissim tribuere.  Quae cum nunquam (22) eadem appareant permanere, quisnam sine rubore redargutionisque suspitione poterit i(23)storum aliquid unum potius quam aliud certe et firmiter appellare.  Nemo certe. Qua(24)re tutissimus in his hic erit loquendi modus.  Hoc quod semper alias aliter formatum vi(25)detur, et plerunque iuxta ignis effigiem, non est utique ignis hoc aliquid, sed tale, id est ig(26)neum quiddam: nec aqua hoc aliquid, sed tale quid id est aqueum,  nec aliud quicquam (27) velut ullam habens stabilitatem. Denique nec pronominibus quidem ullis haec signan(28)da sunt, quibus in rei cuiuslibet demonstratione, cum hoc vel illud dicimus, uti solemus.  (29) fugiunt enim, nec expectant vel eam demonstrationem, quae hoc et huius et huc desig(30)nat: vel appellationem, quae de his tanquam de existentibus et stabilibus habeatur.  Igitur (31) huiusmodi omnia neque hoc, neque illud, sed tale potius, aut tale propter similitudinem ali(32)quam appellare debemus.  Et ignem quidem ubique tale, ac de ceteris quae gignuntur eo(33)dem pacto.  At vero ilud in quo fieri singula haec videntur, ac deinde dissolvi, solum iis pro(34)nominibus quibus hoc vel illud signamus, appllandum puto.  Quale vero quodammo(35)do, calidum scilicet vel album, vel aliquid tale contrariorum, vel ex contrariis illud mini(36)me appellandum.  Sed apertius quod volumus exponamus.  Siquis enim cunctas figuras ex (37) una eademque auri materia fictas continue in alias et alias reformet, deque una quadam illa(38)rum praesens aliquis quid sit quaeret,  vere admodum et tutissime respondere possumus (39) aurum illud esse: triangulum vero esse aut aliam figuram earum quae impressae sunt et (40) continuo permutantur,  quasi revera sint non licet dicere. [see previous?]  Sola quippe illa responsione tan(41)quam tutissima contenti esse debemus.  Eadem de illa natura quae cuncta recipit corpora (42) ratio est:  idem semper esse dicenda est.  Siquidem ex propria potentia recedit nunquam.  Sus(43)cipit enim semper omnia, nec ullam unquam iis similem ullo pacto sibi formam contra(44)hit.  Omnis sane natura fictioni subiecta est, agitataque ab ingredientibus et figurata quo(45)dammodo, alias aliter se habere videtur.  Quae vero ingrediuntur et exeunt, vere ac sem(46)per existentium rerum simulacra sunt, miro et vix explicabili modo ab ipsis rebus quae ve(47)re sunt, figurati, quemadmodum deinceps narrabimus.  Tria in praesenti genera sumenda (48) sunt.  Unum quod gignitur. Aliud in quo gignitur. Aliud a quo similitudinem trahit quod (49) nascitur. Idcirco comparare haec ita decet.  Quod recipit, matri: unde recipit, patri: naturam (50) istorum mediam, proli.  Sed ita intelligendum est, quod cum esse debeat effigies rerum omni (51) formarum varietate distincta, nunquam illud ipsum formationis huius gremium bene erit prae(52)paratum,  nisi informe sit, et suapte natura omnibus formis quas recepturum est, careat.  Nam (53) fierit alicuius eorum quae in se recipit simile, cum contrariam eius cuius simile est naturam (54) aut aliam prorsus suscipiet, nequaquam eius similitudinem et exprimet, cum prae se tulerit (1) suam.  Quo fit, ut nullam sibi propriam habeat speciem, quod est omnia genera suscep(2)turum.  Ut qui ungenta suaviter redolentia consecturi sunt, humidam materiam quam (3) certo condire odore volunt, ita preparant, ut odorem nullum proprium habeat:  et qui (4) materiis mollibus impressionique cedentibus figuras imprimere aliquas volunt, nullam (5) omnino priorem in eis figuram apparere patiuntur, sed exactissima quadam levigatio(6)ne eas poliunt:  Ita illud quod in omnibus passim aeternorum omnium simulacris recte fi(7)gurandum est, his omnibus formis natura sua carere necesse est.  Quamobrem universi, (8) quod et genitum est, et sensibus omnibus manifestum, matrem ipsam receptaculumque, (9) neque terram, neque aerem, neque ignem, neque aquam esse dicamus, neque rursus ex (10) his aliquid constitutum, aut aliqua ex quibus proprie haec ipsa subsistunt:  sed invisibilem (11) potius speciem quandam et informem finum omnium capacem, qui modo quodam am(12)biguo et vix explicabili divinae et intelligibilis naturae fit particeps.  Ipse quidem compre(13)hendi per se nullo pacto potest: sed quantum ex supradictis naturam eius attingere licet,  (14) sic utique recte possumus dicere: Ignem quidem, partem eius ignitam videri: humefactam (15) vero partem, aquam: Terram quoque aeremque similiter, quatenus ipsorum simulacra sus(16)cipit.  Sed de his ita distinguentes ratione considerare debemus,  fitne ignis aliquis seorsum (17) a materia ipse permanens in seipso, et cetera quae saepe dicimus per seipsa manere:  an (18) haec sola sunt, quae corporis sensu percipimus, et talem in se continent veritatem, nec ul(19)lo pacto praeter haec ulla sunt uspiam,  sed frustra intelligibilem uniuscuiusque speciem a(20)liquam ponere solemus, nec aliud haec sunt quam verba.  Quod quidem neque ita vel a(21)liter se habere temere et sine exanimatione asserendum, neque ad praesentem disputatio(22)nem natura sua prolixam, alia quoque prolixa,  et ad rem minime pertinens addenda vi(23)detur. Ea vero circunscriptio quae brevibus magna comprehendar, admodum oppotu(24)na videbitur.  Ita igitur ipse meam hac de re sententiam feram.  Si intellectus et vera opi(25)nio duo genera sunt, necesse est huiusmodi species esse, quae per se ipsae sint, et intelligen(26)tia potius quam sensibus comprehendantur.  Sin autem ut quibusdam videtur, vera opi(27)nio ab intellectu nihilo differt, omnia quae corporis sensus attingit, certa habenda sunt.  (28) Sed opinor duo esse dicenda, quia seorsum sunt facta, et dissimilia sunt.  Quippe quo(29)rum alterum doctrina nobis insinuat, alterum persuasio:  et illud quidem semper cum ra(30)tione vera, hoc autem sine ratione:  illud nulla persuasione mutabile, hoc contra huic mu(31)tationei subiectum.  Vera quidem opinionis vir quilibet particeps: Intelligentiae vero dii (32) quidem omnes, homines vero pauci admodum participes sunt.  Quae cum ita se habe(33)ant, fateri oportet esse speciem quae semper eadem sit sine ortu atque interitu, quae nec in se (34) accipiat quicquam aliud aliunde, nec ipsa procedat ad aliud quicquam, sensuque corporis (35) nullo percipiatur: atque hoc est quod ad solam intelligentiam pertinet, eiusque intentionis (36) est proprium.  Sed est aliquid post hoc quod cum ipso non ratione, sed nomine convenit, (37) eiusque simillitudinem gerit, genitum sensibus manifestum, quod fertur et sustentatur ab (38) alio semper, et in aliquo loco gignitur, rursusque inde recedit opinione per sensus compre(39)hendum.  Tertium genus locus est, qui interit quidem nunquam, sed omnibus quae (40) gignuntur, sedem exhibet. hic sine tangentis sensu tangitur, adulterina quadam ratione (41) vix opinabilis.  Denique cum ad hunc animo respicimus, somniamus quodammodo, ne(42)cessariumque putamus, ut quicquid est, in aliquo sit loco positum, regionemque obtineat ali(43)quam: et neque in terra, neque in coelo sit, minime esse credimus:  atque has omnes et simi(44)les passiones a pervigili vereque existente natura ipsi huiusmodi somniis occupati secerne(45)re non valemus.  Ideoque nec discernere id etiam possumus, quod imagini quidem postquam (46) idipsum in quo facta est non ipsius est, sed ea semper alterius fertur simulacrum, non in(47)iuria convenit ut in alio quodam sit, atque ita quodammodo essentiae fiat particeps, aliter ve(48)ro esse nullo modo possit.  Ei autem quod vere est, vera haec et exquisita ratio suffragatur, (49) docens quod dum res ita se habet, ut hoc quidem aliud sit, et illud aliud, neutrum in neutro un(50)quam factum unum simul idem et duo fient.  Haec tandem meae mentis summatim sen(51)tentia sit, et ante coeli ortum rastione triplici fuisse tria haec, existens, locum, et genera(52)rationem.  Generationis vero nutricem, ignitam et humefactam, terrae item et aeris for(53)mas suscipientem, passionesque horum pedissequas perpetientem, omniformem aspectu (54) videri.  Verum quia nec similibus neque ad pondus ex aequatis viribus referta est, nulla ex (1) parte aequilibrem esse,  sed in aequaliter undique vergentem declinantemque ab illis qui(2)dem quae diximus agitari, rursusque ipsam commotam eadem agitare.  Quo pulsu conci(3)ta in diversa raptari atque discerni, perinde ut quae in frumenti purgatione pistoriis instru(4)mentis iactata atque excussa discerni videmus, [pistor: “møller, baker” pictor: “maler”]  atque alio solida graviaque, alio rara et levia fer(5)ri. [undersøk sammenhengen nærmere. ?]  Sic illa tunc quatuor genera ab ipso eorum receptaculo instrumenti illius pistorii/pictorii instar (6) tumultuante et discernente commota, dissimilia quaeque a dissimillimis longe separaban(7)tur, simillima vero rursus coibant:  atque idcirco etiam ante mundi exornationem sedi(8)bus divisa erant,  sed neque his ratio inerat, neque modus.  At vero ubi cuncta redigi ad(9)modum placuit, deus ignem primo ac terram, aeremque, et aquam, quae quidem elemen(10)torum praeserebant vestigia,  sed ita erant affecta ut par est illa a quibus deus abest, distin(11)ctis figuris, speciebus, et numeris exornavit.  Ea vero apud nos sententia semper rata in(12)dubiaque prae ceteris habeatur, quod deus illa cum talia non essent. quam pulcherrime (13) optimeque fieri poterat, ordinavit.  Nunc iam dispositionem genituramque ipsorum singillatim (14) demonstrari convenit.  novo quidem et inusitato demonstrationis genere, sed vobis qui (15) omnes eruditionis ingenuae vias peragravistis, plano atque perspicuo. 
[So far we have spoken chiefly of the works of mind; now we must tell of the works of necessity and of the variable cause. Thus we are led to consider the nature of the four elements.] Thus far in what we have been saying, with small exceptions, the works of intelligence have been set forth;  and now we must place by the side of them in our discourse the things which come into being through necessity  —for the creation is mixed, being made up of necessity and mind.  Mind, the ruling power, persuaded necessity to bring the greater part of created things to perfection, and thus and after this manner in the beginning, when the influence of reason got the better of necessity, the universe was created.    But if a person will truly tell of the way in which the work was accomplished, he must include the other influence of the variable cause as well.  Wherefore, we must return again and find another suitable beginning, as about the former matters, so also about these.  To which end we must consider the nature of fire, and water, and air, and earth, such as they were prior to the creation of the heaven, and what was happening to them in this previous state;  for no one has as yet explained the manner of their generation, but we speak of fire and the rest of them, whatever they mean, as though men knew their natures, and we maintain them to be the first principles and letters or elements of the whole,  when they cannot reasonably be compared by a man of any sense even to syllables or first compounds.  And let me say thus much:  I will not now speak of the first principle or principles of all things, or by whatever name they are to be called,  for this reason,—because it is difficult to set forth my opinion according to the method of discussion which we are at present employing.  Do not imagine, any more than I can bring myself to imagine, that I should be right in undertaking so great and difficult a task.  Remembering what I said at first about probability, I will do my best to give as probable an explanation as any other,—or rather, more probable;  and I will first go back to the beginning and try to speak of each thing and of all.  Once more, then, at the commencement of my discourse, I call upon God, and beg him to be our saviour out of a strange and unwonted enquiry, and to bring us to the haven of probability. So now let us begin again.  [At the beginning of our discourse we assumed two natures: (1) an intelligible pattern; (2) a created copy. Now we must add a third—(3) the receptacle of all generation. i. e. space.] This new beginning of our discussion of the universe requires a fuller division than the former;  for then we made two classes, now a third must be revealed.  The two sufficed for the former discussion: one, which we assumed, was a pattern intelligible and always the same; and the second was only the imitation of the pattern, generated and visible.  There is also a third kind which we did not distinguish at the time, conceiving that the two would be enough.  But now the argument seems to require that we should set forth in words another kind, which is difficult of explanation and dimly seen.  What nature are we to attribute to this new kind of being?  We reply, that it is the receptacle, and in a manner the nurse, of all generation.  I have spoken the truth; but I must express myself in clearer language, and this will be an arduous task for many reasons, and in particular because I must first raise questions concerning fire and the other elements, and determine what each of them is;  for to say, with any probability or certitude, which of them should be called water rather than fire, and which should be called any of them rather than all or some one of them, is a difficult matter.  How, then, shall we settle this point, and what questions about the elements may be fairly raised?  [Since the elements are perpetually changing into and out of one another and have in them nothing permanent, they should be called, not ‘this’ or ‘that,’ but always ‘such.’ Unchanging space is the only fixed nature. An illustration. Space is that which, being without form, can receive any form, i. e. the impress of any idea. The three natures which have been assumed may be likened to a father, child, and mother. The elements are only affections of space, produced by the impression of ideas.] In the first place, we see that what we just now called water, by condensation, I suppose, becomes stone and earth;  and this same element, when melted and dispersed, passes into vapour and air.  Air, again, when inflamed, becomes fire; and again fire, when condensed and extinguished, passes once more into the form of air; and once more, air, when collected and condensed, produces cloud and mist;  and from these, when still more compressed, comes flowing water, and from water comes earth and stones once more; and thus generation appears to be transmitted from one to the other in a circle.  Thus, then, as the several elements never present themselves in the same form, how can any one have the assurance to assert positively that any of them, whatever it may be, is one thing rather than another?  No one can. But much the safest plan is to speak of them as follows:  —Anything which we see to be continually changing, as, for example, fire, we must not call ‘this’ or ‘that,’ but rather say that it is ‘of such a nature;’ nor let us speak of water as ‘this,’ but always as ‘such;’  nor must we imply that there is any stability in any of those things which we indicate by the use of the words ‘this’ and ‘that,’ supposing ourselves to signify something thereby;  for they are too volatile to be detained in any such expressions as ‘this,’ or ‘that,’ or ‘relative to this,’ or any other mode of speaking which represents them as permanent.  We ought not to apply ‘this’ to any of them, but rather the word ‘such;’ which expresses the similar principle circulating in each and all of them;  for example, that should be called ‘fire’ which is of such a nature always, and so of everything that has generation.  That in which the elements severally grow up, and appear, and decay, is alone to be called by the name ‘this’ or ‘that;’  but that which is of a certain nature, hot or white, or anything which admits of opposite qualities, and all things that are compounded of them, ought not to be so denominated.  Let me make another attempt to explain my meaning more clearly.  Suppose a person to make all kinds of figures of gold and to be always transmuting one form into all the rest;—somebody points to one of them and asks what it is.  By far the safest and truest answer is, That is gold; and not to call the triangle or any other figures which are formed in the gold ‘these,’  as though they had existence, since they are in process of change while he is making the assertion;  but if the questioner be willing to take the safe and indefinite expression, ‘such,’ we should be satisfied.  And the same argument applies to the universal nature which receives all bodies  —that must be always called the same;  for, while receiving all things, she never departs at all from her own nature,  and never in any way, or at any time, assumes a form like that of any of the things which enter into her;  she is the natural recipient of all impressions, and is stirred and informed by them, and appears different from time to time by reason of them.  But the forms which enter into and go out of her are the likenesses of real existences modelled after their patterns in a wonderful and inexplicable manner, which we will hereafter investigate.  For the present we have only to conceive of three natures:  first, that which is in process of generation; secondly, that in which the generation takes place; and thirdly, that of which the thing generated is a resemblance.  And we may liken the receiving principle to a mother, and the source or spring to a father, and the intermediate nature to a child;  and may remark further, that if the model is to take every variety of form, then the matter in which the model is fashioned will not be duly prepared,  unless it is formless, and free from the impress of any of those shapes which it is hereafter to receive from without.  For if the matter were like any of the supervening forms, then whenever any opposite or entirely different nature was stamped upon its surface, it would take the impression badly, because it would intrude its own shape.  Wherefore, that which is to receive all forms should have no form;  as in making perfumes they first contrive that the liquid substance which is to receive the scent shall be as inodorous as possible;  or as those who wish to impress figures on soft substances do not allow any previous impression to remain, but begin by making the surface as even and smooth as possible.  In the same way that which is to receive perpetually and through its whole extent the resemblances of all eternal beings ought to be devoid of any particular form.  Wherefore, the mother and receptacle of all created and visible and in any way sensible things, is not to be termed earth, or air, or fire, or water, or any of their compounds, or any of the elements from which these are derived,  but is an invisible and formless being which receives all things and in some mysterious way partakes of the intelligible, and is most incomprehensible.  In saying this we shall not be far wrong; as far, however, as we can attain to a knowledge of her from the previous considerations,  we may truly say that fire is that part of her nature which from time to time is inflamed, and water that which is moistened, and that the mother substance becomes earth and air, in so far as she receives the impressions of them.  But have ideas any existence? Let us consider this question more precisely.  Is there any self-existent fire? and do all those things which we call self-existent exist?  or are only those things which we see, or in some way perceive through the bodily organs, truly existent, and nothing whatever besides them?  And is all that which we call an intelligible essence nothing at all, and only a name?  Here is a question which we must not leave unexamined or undetermined, nor must we affirm too confidently that there can be no decision; neither must we interpolate in our present long discourse a digression equally long,  but if it is possible to set forth a great principle in a few words, that is just what we want.  [We must admit that they have, if, as is the case, mind and true opinion differ; for corresponding to the difference between these mental states, there must be a difference between the objects apprehended by them. Space is not perceived by sense, but by a kind of spurious reason.] Thus I state my view:  —If mind and true opinion are two distinct classes, then I say that there certainly are these self-existent ideas unperceived by sense, and apprehended only by the mind;  if, however, as some say, true opinion differs in no respect from mind, then everything that we perceive through the body is to be regarded as most real and certain.  But we must affirm them to be distinct, for they have a distinct origin and are of a different nature;  the one is implanted in us by instruction, the other by persuasion;  the one is always accompanied by true reason, the other is without reason;  the one cannot be overcome by persuasion, but the other can:  and lastly, every man may be said to share in true opinion, but mind is the attribute of the gods and of very few men.  Wherefore also we must acknowledge that there is one kind of being which is always the same, uncreated and indestructible, never receiving anything into itself from without, nor itself going out to any other, but invisible and imperceptible by any sense, and of which the contemplation is granted to intelligence only.  And there is another nature of the same name with it, and like to it, perceived by sense, created, always in motion, becoming in place and again vanishing out of place, which is apprehended by opinion and sense.  And there is a third nature, which is space, and is eternal, and admits not of destruction and provides a home for all created things, and is apprehended without the help of sense, by a kind of spurious reason, and is hardly real;  which we beholding as in a dream, say of all existence that it must of necessity be in some place and occupy a space, but that what is neither in heaven nor in earth has no existence.  Of these and other things of the same kind, relating to the true and waking reality of nature, we have only this dreamlike sense, and we are unable to cast off sleep and determine the truth about them.  For an image, since the reality, after which it is modelled, does not belong to it, and it exists ever as the fleeting shadow of some other, must be inferred to be in another [i. e. in space], grasping existence in some way or other, or it could not be at all.  But true and exact reason, vindicating the nature of true being, maintains that while two things [i. e. the image and space] are different they cannot exist one of them in the other and so be one and also two at the same time.  [Space, being, and generation existed before the heaven. Space, on taking the forms of the elements, was filled with dissimilar forces, which swayed her to and fro. Thus earth, air, fire and water, were sifted into their proper places, while they were yet in a rudimentary state, before God perfected them by form and number.] Thus have I concisely given the result of my thoughts; and my verdict is that being and space and generation, these three, existed in their three ways before the heaven;  and that the nurse of generation, moistened by water and inflamed by fire, and receiving the forms of earth and air, and experiencing all the affections which accompany these, presented a strange variety of appearances;  and being full of powers which were neither similar nor equally balanced, was never in any part in a state of equipoise,  but swaying unevenly evenly hither and thither, was shaken by them, and by its motion again shook them;  and the elements when moved were separated and carried continually, some one way, some another;  as, when grain is shaken and winnowed by fans and other instruments used in the threshing of corn, the close and heavy particles are borne away and settle in one direction, and the loose and light particles in another.  In this manner, the four kinds or elements were then shaken by the receiving vessel, which, moving like a winnowing machine, scattered far away from one another the elements most unlike, and forced the most similar elements into close contact.   Wherefore also the various elements had different places before they were arranged so as to form the universe.  At first, they were all without reason and measure.  But when the world began to get into order, fire and water and earth and air had only certain faint traces of themselves,  and were altogether such as everything might be expected to be in the absence of God; this, I say, was their nature at that time, and God fashioned them by form and number.  Let it be consistently maintained by us in all that we say that God made them as far as possible the fairest and best, out of things which were not fair and good.  And now I will endeavour to show you the disposition and generation of them by an unaccustomed argument, which I am compelled to use;  but I believe that you will be able to follow me, for your education has made you familiar with the methods of science. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                       
(τὰ τρίγωνα) Πρῶτον μὲν δὴ πῦρ καὶ γῆ καὶ ὕδωρ καὶ ἀὴρ ὅτι σώματά ἐστι, δῆλόν που καὶ παντί·  τὸ δὲ τοῦ σώματος εἶδος πᾶν καὶ βάθος ἔχει.  τὸ δὲ βάθος αὖ πᾶσα ἀνάγκη τὴν ἐπίπεδον περιειληφέναι φύσιν·  ἡ δὲ ὀρθὴ τῆς ἐπιπέδου βάσεως ἐκ τριγώνων συνέστηκεν.  τὰ δὲ τρίγωνα πάντα ἐκ δυοῖν ἄρχεται τριγώνοιν, μίαν μὲν ὀρθὴν ἔχοντος ἑκατέρου γωνίαν, τὰς δὲ ὀξείας·  ὧν τὸ μὲν ἕτερον ἑκατέρωθεν ἔχει μέρος γωνίας ὀρθῆς πλευραῖς ἴσαις διῃρημένης, τὸ δ’ ἕτερον ἀνίσοις ἄνισα μέρη νενεμημένης.  ταύτην δὴ πυρὸς ἀρχὴν καὶ τῶν ἄλλων σωμάτων ὑποτιθέμεθα κατὰ τὸν μετ’ ἀνάγκης εἰκότα λόγον πορευόμενοι·  τὰς δ’ ἔτι τούτων ἀρχὰς ἄνωθεν θεὸς οἶδεν καὶ ἀνδρῶν ὃς ἂν ἐκείνῳ φίλος ᾖ.  δεῖ δὴ λέγειν ποῖα κάλλιστα σώματα γένοιτ’ ἂν τέτταρα, ἀνόμοια μὲν ἑαυτοῖς, δυνατὰ δὲ ἐξ ἀλλήλων αὐτῶν ἄττα διαλυόμενα γίγνεσθαι·  τούτου γὰρ τυχόντες ἔχομεν τὴν ἀλήθειαν γενέσεως πέρι γῆς τε καὶ πυρὸς τῶν τε ἀνὰ λόγον ἐν μέσῳ.  τόδε γὰρ οὐδενὶ συγχωρησόμεθα, καλλίω τούτων ὁρώμενα σώματα εἶναί που καθ’ ἓν γένος ἕκαστον ὄν.  τοῦτ’ οὖν προθυμητέον, τὰ διαφέροντα κάλλει σωμάτων τέτταρα γένη συναρμόσασθαι καὶ φάναι τὴν τούτων ἡμᾶς φύσιν ἱκανῶς εἰληφέναι.  τοῖν δὴ δυοῖν τριγώνοιν τὸ μὲν ἰσοσκελὲς μίαν εἴληχεν φύσιν, τὸ δὲ πρόμηκες ἀπεράντους·  προαιρετέον οὖν αὖ τῶν ἀπείρων τὸ κάλλιστον, εἰ μέλλομεν ἄρξεσθαι κατὰ τρόπον.  ἂν οὖν τις ἔχῃ κάλλιον ἐκλεξάμενος εἰπεῖν εἰς τὴν τούτων σύστασιν, ἐκεῖνος οὐκ ἐχθρὸς ὢν ἀλλὰ φίλος κρατεῖ·  τιθέμεθα δ’ οὖν τῶν πολλῶν τριγώνων κάλλιστον ἕν, ὑπερβάντες τἆλλα, ἐξ οὗ τὸ ἰσόπλευρον τρίγωνον ἐκ τρίτου συνέστηκεν.  διότι δέ, λόγος πλείων·  ἀλλὰ τῷ τοῦτο ἐλέγξαντι καὶ ἀνευρόντι δὴ οὕτως ἔχον κεῖται φίλια τὰ ἆθλα.  προῃρήσθω δὴ δύο τρίγωνα ἐξ ὧν τό τε τοῦ πυρὸς καὶ τὰ τῶν ἄλλων σώματα μεμηχάνηται,  τὸ μὲν ἰσοσκελές, τὸ δὲ τριπλῆν κατὰ δύναμιν ἔχον τῆς ἐλάττονος τὴν μείζω πλευρὰν ἀεί.  τὸ δὴ πρόσθεν ἀσαφῶς ῥηθὲν νῦν μᾶλλον διοριστέον.  τὰ γὰρ τέτταρα γένη δι’ ἀλλήλων εἰς ἄλληλα ἐφαίνετο πάντα γένεσιν ἔχειν, οὐκ ὀρθῶς φανταζόμενα·  γίγνεται μὲν γὰρ ἐκ τῶν τριγώνων ὧν προῃρήμεθα γένη τέτταρα,  τρία μὲν ἐξ ἑνὸς τοῦ τὰς πλευρὰς ἀνίσους ἔχοντος,  τὸ δὲ τέταρτον ἓν μόνον ἐκ τοῦ ἰσοσκελοῦς τριγώνου συναρμοσθέν.  οὔκουν δυνατὰ πάντα εἰς ἄλληλα διαλυόμενα ἐκ πολλῶν σμικρῶν ὀλίγα μεγάλα καὶ τοὐναντίον γίγνεσθαι, τὰ δὲ τρία οἷόν τε·  ἐκ γὰρ ἑνὸς ἅπαντα πεφυκότα λυθέντων τε τῶν μειζόνων πολλὰ σμικρὰ ἐκ τῶν αὐτῶν συστήσεται, δεχόμενα τὰ προσήκοντα ἑαυτοῖς σχήματα,  καὶ σμικρὰ ὅταν αὖ πολλὰ κατὰ τὰ τρίγωνα διασπαρῇ, γενόμενος εἷς ἀριθμὸς ἑνὸς ὄγκου μέγα ἀποτελέσειεν ἂν ἄλλο εἶδος ἕν.  ταῦτα μὲν οὖν λελέχθω περὶ τῆς εἰς ἄλληλα γενέσεως·  οἷον δὲ ἕκαστον αὐτῶν γέγονεν εἶδος καὶ ἐξ ὅσων συμπεσόντων ἀριθμῶν, λέγειν ἂν ἑπόμενον εἴη.  ἄρξει δὴ τό τε πρῶτον εἶδος καὶ σμικρότατον συνιστάμενον, στοιχεῖον δ’ αὐτοῦ τὸ τὴν ὑποτείνουσαν τῆς ἐλάττονος πλευρᾶς διπλασίαν ἔχον μήκει·  σύνδυο δὲ τοιούτων κατὰ διάμετρον συντιθεμένων καὶ τρὶς τούτου γενομένου, τὰς διαμέτρους καὶ τὰς βραχείας πλευρὰς εἰς ταὐτὸν ὡς κέντρον ἐρεισάντων, ἓν ἰσόπλευρον τρίγωνον ἐξ ἓξ τὸν ἀριθμὸν ὄντων γέγονεν.  τρίγωνα δὲ ἰσόπλευρα συνιστάμενα τέτταρα κατὰ σύντρεις ἐπιπέδους γωνίας μίαν στερεὰν γωνίαν ποιεῖ, τῆς ἀμβλυτάτης τῶν ἐπιπέδων γωνιῶν ἐφεξῆς γεγονυῖαν·  τοιούτων δὲ ἀποτελεσθεισῶν τεττάρων πρῶτον εἶδος στερεόν, ὅλου περιφεροῦς διανεμητικὸν εἰς ἴσα μέρη καὶ ὅμοια, συνίσταται.  δεύτερον δὲ ἐκ μὲν τῶν αὐτῶν τριγώνων, κατὰ δὲ ἰσόπλευρα τρίγωνα ὀκτὼ συστάντων, μίαν ἀπεργασαμένων στερεὰν γωνίαν ἐκ τεττάρων ἐπιπέδων·  καὶ γενομένων ἓξ τοιούτων τὸ δεύτερον αὖ σῶμα οὕτως ἔσχεν καὶ γενομένων ἓξ τοιούτων τὸ δεύτερον αὖ σῶμα οὕτως ἔσχεν τέλος.  τὸ δὲ τρίτον ἐκ δὶς ἑξήκοντα τῶν στοιχείων συμπαγέντων, στερεῶν δὲ γωνιῶν δώδεκα, ὑπὸ πέντε ἐπιπέδων τριγώνων ἰσοπλεύρων περιεχομένης ἑκάστης, εἴκοσι βάσεις ἔχον ἰσοπλεύρους τριγώνους γέγονεν.  καὶ τὸ μὲν ἕτερον ἀπήλλακτο τῶν στοιχείων ταῦτα γεννῆσαν, τὸ δὲ ἰσοσκελὲς τρίγωνον ἐγέννα τὴν τοῦ τετάρτου φύσιν, κατὰ τέτταρα συνιστάμενον, εἰς τὸ κέντρον τὰς ὀρθὰς γωνίας συνάγον, ἓν ἰσόπλευρον τετράγωνον ἀπεργασάμενον·  ἓξ δὲ τοιαῦτα συμπαγέντα γωνίας ὀκτὼ στερεὰς ἀπετέλεσεν, κατὰ τρεῖς ἐπιπέδους ὀρθὰς συναρμοσθείσης ἑκάστης·  τὸ δὲ σχῆμα τοῦ συστάντος σώματος γέγονεν κυβικόν, ἓξ ἐπιπέδους τετραγώνους ἰσοπλεύρους βάσεις ἔχον.  ἔτι δὲ οὔσης συστάσεως μιᾶς πέμπτης, ἐπὶ τὸ πᾶν ὁ θεὸς αὐτῇ κατεχρήσατο ἐκεῖνο διαζωγραφῶν.  Ἃ δή τις εἰ πάντα λογιζόμενος ἐμμελῶς ἀποροῖ πότερον ἀπείρους χρὴ κόσμους εἶναι λέγειν ἢ πέρας ἔχοντας, τὸ μὲν ἀπείρους ἡγήσαιτ’ ἂν ὄντως ἀπείρου τινὸς εἶναι δόγμα ὧν ἔμπειρον χρεὼν εἶναι,  πότερον δὲ ἕνα ἢ πέντε αὐτοὺς ἀληθείᾳ πεφυκότας λέγειν ποτὲ προσήκει, μᾶλλον ἂν ταύτῃ στὰς εἰκότως διαπορήσαι.  τὸ μὲν οὖν δὴ παρ’ ἡμῶν ἕνα αὐτὸν κατὰ τὸν εἰκότα λόγον πεφυκότα μηνύει θεόν, ἄλλος δὲ εἰς ἄλλα πῃ βλέψας ἕτερα δοξάσει. 
                                                                                       
                                                                                       
Principio quod ig(16)nis, et terra, aqua, et aer, corpora sint, nemo utique dubitabit.  Omnis autem corporis (17) species profunditatem habet.  Profunditatem vero planis constare necessarium est.  Recti(18)tudo porro planae basis ex triangulis constituitur,  atque trianguli omnes ex duobus ini(19)tium habent, habentibus utrisque rectum angulum unum, acutos duos.  Quorum alter (20) utrinque anguli recti partem obtinet, aequalibus distincti lateribus: sed in altero inaequa(21)libus inaequalia distribuuntur.  Igitur per rationes probabiles necessitati coniunctas in(22)cedentes, ignis ceterumque corporum huiusmodi ponamus exordium.  Superiora ve(23)ro his horum principia deo nota sunt, atque ei qui dei sit amicus.  Videamus igitur qua (24) potissimum ratione quatuor corpora pulscherrima fiant, dissimilia quidem inter se, sed (25) quae in se invicem dissolvantur, et ex se invicem generentur.  Si id comprehenderimus, (26) veritatem ipsam de generatione ignis terraque et eorum quae competenti ratione servata (27) horum media sunt, tenebimus.  Tunc enim nemini concedemus dicenti alicubi esse o(28)culis patentia pulchriora his corpora, quorum quodlibet secundum unum sit genus.  Co(29)nandum igitur quatuor corporum genera pulchritudine praecellentia constituere, atque (30) ita asserere horum nos naturam sufficienter comprehendisse.  E duobus trian(31)gulis Isosceles, id est qui cruribus constat aequalibus, unicam habet naturam: qui vero (32) altera parte est oblongior, infinitas.  Ergo si recte exordiri volumus, infinitorum quoque (33) pulcherrimum praeligere nos oportet.  Ac si quis pulchriorem a se electum ad horum (34) constitutionem afferre voluerit, eius non tanquam adversarii, sed tanquam amici sit sen(35)tentia potior.  Unum itaque reliquis posthabitis, triangulorum multorum pulcherri(36)mum ponimus, a quo aequaliter triangulus ex tertio constitit.  Ratio vero cur ita sit, pro(37)lixior esset.  At eum qui diligenti discussione ita esse comperiet, dulce manet victoriae (38) praemium.  Propositi sane nobis sint duo e multis trianguli, ex quibus ignis ceterorumque (39) corpora compositi sunt.  Horum unus Isosceles sit aequalibus cruribus constans trian(40)gulus. Alter vero sit ille qui longius latus semper breviore latere potentia triplo maius (41) habet.  Verum quod securi nimium in superioribus diximus, nunc magis est distinguen(42)dum.  Videbantur quidem nobis, neque id quidem satis recte, omnia quatuor genera ex se (43) invicem generari.  Profecto quatuor genera ex triangulis quos elegimus generantur.  Tria (44) quidem ex uno, in aequalia habente latera.  Quartum vero unicum ex triangulo Isoscele (45) componitur.  Non igitur possunt omnia ita in se invicem resolvi et commutari, ut ex mul(46)tis parvis pauca ingentia vel converso efficiantur. Tria certe possunt.  Cum enim ex uno (47) haec facta sint omnia, quando maiora solvuntur, multa exigua ex eisdem constituuntur, (48) parvas congruasque sibi figuras adepta.  Rursus quando multa per triangulos dispergun(49)tur amplificata, unum unius molis faciunt numerum, magnamque aliam speciem unam (50)perficiunt.  Haec utique de mutua ipsorum generatione dicta sint hactenus.  Reliquum (51) est, ut qualis quaeque eorum fact sit species, et ex quibus concurrentibus numeris co(52)acervata, dicamus.  Erit utique prima species, quae ex paucissimis composita fuerit, ele(53)mentum eius, quod latus oblongius breviori latere duplo maius habet.  Cum vero bini hu(54)iusmodi secundum diametrum conponantur, terque id fiat, et diamtri latera breviora in idem (1) quasi centrum ducantur, unus triangulus aequaliter ex triangulis numero sex (2) conficitur.  Trianguli autem aequilateres quatuor compositi secundum ter(3)nos planos angulos, unum solidum faciunt angulum: qui angulum planorum (4) omnium obtusissimum deinceps ortu subsequitur.  Atqui triangulis huiusmo(5)di quatuor natis prima solida species totius circunferentis distributiva in par(6)tes aequales ac similes oritur.  Secunda vero ex eisdem quidem triangulis sed se(7)cundum aequaliteres triangulos octo constitutis, unum facientibus solidum an(8)gulum ex planis quatuor,  factisque sex huiusmodi, corpus secundum absoli(9)tur.  At tertium ex elementis bis sexaginta copulatis, et angulis solidis duode(10)cim, quorum quilibet quinque planis triangulis aequilateribus continetur, ha(11)bens viginti aequilateres bases, nascitur.  Iam igitur elementum alterum sic ha(12)ctenus ista genuerit. Verum Isosceles triangulus quarti generavit naturam se(13)cundum quatuor constitutus, et ad centrum rectos congregans angulos, u(14)numque quadrungulum aequilitaterem faciens.  Sex vero huiusmodi copulati an(15)gulos octo solidos, quorum quilibet per tres planos rectos coaptus est, effece(16)runt.  Corporisque ita constituti figura cubica est, sex planos quadrungu(17)los aequilitateres bases adepta.  Est et quinta qaedam compositio, qua deus ad (18) universi constitutionem est usus, eaque descripsit et figuravit,  quae contempla(19)tus aliquis non absurde dubitaverit utrum infinitos esse mundos an finitos exi(20)stimandum sit. Infinitos quidem dicere illius putabit esse proprium, qui nul(21)lam rerum cognitione dignarum peritiam habeat.  Sed utrum unus mundus an quinque (22) revera nati sint inquirere, minus utique putabit absurdum.  Ratio quidem nostra unum (23) ipsum verisimili probatione asserit esse natum. Alius vero quis ad alia respiciens aliter o(24)pinabitur. 
[The manner of their generation was as follows:— The four elements are solid bodies, and all solids are made up of plane surfaces, and all plane surfaces of triangles. All triangles are ultimately of two kinds,—i. e. the rectangular isosceles, and the rectangular scalene. The rectangular isosceles, which has but one form, and that one of the many forms of scalene which is half of an equilateral triangle were chosen for making the elements.] In the first place, then, as is evident to all, fire and earth and water and air are bodies.  And every sort of body possesses solidity,  and every solid must necessarily be contained in planes;  and every plane rectilinear figure is composed of triangles;  and all triangles are originally of two kinds, both of which are made up of one right and two acute angles;  one of them has at either end of the base the half of a divided right angle, having equal sides, while in the other the right angle is divided into unequal parts, having unequal sides.  These, then, proceeding by a combination of probability with demonstration, we assume to be the original elements of fire and the other bodies;  but the principles which are prior to these God only knows, and he of men who is the friend of God.  And next we have to determine what are the four most beautiful bodies which are unlike one another, and of which some are capable of resolution into one another;  for having discovered thus much, we shall know the true origin of earth and fire and of the proportionate and intermediate elements.  And then we shall not be willing to allow that there are any distinct kinds of visible bodies fairer than these.  Wherefore we must endeavour to construct the four forms of bodies which excel in beauty, and then we shall be able to say that we have sufficiently apprehended their nature.  Now of the two triangles, the isosceles has one form only; the scalene or unequal-sided has an infinite number.  Of the infinite forms we must select the most beautiful, if we are to proceed in due order,  and any one who can point out a more beautiful form than ours for the construction of these bodies, shall carry off the palm, not as an enemy, but as a friend.  Now, the one which we maintain to be the most beautiful of all the many triangles (and we need not speak of the others) is that of which the double forms a third triangle which is equilateral;  the reason of this would be long to tell;  he who disproves what we are saying, and shows that we are mistaken, may claim a friendly victory.  Then let us choose two triangles, out of which fire and the other elements have been constructed,  one isosceles, the other having the square of the longer side equal to three times the square of the lesser side.  [Three of them are generated out of the latter: the fourth alone from the former. Therefore only three can pass into each other. The first and simplest solid, the pyramid, has four equilateral triangular surfaces, each formed by the union of six rectangular scalene triangles. The second species, the octahedron, has eight such surfaces, and the third, the icosahedron, twenty. The fourth, the cube, has six square surfaces, each formed of four rectangular isosceles triangles. There is also a fifth species. Although there are five elementary solids, there is but one world.] Now is the time to explain what was before obscurely said:  there was an error in imagining that all the four elements might be generated by and into one another; this, I say, was an erroneous supposition,  for there are generated from the triangles which we have selected four kinds  —three from the one which has the sides unequal;  the fourth alone is framed out of the isosceles triangle.  Hence they cannot all be resolved into one another, a great number of small bodies being combined into a few large ones, or the converse. But three of them can be thus resolved and compounded,  for they all spring from one, and when the greater bodies are broken up, many small bodies will spring up out of them and take their own proper figures;  or, again, when many small bodies are dissolved into their triangles, if they become one, they will form one large mass of another kind.  So much for their passage into one another.  I have now to speak of their several kinds, and show out of what combinations of numbers each of them was formed.  The first will be the simplest and smallest construction, and its element is that triangle which has its hypothenuse twice the lesser side.  When two such triangles are joined at the diagonal, and this is repeated three times, and the triangles rest their diagonals and shorter sides on the same point as a centre, a single equilateral triangle is formed out of six triangles;  and four equilateral triangles, if put together, make out of every three plane angles one solid angle, being that which is nearest to the most obtuse of plane angles;  and out of the combination of these four angles arises the first solid form which distributes into equal and similar parts the whole circle in which it is inscribed.  The second species of solid is formed out of the same triangles, which unite as eight equilateral triangles and form one solid angle out of four plane angles,  and out of six such angles the second body is completed.  And the third body is made up of 120 triangular elements, forming twelve solid angles, each of them included in five plane equilateral triangles, having altogether twenty bases, each of which is an equilateral triangle.  The one element [that is, the triangle which has its hypothenuse twice the lesser side] having generated these figures, generated no more; but the isosceles triangle produced the fourth elementary figure, which is compounded of four such triangles, joining their right angles in a centre, and forming one equilateral quadrangle.  Six of these united form eight solid angles, each of which is made by the combination of three plane right angles;  the figure of the body thus composed is a cube, having six plane quadrangular equilateral bases.  There was yet a fifth combination which God used in the delineation of the universe.  Now, he who, duly reflecting on all this, enquires whether the worlds are to be regarded as indefinite or definite in number, will be of opinion that the notion of their indefiniteness is characteristic of a sadly indefinite and ignorant mind.  He, however, who raises the question whether they are to be truly regarded as one or five, takes up a more reasonable position.  Arguing from probabilities, I am of opinion that they are one; another, regarding the question from another point of view, will be of another mind. 
                                                                                       
(τὰ τέσσαρα γένη) καὶ τοῦτον μὲν μεθετέον, τὰ δὲ γεγονότα νῦν τῷ λόγῳ γένη διανείμωμεν εἰς πῦρ καὶ γῆν καὶ ὕδωρ καὶ ἀέρα.  γῇ μὲν δὴ τὸ κυβικὸν εἶδος δῶμεν·  ἀκινητοτάτη γὰρ τῶν τεττάρων γενῶν γῆ καὶ τῶν σωμάτων πλαστικωτάτη, μάλιστα δὲ ἀνάγκη γεγονέναι τοιοῦτον τὸ τὰς βάσεις ἀσφαλεστάτας ἔχον·  βάσις δὲ ἥ τε τῶν κατ’ ἀρχὰς τριγώνων ὑποτεθέντων ἀσφαλεστέρα κατὰ φύσιν ἡ τῶν ἴσων πλευρῶν τῆς τῶν ἀνίσων,  τό τε ἐξ ἑκατέρου συντεθὲν ἐπίπεδον ἰσόπλευρον ἰσοπλεύρου τετράγωνον τριγώνου κατά τε μέρη καὶ καθ’ ὅλον στασιμωτέρως ἐξ ἀνάγκης βέβηκεν.  διὸ γῇ μὲν τοῦτο ἀπονέμοντες τὸν εἰκότα λόγον διασῴζομεν, ὕδατι δ’ αὖτῶν λοιπῶν τὸ δυσκινητότατον εἶδος, τὸ δ’ εὐκινητότατον πυρί, τὸ δὲ μέσον ἀέρι·  καὶ τὸ μὲν σμικρότατον σῶμα πυρί, τὸ δ’ αὖ μέγιστον ὕδατι, τὸ δὲ μέσον ἀέρι·  καὶ τὸ μὲν ὀξύτατον αὖ πυρί, τὸ δὲ δεύτερον ἀέρι, τὸ δὲ τρίτον ὕδατι.  ταῦτ’ οὖν δὴ πάντα, τὸ μὲν ἔχον ὀλιγίστας βάσεις εὐκινητότατον ἀνάγκη πεφυκέναι,  τμητικώτατόν τε καὶ ὀξύτατον ὂν πάντῃ πάντων, ἔτι τε ἐλαφρότατον, ἐξ ὀλιγίστων συνεστὸς τῶν αὐτῶν μερῶν·  τὸ δὲ δεύτερον δευτέρως τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτ’ ἔχειν, τρίτως δὲ τὸ τρίτον.  ἔστω δὴ κατὰ τὸν ὀρθὸν λόγον καὶ κατὰ τὸν εἰκότα τὸ μὲν τῆς πυραμίδος στερεὸν γεγονὸς εἶδος πυρὸς στοιχεῖον καὶ σπέρμα·  τὸ δὲ δεύτερον κατὰ γένεσιν εἴπωμεν ἀέρος, τὸ δὲ τρίτον ὕδατος.  πάντα οὖν δὴ ταῦτα δεῖ διανοεῖσθαι σμικρὰ οὕτως, ὡς καθ’ ἓν ἕκαστον μὲν τοῦ γένους ἑκάστου διὰ σμικρότητα οὐδὲν ὁρώμενον ὑφ’ ἡμῶν, συναθροισθέντων δὲ πολλῶν τοὺς ὄγκους αὐτῶν ὁρᾶσθαι·  καὶ δὴ καὶ τὸ τῶν ἀναλογιῶν περί τε τὰ πλήθη καὶ τὰς κινήσεις καὶ τὰς ἄλλας δυνάμεις πανταχῇ τὸν θεόν, ὅπῃπερ ἡ τῆς ἀνάγκης ἑκοῦσα πεισθεῖσά τε φύσις ὑπεῖκεν, ταύτῃ πάντῃ δι’ ἀκριβείας ἀποτελεσθεισῶν ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ συνηρμόσθαι ταῦτα ἀνὰ λόγον.  Ἐκ δὴ πάντων ὧνπερ τὰ γένη προειρήκαμεν ὧδ’ ἂν κατὰ τὸ εἰκὸς μάλιστ’ ἂν ἔχοι.  γῆ μὲν συντυγχάνουσα πυρὶ διαλυθεῖσά τε ὑπὸ τῆς ὀξύτητος αὐτοῦ φέροιτ’ ἄν, εἴτ’ ἐν αὐτῷ πυρὶ λυθεῖσα εἴτ’ ἐν ἀέρος εἴτ’ ἐν ὕδατος ὄγκῳ τύχοι, μέχριπερ ἂν αὐτῆς πῃ συντυχόντα τὰ μέρη, πάλιν συναρμοσθέντα αὐτὰ αὑτοῖς, γῆ γένοιτο  - οὐ γὰρ εἰς ἄλλο γε εἶδος ἔλθοι ποτ’ ἄν -   ὕδωρ δὲ ὑπὸ πυρὸς μερισθέν, εἴτε καὶ ὑπ’ ἀέρος, ἐγχωρεῖ γίγνεσθαι συστάντα ἓν μὲν πυρὸς σῶμα, δύο δὲ ἀέρος· τὰ δὲ ἀέρος τμήματα ἐξ ἑνὸς μέρους διαλυθέντος δύ’ ἂν γενοίσθην σώματα πυρός.  καὶ πάλιν, ὅταν ἀέρι πῦρ ὕδασίν τε ἤ τινι γῇ περιλαμβανόμενον ἐν πολλοῖς ὀλίγον, κινούμενον ἐν φερομένοις, μαχόμενον καὶ νικηθὲν καταθραυσθῇ, δύο πυρὸς σώματα εἰς ἓν συνίστασθον εἶδος ἀέρος·  καὶ κρατηθέντος ἀέρος κερματισθέντος τε ἐκ δυοῖν ὅλοιν καὶ ἡμίσεος ὕδατος εἶδος ἓν ὅλον ἔσται συμπαγές.  ὧδε γὰρ δὴ λογισώμεθα αὐτὰ πάλιν,  ὡς ὅταν ἐν πυρὶ λαμβανόμενον τῶν ἄλλων ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ τι γένος τῇ τῶν γωνιῶν καὶ κατὰ τὰς πλευρὰς ὀξύτητι τέμνηται, συστὰν μὲν εἰς τὴν ἐκείνου φύσιν πέπαυται τεμνόμενον  - τὸ γὰρ ὅμοιον καὶ ταὐτὸν αὑτῷ γένος ἕκαστον οὔτε τινὰ μεταβολὴν ἐμποιῆσαι δυνατὸν οὔτε τι παθεῖν ὑπὸ τοῦ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ὁμοίως τε ἔχοντος -  ἕως δ’ ἂν εἰς ἄλλο τι γιγνόμενον ἧττον ὂν κρείττονι μάχηται, λυόμενον οὐ παύεται.  τά τε αὖ σμικρότερα ὅταν ἐν τοῖς μείζοσιν πολλοῖς περιλαμβανόμενα ὀλίγα διαθραυόμενα κατασβεννύηται, συνίστασθαι μὲν ἐθέλοντα εἰς τὴν τοῦ κρατοῦντος ἰδέαν πέπαυται κατασβεννύμενα γίγνεταί τε ἐκ πυρὸς ἀήρ, ἐξ ἀέρος ὕδωρ·  ἐὰν δ’ εἰς ταὐτὰ ἴῃ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων τι συνιὸν γενῶν μάχηται, λυόμενα οὐ παύεται, πρὶν ἢ παντάπασιν ὠθούμενα καὶ διαλυθέντα ἐκφύγῃ πρὸς τὸ συγγενές, ἢ νικηθέντα, ἓν ἐκ πολλῶν ὅμοιον τῷ κρατήσαντι γενόμενον, αὐτοῦ σύνοικον μείνῃ.  καὶ δὴ καὶ κατὰ ταῦτα τὰ παθήματα διαμείβεται τὰς χώρας ἅπαντα·  διέστηκεν μὲν γὰρ τοῦ γένους ἑκάστου τὰ πλήθη κατὰ τόπον ἴδιον διὰ τὴν τῆς δεχομένης κίνησιν,  τὰ δὲ ἀνομοιούμενα ἑκάστοτε ἑαυτοῖς, ἄλλοις δὲ ὁμοιούμενα, φέρεται διὰ τὸν σεισμὸν πρὸς τὸν ἐκείνων οἷς ἂν ὁμοιωθῇ τόπον.  Ὅσα μὲν οὖν ἄκρατα καὶ πρῶτα σώματα διὰ τοιούτων αἰτιῶν γέγονεν·  τὸ δ’ ἐν τοῖς εἴδεσιν αὐτῶν ἕτερα ἐμπεφυκέναι γένη τὴν ἑκατέρου τῶν στοιχείων αἰτιατέον σύστασιν,  μὴ μόνον ἓν ἑκατέραν μέγεθος ἔχον τὸ τρίγωνον φυτεῦσαι κατ’ ἀρχάς, ἀλλ’ ἐλάττω τε καὶ μείζω, τὸν ἀριθμὸν δὲ ἔχοντα τοσοῦτον ὅσαπερ ἂν ᾖ τἀν τοῖς εἴδεσι γένη.  διὸ δὴ συμμειγνύμενα αὐτά τε πρὸς αὑτὰ καὶ πρὸς ἄλληλα τὴν ποικιλίαν ἐστὶν ἄπειρα·  ἧς δὴ δεῖ θεωροὺς γίγνεσθαι τοὺς μέλλοντας περὶ φύσεως εἰκότι λόγῳ χρήσεσθαι. 
                                                                     
                                                                     
Sed haec dimittenda sunt. Et iam genera quatuor a nobis paulo ante digesta, in (25) ignem, terram, aquam, aeremque distribuamus.  Terrae cubicam speciem assignemus.  Nam (26) omnium quatuor maxime immobilis terra est, et corporalium omnium conpacta maxime. Tale (27) vero illud praecipue factum esse necessaruim est, quod firmissimas tutissimasque possidet ba(28)ses.  In triangulis porro a principio positis, qui aequilateres sunt, firmiorem tutioremque (29) quam inaequilateres basem possident.  Et quod ex utroque compositum est planum ae(30)quilatere aequilateri quadrungulum, certe triangulo tam quo ad totum quam quoad partes (31) stabilius necessario provenit.  Quamobrem si convenientem probabilemque sequi ratio(32)nem velimus, terrae id tribuamus: Aquae deinde, quod tribus reliquis est immobili(33)us: igni quod mobilissimum: Aeri medium.  Et corpus quidem minimum igni, aquae (34) maximum, aeri medium:  acutissimum quoque igni, secundum ab hoc aeri, aquae terti(35)um.  Ex his omnibus quod bases paucissimas habet, velocissimum esse necessarium est.  Est (36) enim ad penetrandum promptissimum, quippe cum prorsus sit omnium acutissimum. Le(37)vissimum quoque, cum ex paucissimis partibus eisdem constet.  Quod secundum est, se(38)cundo loco habeat haec oportet. Tertio tertium.  Igitur secundum rectam probabilemque(39) rationem pyramidis species solida elementum semenque sit ignis.  Secundam vero generati(40)one speciem aeri, aquae tertiam tribuamus.  De his omnibus adeo parvis ita putandum est, (41) quod si singula duntaxat singulorum generum capiantur, nullum eorum propterparvita(42)tem cerni a nobis poterit: sin multa invicem congregentur, eorum moles magnitudinesque (43) cernentur.  Quin etiam haec omnia, adeo tanta ubique quoad multitudines, motus, atque po(44)tentias proportione exacte absoluta connexaque sunt, quantam necessitatis natura libens (45) et persuasa capere poterat.  Ex omnibus sane quorum genera supra narravimus, ita meri(46)to se res habere videtur.  Terra cum in ignem inciderit, eius acumine dissoluta fertur reso(47)luta in ignem, aut aerem, aut aquam, quousque partes ipsius congressae iterum, sibique invicem (48) copulatae terram reficiant.  Non enim in aliam unquam speciem transmigraret.  Aqua prae(49)terea ab igni vel divisa in partes, unum, partibus suis reconciliatis, ignis corpus, ae(50)ris duo facit: portiones vero aeris ex una dissoluta parte duo ignis corpora faciunt.  Rur(51)sus quando ignis ab aere vel aqua vel terra aliqua occupatur, et ipse quidem paucus in (52) multis movetur, atque in agitatis pugnat, iactatusque distrahitur, duo corpora ignis in specie(53)em aeris unam concrescunt:  deinde superato aere atque disperso, ex totis duobus atque di(54)midio una aquae tota species coalescit.  Denique sic ea rursus confideremus.  quoties ab igne (1) comprehensum aliorum genus aliquod angulorum laterumque ipsius acumine scindi(2)tur, tum demum discerpi definit cum in ignis naturam transierit.  Simile enim idemque ge(3)nus quodlibet a simili eodemque minime patitur:  quousque vero in aliud permutatur, im(4)becilliusque cum potentiore luctatur, disolvi non definit.  Rursus quando minora a multis (5) maioribus circumventa sunt, et pauca lacerata extinguuntur, cum in vincentis ideam con(6)stitui velint, cessant extingui, sitque ex igni aer, ex aere aqua.  Quodsi in haec transitus fu(7)erit, et aliorum aliquod genus impugnet, non cessant agitata dissolvi priusquam aut om(8)nino cum dissolubilia sint depulsa ad cognatum refugiant, aut expugnata in unum quid(9)dam, ex multis superanti simile tandem evadant, familiariterque cum victore permaneant.  (10) Enimvero per has passiones sedes vicissim cuncta commutant.  Generis namque cuius(11)libet multitudines per locum proprium distinguuntur, ob sedis ipsius agitationem.  Quae (12) vero dissimilia invicem facta sunt, propter fluctum concussionemque ad locum eorum (13) quibus similia evasere, feruntur.  Corpora igitur immixta ac prima ex causis huiusmo(14)di fabricata sunt.  Quod autem in eorum speciebus alia quoque innata sunt genera, cau(15)sa est elementi utriusque constitutio:  quae non solum ab initio unum cum magnitudine (16) triangulum peperit, sed etiam maiora et minora tot quidem numero, quot in speciebus (17) sunt genera.  Quapropter mixta haec in seipsis atque invicem, infinitam habent varieta(18)tem:  cuius peritos esse eos oportet qui de natura sunt rationem probabilem reddituri. 
But, leaving this enquiry, let us proceed to distribute the elementary forms, which have now been created in idea, among the four elements. We have now to assign to the four elements their respective forms,—to earth the cube, to water the icosahedron, to air the octahedron, to fire the pyramid. Individual particles cannot be seen: masses of each kind are visible.  To earth, then, let us assign the cubical form;  for earth is the most immoveable of the four and the most plastic of all bodies, and that which has the most stable bases must of necessity be of such a nature.  Now, of the triangles which we assumed at first, that which has two equal sides is by nature more firmly based than that which has unequal sides;  and of the compound figures which are formed out of either, the plane equilateral quadrangle has necessarily a more stable basis than the equilateral triangle, both in the whole and in the parts.  Wherefore, in assigning this figure to earth, we adhere to probability; and to water we assign that one of the remaining forms which is the least moveable; and the most moveable of them to fire; and to air that which is intermediate.  Also we assign the smallest body to fire, and the greatest to water, and the intermediate in size to air;  and, again, the acutest body to fire, and the next in acuteness to air, and the third to water.  Of all these elements, that which has the fewest bases must necessarily be the most moveable,  for it must be the acutest and most penetrating in every way, and also the lightest as being composed of the smallest number of similar particles:  and the second body has similar properties in a second degree, and the third body in the third degree.    and let us assign the element which was next in the order of generation to air, and the third to water.  We must imagine all these to be so small that no single particle of any of the four kinds is seen by us on account of their smallness: but when many of them are collected together their aggregates are seen.  And the ratios of their numbers, motions, and other properties, everywhere God, as far as necessity allowed or gave consent, has exactly perfected, and harmonized in due proportion.  [Of the three elements, fire, air, water, a denser, if overpowered by a rarer, is forced to change into a rarer, and vice versa. Earth, however, which is the densest of all, cannot change, because its component triangles are unlike those of the other elements. Change of nature is accompanied by change of place.] From all that we have just been saying about the elements or kinds, the most probable conclusion is as follows:  —earth, when meeting with fire and dissolved by its sharpness, whether the dissolution take place in the fire itself or perhaps in some mass of air or water, is borne hither and thither, until its parts, meeting together and mutually harmonizing, again become earth;  for they can never take any other form.  But water, when divided by fire or by air, on re-forming, may become one part fire and two parts air; and a single volume of air divided becomes two of fire.  Again, when a small body of fire is contained in a larger body of air or water or earth, and both are moving, and the fire struggling is overcome and broken up, then two volumes of fire form one volume of air;  and when air is overcome and cut up into small pieces, two and a half parts of air are condensed into one part of water.  Let us consider the matter in another way.  When one of the other elements is fastened upon by fire, and is cut by the sharpness of its angles and sides, it coalesces with the fire, and then ceases to be cut by them any longer.  For no element which is one and the same with itself can be changed by or change another of the same kind and in the same state.  But so long as in the process of transition the weaker is fighting against the stronger, the dissolution continues.  Again, when a few small particles, enclosed in many larger ones, are in process of decomposition and extinction, they only cease from their tendency to extinction when they consent to pass into the conquering nature, and fire becomes air and air water.  But if bodies of another kind go and attack them [i. e. the small particles], the latter continue to be dissolved until, being completely forced back and dispersed, they make their escape to their own kindred, or else, being overcome and assimilated to the conquering power, they remain where they are and dwell with their victors, and from being many become one.  And owing to these affections, all things are changing their place,  for by the motion of the receiving vessel the bulk of each class is distributed into its proper place;  but those things which become unlike themselves and like other things, are hurried by the shaking into the place of the things to which they grow like.  [The varieties of the four elements are due to differences in the size of the elementary triangles.] Now all unmixed and primary bodies are produced by such causes as these.  As to the subordinate species which are included in the greater kinds, they are to be attributed to the varieties in the structure of the two original triangles.  For either structure did not originally produce the triangle of one size only, but some larger and some smaller, and there are as many sizes as there are species of the four elements.  Hence when they are mingled with themselves and with one another there is an endless variety of them,  which those who would arrive at the probable truth of nature ought duly to consider. 
                                                                     
(κίνησις καὶ στάσις) Κινήσεως οὖν στάσεώς τε πέρι, τίνα τρόπον καὶ μεθ’ ὧντινων γίγνεσθον, εἰ μή τις διομολογήσεται, πόλλ’ ἂν εἴη ἐμποδὼν τῷ κατόπισθεν λογισμῷ.  τὰ μὲν οὖν ἤδη περὶ αὐτῶν εἴρηται, πρὸς δ’ ἐκείνοις ἔτι τάδε, ἐν μὲν ὁμαλότητι μηδέποτε ἐθέλειν κίνησιν ἐνεῖναι.  τὸ γὰρ κινησόμενον ἄνευ τοῦ κινήσοντος ἢ τὸ κινῆσον ἄνευ τοῦ κινησομένου χαλεπόν, μᾶλλον δὲ ἀδύνατον, εἶναι·  κίνησις δὲ οὐκ ἔστιν τούτων ἀπόντων, ταῦτα δὲ ὁμαλὰ εἶναί ποτε ἀδύνατον.  οὕτω δὴ στάσιν μὲν ἐν ὁμαλότητι, κίνησιν δὲ εἰς ἀνωμαλότητα ἀεὶ τιθῶμεν·  αἰτία δὲ ἀνισότης αὖ τῆς ἀνωμάλου φύσεως.  ἀνισότητος δὲ γένεσιν μὲν διεληλύθαμεν·  πῶς δέ ποτε οὐ κατὰ γένη διαχωρισθέντα ἕκαστα πέπαυται τῆς δι’ ἀλλήλων κινήσεως καὶ φορᾶς, οὐκ εἴπομεν. ὧδε οὖν πάλιν ἐροῦμεν.  ἡ τοῦ παντὸς περίοδος, ἐπειδὴ συμπεριέλαβεν τὰ γένη, κυκλοτερὴς οὖσα καὶ πρὸς αὑτὴν πεφυκυῖα βούλεσθαι συνιέναι, σφίγγει πάντα καὶ κενὴν χώραν οὐδεμίαν ἐᾷ λείπεσθαι.  διὸ δὴ πῦρ μὲν εἰς ἅπαντα διελήλυθε μάλιστα, ἀὴρ δὲ δεύτερον, ὡς λεπτότητι δεύτερον ἔφυ, καὶ τἆλλα ταύτῃ·  τὰ γὰρ ἐκ μεγίστων μερῶν γεγονότα μεγίστην κενότητα ἐν τῇ συστάσει παραλέλοιπεν, τὰ δὲ σμικρότατα ἐλαχίστην.  ἡ δὴ τῆς πιλήσεως σύνοδος τὰ σμικρὰ εἰς τὰ τῶν μεγάλων διάκενα συνωθεῖ.  σμικρῶν οὖν παρὰ μεγάλα τιθεμένων καὶ τῶν ἐλαττόνων τὰ μείζονα διακρινόντων, τῶν δὲ μειζόνων ἐκεῖνα συγκρινόντων, πάντ’ ἄνω κάτω μεταφέρεται πρὸς τοὺς ἑαυτῶν τόπους·  μεταβάλλον γὰρ τὸ μέγεθος ἕκαστον καὶ τὴν τόπων μεταβάλλει στάσιν.  οὕτω δὴ διὰ ταῦτά τε ἡ τῆς ἀνωμαλότητος διασῳζομένη γένεσις ἀεὶ τὴν ἀεὶ κίνησιν τούτων οὖσαν ἐσομένην τε ἐνδελεχῶς παρέχεται. 
                             
                             
Igi(19)tur nisi quis quo pacto et cum quibus una motus et constitutio fiat certe conprehenderit, mul(20)ta disputationi quae manet a tergo, impedimento futura videntur.  De his partim qui(21)dem dictum est, partim vero restat dicendum. In ipsa leni planaque natura motus esse nun(22)quam solet.  Nam agitandum absque agitaturo, vel agitaturum absque agitando difficile (23) est, immo impossibile, reperiri.  Motus autem horum omnium minime est. haec vero levia (24)planaque esse nunquam possunt.  Sic itaque statum quidem in planitie lenitateque, motum ve(25)ro in contraria semper natura ponemus.  Inaequalitates porro naturae huius est causa, quae (26) leni planoque contraria est.  Inaequalitates vero generationem iam tractavimus.  Sed quo(27)nam modo singula secundum genera non divisa moveri invicem ferrique definunt, nequa(28)quam exposimus. Id ergo deinceps sic explanabimus.  Universae naturae circuitus cum (29) circulari ambitu suo genera complexus sit, et secum ipso congredi studeat, constringit (30) omnia. locumque vacuum relinqui nusquam patitur.  Quo circa ignis per omnia maxime (31) penetravit, deinde aer, utpote qui ipsi tenuitate est proximus, et alia simili ratione dei(32)ceps.  Quae enim ex maximis partibus sunt composita, vacuitatem quoque in sua consti(33)tutione maximam reliquere, minima contra minimam.  Coactionis autem ipsius angu(34stia, parva in magnorum contrudit inania.  Quare cum parva magnis insinuata sint et (35) ipsa quidem parva quae magna sunt discernant, maiora vero minora coerceant, omnia sur(36)sum deorsumve in sua loca feruntur.  Nam quodlibet mutata magnitudine sedem mutat.  (37)Sic utique et has ob causas naturae lenitati contrariae semper generatio conservata horum (38) motum et in praesenti et in futuro perpetuum exhibet. 
[How is it that the elements are perpetually moving?—i. e. How is absence of uniformity, the condition of motion, secured for them? We have seen that there is a continual tendency to produce uniformity, due to the motion of the receiving vessel. There is also a tendency to destroy it, due to the revolution of the universe, which trusts the elements into each other.] Unless a person comes to an understanding about the nature and conditions of rest and motion, he will meet with many difficulties in the discussion which follows.  Something has been said of this matter already, and something more remains to be said, which is, that motion never exists in what is uniform.  For to conceive that anything can be moved without a mover is hard or indeed impossible, and equally impossible to conceive that there can be a mover unless there be something which can be moved;  —motion cannot exist where either of these are wanting, and for these to be uniform is impossible;  wherefore we must assign rest to uniformity and motion to the want of uniformity.  Now inequality is the cause of the nature which is wanting in uniformity;  and of this we have already described the origin.  But there still remains the further point—why things when divided after their kinds do not cease to pass through one another and to change their place—which we will now proceed to explain.  In the revolution of the universe are comprehended all the four elements, and this being circular and having a tendency to come together, compresses everything and will not allow any place to be left void.  Wherefore, also, fire above all things penetrates everywhere, and air next, as being next in rarity of the elements; and the two other elements in like manner penetrate according to their degrees of rarity.  For those things which are composed of the largest particles have the largest void left in their compositions, and those which are composed of the smallest particles have the least.  And the contraction caused by the compression thrusts the smaller particles into the interstices of the larger.  And thus, when the small parts are placed side by side with the larger, and the lesser divide the greater and the greater unite the lesser, all the elements are borne up and down and hither and thither towards their own places;  for the change in the size of each changes its position in space.  And these causes generate an inequality which is always maintained, and is continually creating a perpetual motion of the elements in all time. 
                             
(γενῶν εἴδη) Μετὰ δὴ ταῦτα δεῖ νοεῖν ὅτι πυρός τε γένη πολλὰ γέγονεν,  οἷον φλὸξ τό τε ἀπὸ τῆς φλογὸς ἀπιόν, ὃ κάει μὲν οὔ, φῶς δὲ τοῖς ὄμμασιν παρέχει, τό τε φλογὸς ἀποσβεσθείσης ἐν τοῖς διαπύροις καταλειπόμενον αὐτοῦ·  κατὰ ταὐτὰ δὲ ἀέρος, τὸ μὲν εὐαγέστατον ἐπίκλην αἰθὴρ καλούμενος, ὁ δὲ θολερώτατος ὁμίχλη τε καὶ σκότος, ἕτερά τε ἀνώνυμα εἴδη, γεγονότα διὰ τὴν τῶν τριγώνων ἀνισότητα.  τὰ δὲ ὕδατος διχῇ μὲν πρῶτον, τὸ μὲν ὑγρόν, τὸ δὲ χυτὸν γένος αὐτοῦ.  τὸ μὲν οὖν ὑγρὸν διὰ τὸ μετέχον εἶναι τῶν γενῶν τῶν ὕδατος ὅσα σμικρά, ἀνίσων ὄντων, κινητικὸν αὐτό τε καθ’ αὑτὸ καὶ ὑπ’ ἄλλου διὰ τὴν ἀνωμαλότητα καὶ τὴν τοῦ σχήματος ἰδέαν γέγονεν·  τὸ δὲ ἐκ μεγάλων καὶ ὁμαλῶν στασιμώτερον μὲν ἐκείνου καὶ βαρὺ πεπηγὸς ὑπὸ ὁμαλότητός ἐστιν,  ὑπὸ δὲ πυρὸς εἰσιόντος καὶ διαλύοντος αὐτὸ τὴν ὁμαλότητα ἀποβάλλει, ταύτην δὲ ἀπολέσαν μετίσχει μᾶλλον κινήσεως,  γενόμενον δὲ εὐκίνητον, ὑπὸ τοῦ πλησίον ἀέρος ὠθούμενον καὶ κατατεινόμενον ἐπὶ γῆν,  τήκεσθαι μὲν τὴν τῶν ὄγκων καθαίρεσιν, ῥοὴν δὲ τὴν κατάτασιν ἐπὶ γῆν ἐπωνυμίαν ἑκατέρου τοῦ πάθους ἔλαβεν.  πάλιν δ’ ἐκπίπτοντος αὐτόθεν τοῦ πυρός, ἅτε οὐκ εἰς κενὸν ἐξιόντος, ὠθούμενος ὁ πλησίον ἀὴρ εὐκίνητον ὄντα ἔτι τὸν ὑγρὸν ὄγκον εἰς τὰς τοῦ πυρὸς ἕδρας συνωθῶν αὐτὸν αὑτῷ συμμείγνυσιν·  ὁ δὲ συνωθούμενος ἀπολαμβάνων τε τὴν ὁμαλότητα πάλιν, ἅτε τοῦ τῆς ἀνωμαλότητος δημιουργοῦ πυρὸς ἀπιόντος, εἰς ταὐτὸν αὑτῷ καθίσταται.  καὶ τὴν μὲν τοῦ πυρὸς ἀπαλλαγὴν ψῦξιν, τὴν δὲ σύνοδον ἀπελθόντος ἐκείνου πεπηγὸς εἶναι γένος προσερρήθη.  τούτων δὴ πάντων ὅσα χυτὰ προσείπομεν ὕδατα, τὸ μὲν ἐκ λεπτοτάτων καὶ ὁμαλωτάτων πυκνότατον γιγνόμενον, μονοειδὲς γένος, στίλβοντι καὶ ξανθῷ χρώματι κοινωθέν, τιμαλφέστατον κτῆμα χρυσὸς ἠθημένος διὰ πέτρας ἐπάγη·  χρυσοῦ δὲ ὄζος, διὰ πυκνότητα σκληρότατον ὂν καὶ μελανθέν, ἀδάμας ἐκλήθη.  τὸ δ’ ἐγγὺς μὲν χρυσοῦ τῶν μερῶν, εἴδη δὲ πλείονα ἑνὸς ἔχον, πυκνότητι δέ,  τῇ μὲν χρυσοῦ πυκνότερον ὄν, καὶ γῆς μόριον ὀλίγον καὶ λεπτὸν μετασχόν, ὥστε σκληρότερον εἶναι,  τῷ δὲ μεγάλα ἐντὸς αὑτοῦ διαλείμματα ἔχειν κουφότερον, τῶν λαμπρῶν πηκτῶν τε ἓν γένος ὑδάτων χαλκὸς συσταθεὶς γέγονεν·  τὸ δ’ ἐκ γῆς αὐτῷ μειχθέν, ὅταν παλαιουμένω διαχωρίζησθον πάλιν ἀπ’ ἀλλήλων, ἐκφανὲς καθ’ αὑτὸ γιγνόμενον ἰὸς λέγεται.  τἆλλα δὲ τῶν τοιούτων οὐδὲν ποικίλον ἔτι διαλογίσασθαι τὴν τῶν εἰκότων μύθων μεταδιώκοντα ἰδέαν·  ἣν ὅταν τις ἀναπαύσεως ἕνεκα τοὺς περὶ τῶν ὄντων ἀεὶ καταθέμενος λόγους, τοὺς γενέσεως πέρι διαθεώμενος εἰκότας ἀμεταμέλητον ἡδονὴν κτᾶται,  μέτριον ἂν ἐν τῷ βίῳ παιδιὰν καὶ φρόνιμον ποιοῖτο.  ταύτῃ δὴ καὶ τὰ νῦν ἐφέντες τὸ μετὰ τοῦτο τῶν αὐτῶν πέρι τὰ ἑξῆς εἰκότα δίιμεν τῇδε.  τὸ πυρὶ μεμειγμένον ὕδωρ, ὅσον λεπτὸν ὑγρόν τε διὰ τὴν κίνησιν καὶ τὴν ὁδὸν ἣν κυλινδούμενον ἐπὶ γῆς ὑγρὸν λέγεται,  μαλακόν τε αὖ τῷ τὰς βάσεις ἧττον ἑδραίους οὔσας ἢ τὰς γῆς ὑπείκειν, τοῦτο ὅταν πυρὸς ἀποχωρισθὲν ἀέρος τε μονωθῇ, γέγονεν μὲν ὁμαλώτερον, συνέωσται δὲ ὑπὸ τῶν ἐξιόντων εἰς αὑτό,  παγέν τε οὕτως τὸ μὲν ὑπὲρ γῆς μάλιστα παθὸν ταῦτα χάλαζα, τὸ δ’ ἐπὶ γῆς κρύσταλλος,  τὸ δὲ ἧττον, ἡμιπαγές τε ὂν ἔτι, τὸ μὲν ὑπὲρ γῆς αὖ χιών, τὸ δ’ ἐπὶ γῆς συμπαγὲν ἐκ δρόσου γενόμενον πάχνη λέγεται.  τὰ δὲ δὴ πλεῖστα ὑδάτων εἴδη μεμειγμένα ἀλλήλοις  - σύμπαν μὲν τὸ γένος, διὰ τῶν ἐκ γῆς φυτῶν ἠθημένα, χυμοὶ λεγόμενοι -  διὰ δὲ τὰς μείξεις ἀνομοιότητα ἕκαστοι σχόντες τὰ μὲν ἄλλα πολλὰ ἀνώνυμα γένη παρέσχοντο, τέτταρα δὲ ὅσα ἔμπυρα εἴδη, διαφανῆ μάλιστα γενόμενα, εἴληφεν ὀνόματα αὐτῶν,  τὸ μὲν τῆς ψυχῆς μετὰ τοῦ σώματος θερμαντικὸν οἶνος, τὸ δὲ λεῖον καὶ διακριτικὸν ὄψεως διὰ ταῦτά τε ἰδεῖν λαμπρὸν καὶ στίλβον λιπαρόν τε φανταζόμενον ἐλαιηρὸν εἶδος, πίττα καὶ κίκι καὶ ἔλαιον αὐτὸ ὅσα τ’ ἄλλα τῆς αὐτῆς δυνάμεως·  ὅσον δὲ διαχυτικὸν μέχρι φύσεως τῶν περὶ τὸ στόμα συνόδων, ταύτῃ τῇ δυνάμει γλυκύτητα παρεχόμενον, μέλι τὸ κατὰ πάντων μάλιστα πρόσρημα ἔσχεν, τὸ δὲ τῆς σαρκὸς διαλυτικὸν τῷ κάειν, ἀφρῶδες γένος, ἐκ πάντων ἀφορισθὲν τῶν χυμῶν, ὀπὸς ἐπωνομάσθη. 
                                                             
                                                             
Post haec sciendum est multa esse (39)ignis generata: flammam videlicet:  et quod ab ea est accensum, quod urit quidem, lumen (40) vero nullum oculis affert, quodve extincta flamma intra illa quae accensa fuerant, remanet.  (41) Similiter aeris genus aliud purissimum agilissimumque, quem aetherem nuncupant: aliud (42) turbulentissimum, caligine nubibusque obscurum: aliasque species sine nomine esse putan(43)dum est, propter ipsam triangulorum inaequilitatem.  Aquae genera duo sunt praecipua. Unum (44) humidum, alterum fusile.  Humidum quidem, quia generibus aquae parvis et inaequali(45)bus constat, facile a se ipso et ab alio propter inaequilitatis conditionem et figurae speciem (46) moveri solet.  Quod autem ex grandioribus aequalibusque et lenibus est compositum, sta(47)bilius illo. Et grave propter lenem aequilitatem compactum est,  sed propter ignis pene(48)trantis dissolventisque impetum aequilitate amissa motus fit particeps:  factumque agile mo(49)bileque, a proximo aere pulsum extensumque per terram duo quaedam patitur: nam et lique(50)scit et in terram decidit.  primum illud molis, purgatio, hoc fluxus cognominatur.  Rursus (51) igne hinc evolante, quippe cum non fiat in vacuum exitus, proximus aer pulsus mobilem (52) adhuc molem humidam in ignis sedes impellit, ipsique ipsam commiscet.  Moles denique com(53)pulsa, iterumque lenem aequalitatem adepta, cum ignis inaequalitatis artifex iam abierit, in (54) idem secum coacervat:  atque ignis abscessum frigefactionem, copulam vero congressumque (1) igni abeunte factum conglutinationem gelidamque rigiditatem vocamus.  Ex his vero (2) quas aquas fusiles appellavimus, quod ex tenuissimis lenissimisque fit densissimum, unifor(3) me, splendidum, flavumque, preciosissima res est, aurum florescens per terram compa(4)ctum est.  Auri autem ramus propter densitatem durissimus et nigro preaterea colore suf(5)fulus, adamas appellatur.  Sed quod auro proximas habet partes, pluresque una species (6) continet,  auro quoque densius, et terrenae partis paucae tenuisque, particeps, adeo aspe(7)rius duriusque sit,  verum ex eo quod intervalla intrinsecus habet magna, levius est, hoc (8) genus nitentium concretarumque aquarum unum est, atque aes nominatur.  At quando (9) terrena pars huic immixta propter vetustatem a ceteris partibus eius secernitur, ad ex(10)tremamque emissa superficiem per se ipsa aspectui patet, rubigo iam nascitur.  Cetera ge(11)neris eiusdem verisimilibus rationibus assequi, haudquaquam laboriosum est.  Quod (12) si quis remittendi studii gratia rationibus eorum quae semper sunt intermissis considera(13)verit verisimiles de generatione probationes,  atque eiusmodi consideratione sine poeniten(14)tiae accessione delectetur, moderatum in vita prudentemque ludum consequetur.  His uti(15)que nunc ita concessis, deinceps quae de eisdem probabilia videbuntur, ita percurrenda (16) videntur.  Igni saepe miscetur aquae pars tenuis, atque humida fluidaque, sic ideo nominata, (17) quia lubrica circunfluit:  mollis quoque ob eam causam, quia eius bases minus fir(18)mae stabilesque quam terrae, facile cedunt atque labuntur. Haec quando ab igni destitua,(19) ab aere quoque deseritur, fit lenior, et alienis expressis cogitur in se ipsam:  atque ita com(20)pacta, si supra terram id contigerit, grando fit: si in terra, glacies:  quae quidem tunc fiunt (21) cum riget cohaerescitque maxime gelu. cum vero minus congelatur, si supra terram acci(22)dit, nix: sin in terra ex rore crassior facta, pruina.  Verum quando plurimae aquae species (23) invicem commiscentur,  universum aliud genus a terra per arbores stillans, liquor hu(24)morque vocatur.  Liquores vero singuli propter mixtiones dissimilitudinem nacti multa (25) quidem alia sine nomine faciunt genera, sed quatuor igneae species evidentes et perspi(26)cuae maxime, fortitae sunt nomina.  Quod enim animam simul cum corpore calefacit, vi(27)num dicitur. Quod vero lene est, discernitque visum, ideoque aspectu splendidum, atque ni(28)tens, et pingue nobis apparet, uncta et olearia species est, pix, gummi, et oleum ceteraque (29)id genus.  At quod oris angustos meatus ad penetralia usque naturae perfundit, hac vi (30) dulcedinem adhibens, mel communiter nuncupatur. Denique quod carnem dissolvit uritque (31) et spumeum est ex omnibus secretum liquoribus, succus vocatur. 
[Kinds of fire:—(i) flame; (ii) light; (iii) red heat. Kinds of air:—(i) æther; (ii) mist. There are also other kinds without names. Kinds of water:—(i) liquid; (ii) fusile. The former is mobile; the latter is solid, but melts when heated,—congealing again as it cools. Of the fusile kind are (1) gold, (2) adamant, (3) copper. The phenomenon of rust. To natural science the student of the eternal may turn for recreation.] In the next place we have to consider that there are divers kinds of fire.  There are, for example, first, flame; and secondly, those emanations of flame which do not burn but only give light to the eyes; thirdly, the remains of fire, which are seen in red-hot embers after the flame has been extinguished.  There are similar differences in the air; of which the brightest part is called the aether, and the most turbid sort mist and darkness; and there are various other nameless kinds which arise from the inequality of the triangles.  Water, again, admits in the first place of a division into two kinds; the one liquid and the other fusile.  The liquid kind is composed of the small and unequal particles of water; and moves itself and is moved by other bodies owing to the want of uniformity and the shape of its particles;  whereas the fusile kind, being formed of large and uniform particles, is more stable than the other, and is heavy and compact by reason of its uniformity.  But when fire gets in and dissolves the particles and destroys the uniformity, it has greater mobility,  and becoming fluid is thrust forth by the neighbouring air and spreads upon the earth;  and this dissolution of the solid masses is called melting, and their spreading out upon the earth flowing.  Again, when the fire goes out of the fusile substance, it does not pass into a vacuum, but into the neighbouring air; and the air which is displaced forces together the liquid and still moveable mass into the place which was occupied by the fire, and unites it with itself.  Thus compressed the mass resumes its equability, and is again at unity with itself, because the fire which was the author of the inequality has retreated;  and this departure of the fire is called cooling, and the coming together which follows upon it is termed congealment.  Of all the kinds termed fusile, that which is the densest and is formed out of the finest and most uniform parts is that most precious possession called gold, which is hardened by filtration through rock; this is unique in kind, and has both a glittering and a yellow colour.  A shoot of gold, which is so dense as to be very hard, and takes a black colour, is termed adamant.  There is also another kind which has parts nearly like gold, and of which there are several species;  it is denser than gold, and it contains a small and fine portion of earth, and is therefore harder,  yet also lighter because of the great interstices which it has within itself; and this substance, which is one of the bright and denser kinds of water, when solidified is called copper.  There is an alloy of earth mingled with it, which, when the two parts grow old and are disunited, shows itself separately and is called rust.  The remaining phenomena of the same kind there will be no difficulty in reasoning out by the method of probabilities.  A man may sometimes set aside meditations about eternal things, and for recreation turn to consider the truths of generation which are probable only;  he will thus gain a pleasure not to be repented of, and secure for himself while he lives a wise and moderate pastime.  Let us grant ourselves this indulgence, and go through the probabilities relating to the same subjects which follow next in order.  [From water of the liquid kind are formed (1) hail or ice, (2) snow, (3) hoar-frost, (4) juices in general and four in particular,—i. e. (a) wine, (b) oil, (c) honey, (d) vegetable acid.] Water which is mingled with fire, so much as is fine and liquid (being so called by reason of its motion and the way in which it rolls along the ground),  and soft, because its bases give way and are less stable than those of earth, when separated from fire and air and isolated, becomes more uniform, and by their retirement is compressed into itself;  and if the condensation be very great, the water above the earth becomes hail, but on the earth, ice;  and that which is congealed in a less degree and is only half solid, when above the earth is called snow, and when upon the earth, and condensed from dew, hoar-frost.  Then, again, there are the numerous kinds of water which have been mingled with one another,  and are distilled through plants which grow in the earth; and this whole class is called by the name of juices or saps.  The unequal admixture of these fluids creates a variety of species; most of them are nameless, but four which are of a fiery nature are clearly distinguished and have names.  First, there is wine, which warms the soul as well as the body: secondly, there is the oily nature, which is smooth and divides the visual ray, and for this reason is bright and shining and of a glistening appearance, including pitch, the juice of the castor berry, oil itself, and other things of a like kind:  thirdly, there is the class of substances which expand the contracted parts1 of the mouth, until they return to their natural state, and by reason of this property create sweetness;—these are included under the general name of honey: and, lastly, there is a frothy nature, which differs from all juices, having a burning quality which dissolves the flesh; it is called opos (a vegetable acid). 
                                                             
(γῆς εἴδη) Γῆς δὲ εἴδη, τὸ μὲν ἠθημένον διὰ ὕδατος τοιῷδε τρόπῳ γίγνεται σῶμα λίθινον.  τὸ συμμιγὲς ὕδωρ ὅταν ἐν τῇ συμμείξει κοπῇ, μετέβαλεν εἰς ἀέρος ἰδέαν· γενόμενος δὲ ἀὴρ εἰς τὸν ἑαυτοῦ τόπον ἀναθεῖ.  κενὸν δ’ ὑπερεῖχεν αὐτῶν οὐδέν· τὸν οὖν πλησίον ἔωσεν ἀέρα.  ὁ δὲ ἅτε ὢν βαρύς, ὠσθεὶς καὶ περιχυθεὶς τῷ τῆς γῆς ὄγκῳ, σφόδρα ἔθλιψεν συνέωσέν τε αὐτὸν εἰς τὰς ἕδρας ὅθεν ἀνῄει ὁ νέος ἀήρ·  συνωσθεῖσα δὲ ὑπὸ ἀέρος ἀλύτως ὕδατι γῆ συνίσταται πέτρα, καλλίων μὲν ἡ τῶν ἴσων καὶ ὁμαλῶν διαφανὴς μερῶν, αἰσχίων δὲ ἡ ἐναντία.  τὸ δὲ ὑπὸ πυρὸς τάχους τὸ νοτερὸν πᾶν ἐξαρπασθὲν καὶ κραυρότερον ἐκείνου συστάν, ᾧ γένει κέραμον ἐπωνομάκαμεν, τοῦτο γέγονεν·  ἔστιν δὲ ὅτε νοτίδος ὑπολειφθείσης χυτὴ γῆ γενομένη διὰ πυρὸς ὅταν ψυχθῇ, γίγνεται τὸ μέλαν χρῶμα ἔχον λίθος.  τὼ δ’ αὖ κατὰ ταὐτὰ μὲν ταῦτα ἐκ συμμείξεως ὕδατος ἀπομονουμένω πολλοῦ, λεπτοτέρων δὲ ἐκ γῆς μερῶν ἁλμυρώ τε ὄντε,  ἡμιπαγῆ γενομένω καὶ λυτὼ πάλιν ὑφ’ ὕδατος, τὸ μὲν ἐλαίου καὶ γῆς καθαρτικὸν γένος λίτρον,  τὸ δ’ εὐάρμοστον ἐν ταῖς κοινωνίαις ταῖς περὶ τὴν τοῦ στόματος αἴσθησιν ἁλῶν κατὰ λόγον νόμου θεοφιλὲς σῶμα ἐγένετο.  τὰ δὲ κοινὰ ἐξ ἀμφοῖν ὕδατι μὲν οὐ λυτά, πυρὶ δέ, διὰ τὸ τοιόνδε οὕτω συμπήγνυται.  γῆς ὄγκους πῦρ μὲν ἀήρ τε οὐ τήκει·  τῆς γὰρ συστάσεως τῶν διακένων αὐτῆς σμικρομερέστερα πεφυκότα, διὰ πολλῆς εὐρυχωρίας ἰόντα, οὐ βιαζόμενα, ἄλυτον αὐτὴν ἐάσαντα ἄτηκτον παρέσχεν·  τὰ δὲ ὕδατος ἐπειδὴ μείζω πέφυκεν μέρη, βίαιον ποιούμενα τὴν διέξοδον, λύοντα αὐτὴν τήκει.  γῆν μὲν γὰρ ἀσύστατον ὑπὸ βίας οὕτως ὕδωρ μόνον λύει, συνεστηκυῖαν δὲ πλὴν πυρὸς οὐδέν·  εἴσοδος γὰρ οὐδενὶ πλὴν πυρὶ λέλειπται.  τὴν δὲ ὕδατος αὖ σύνοδον τὴν μὲν βιαιοτάτην πῦρ μόνον, τὴν δὲ ἀσθενεστέραν ἀμφότερα, πῦρ τε καὶ ἀήρ, διαχεῖτον, ὁ μὲν κατὰ τὰ διάκενα, τὸ δὲ καὶ κατὰ τὰ τρίγωνα·  βίᾳ δὲ ἀέρα συστάντα οὐδὲν λύει πλὴν κατὰ τὸ στοιχεῖον, ἀβίαστον δὲ κατατήκει μόνον πῦρ.  τὰ δὴ τῶν συμμείκτων ἐκ γῆς τε καὶ ὕδατος σωμάτων, μέχριπερ ἂν ὕδωρ αὐτοῦ τὰ τῆς γῆς διάκενα καὶ βίᾳ συμπεπιλημένα κατέχῃ, τὰ μὲν ὕδατος ἐπιόντα ἔξωθεν εἴσοδον οὐκ ἔχοντα μέρη περιρρέοντα τὸν ὅλον ὄγκον ἄτηκτον εἴασεν,  τὰ δὲ πυρὸς εἰς τὰ τῶν ὑδάτων διάκενα εἰσιόντα, ὅπερ ὕδωρ γῆν, τοῦτο πῦρ ἀέρα ἀπεργαζόμενα, τηχθέντι τῷ κοινῷ σώματι ῥεῖν μόνα αἴτια συμβέβηκεν·  τυγχάνει δὲ ταῦτα ὄντα, τὰ μὲν ἔλαττον ἔχοντα ὕδατος ἢ γῆς, τότε περὶ τὴν ὕαλον γένος ἅπαν ὅσα τε λίθων χυτὰ εἴδη καλεῖται, τὰ δὲ πλέον ὕδατος αὖ, πάντα ὅσα κηροειδῆ καὶ θυμιατικὰ σώματα συμπήγνυται. 
                                         
                                         
Terrae vero species per (32) aquam emergens hoc modo fit lapis.  Congelata enim aqua qando in commixtione defi(33)cit, in aeris speciem transit: hic aer suum in locum recurrit;  vacuum autem ipsorum nihil, (34) proximum ergo aerem pulsat.  Iste si gravis sit pulsus, circumfususque terrenae moli, vehemen(35)ter illidit, seque ipsum in eas sedes unde novus ascenderat aer, conducit.  Terra denique ab ae(36)re indissolubiliter cum aqua coacta, lapides concreat, pulchriores quidem illos, qui perspi(37)cue ex aequalibus planisque partibus emicant, deformiores vero qui contra.  Ubi vero ignis (38) acumine humor omnis resolvitur, corpusque illo aridius redditur, ea restat species, quae soli(39)da vocatur futilisque tellus.  Quandoque etiam humore relicto, terraque fusili per ignem facta, (40) ac deinde accedente gelu, niger fit lapis.  Quando vero idpsum similiter ex commixtione (41) multo privatur humore, sed tenuioribus terrae partibus constat, falsumque est,  et semiglacia(42)le fit, perque aquam emergit, partim quidem olei terraeque purgatorium genus, nitrum dici(43)tur,  partim vero quotidiano victui commodissimum legitime, sal Deo amicum corpus.  (44) At enim communia ex utrisque, aqua quidem non solubilia, igni vero propter tale aliquid (45) conglutinantur.  Ipsas terrae moles, ignis et aer non liquefacit.  Cum enim duo haec te(46)nuissima sint, et vacuitatibus terrae minutiora, ita per capacissimos eius meatus sine ulla (47) violentia permanent, ut neque eam dissolvant, neque liquefaciant.  Aquae vero partes quia ma(48)iores sunt, violento fluxu liquefaciunt.  Terram itaque male compactam sic sola aqua sol(49)vit, compactam vero duntaxat ignis,  nihil enim praeter ignem hanc penetrat.  Aquae rursus (50) concretionem, violentissimam quidem solus ignis, debiliorem vero utraque et ignis et aer (51) diffundunt, aer inquam per vacua, ignis etiam per triangulos.  Aerem vero vi constrictum, (52) nihil nisi er elementum soluit: sine vi cohaerentem solus resolvit ignis.  Corpora ex aqua (53) terraque ita conposita ut aqua terrae inania vi coarctata obstruat, sic prorsus se habent ut aqua (54) exterior influere per ea non possit, ideoque minime liquefaciat,  sed ignis aquae meatus pe(1)netrans quemadmodum et aqua terrae inania, atque ita aquam afficiens ut ignis aerem, (2) communi corpori liquefactionis causam preabeat.  Haec vero partim aquae minus habent (3) quam terrae, quemadmodum vitri genus, et lapides illi qui fusiles appellantur: par(4)tim contra plus aquae, qualia sunt omnia quae conglutinata sunt, caereaquae evadunt, et va(5)pores emitunt. 
[Kinds of earth:—(i) rock, of which there are two species; (ii) earthenware; (iii) a certain stone of a black colour; (iv) soda; (v) salt; (vi) compounds of earth and water, including a. glass and fusile stones, and b. wax and incense.—These compounds, like compressed earth or water, are soluble by fire only, which penetrates the water in them. Earth and water, however, in their natural state are soluble, the former by water only, the latter by fire and air.] As to the kinds of earth, that which is filtered through water passes into stone in the following manner:  —The water which mixes with the earth and is broken up in the process changes into air, and taking this form mounts into its own place.  But as there is no surrounding vacuum it thrusts away the neighbouring air,  and this being rendered heavy, and, when it is displaced, having been poured around the mass of earth, forcibly compresses it and drives it into the vacant space whence the new air had come up;  and the earth when compressed by the air into an indissoluble union with water becomes rock. The fairer sort is that which is made up of equal and similar parts and is transparent; that which has the opposite qualities is inferior.  But when all the watery part is suddenly drawn out by fire, a more brittle substance is formed, to which we give the name of pottery.  Sometimes also moisture may remain, and the earth which has been fused by fire becomes, when cool, a certain stone of a black colour.  A like separation of the water which had been copiously mingled with them may occur in two substances composed of finer particles of earth and of a briny nature;  out of either of them a half-solid body is then formed, soluble in water—the one, soda, which is used for purging away oil and earth,  the other, salt, which harmonizes so well in combinations pleasing to the palate, and is, as the law testifies, a substance dear to the gods.  The compounds of earth and water are not soluble by water, but by fire only, and for this reason:  —Neither fire nor air melt masses of earth;  for their particles, being smaller than the interstices in its structure, have plenty of room to move without forcing their way, and so they leave the earth unmelted and undissolved;  but particles of water, which are larger, force a passage, and dissolve and melt the earth.  Wherefore earth when not consolidated by force is dissolved by water only; when consolidated, by nothing but fire;  for this is the only body which can find an entrance.  The cohesion of water again, when very strong, is dissolved by fire only—when weaker, then either by air or fire—the former entering the interstices, and the latter penetrating even the triangles.  But nothing can dissolve air, when strongly condensed, which does not reach the elements or triangles; or if not strongly condensed, then only fire can dissolve it.  As to bodies composed of earth and water, while the water occupies the vacant interstices of the earth in them which are compressed by force, the particles of water which approach them from without, finding no entrance, flow around the entire mass and leave it undissolved;  but the particles of fire, entering into the interstices of the water, do to the water what water does to earth and fire to air, and are the sole causes of the compound body of earth and water liquefying and becoming fluid.  Now these bodies are of two kinds; some of them, such as glass and the fusible sort of stones, have less water than they have earth; on the other hand, substances of the nature of wax and incense have more of water entering into their composition. 
                                         
(αἰσθήσεις) Καὶ τὰ μὲν δὴ σχήμασι κοινωνίαις τε καὶ μεταλλαγαῖς εἰς ἄλληλα πεποικιλμένα εἴδη σχεδὸν ἐπιδέδεικται·  τὰ δὲ παθήματα αὐτῶν δι’ ἃς αἰτίας γέγονεν πειρατέον ἐμφανίζειν.  πρῶτον μὲν οὖν ὑπάρχειν αἴσθησιν δεῖ τοῖς λεγομένοις ἀεί, σαρκὸς δὲ καὶ τῶν περὶ σάρκα γένεσιν, ψυχῆς τε ὅσον θνητόν, οὔπω διεληλύθαμεν·  τυγχάνει δὲ οὔτε ταῦτα χωρὶς τῶν περὶ τὰ παθήματα ὅσα αἰσθητικὰ οὔτ’ ἐκεῖνα ἄνευ τούτων δυνατὰ ἱκανῶς λεχθῆναι, τὸ δὲ ἅμα σχεδὸν οὐ δυνατόν.  ὑποθετέον δὴ πρότερον θάτερα, τὰ δ’ ὑποτεθέντα ἐπάνιμεν αὖθις.  ἵνα οὖν ἑξῆς τὰ παθήματα λέγηται τοῖς γένεσιν, ἔστω πρότερα ἡμῖν τὰ περὶ σῶμα καὶ ψυχὴν ὄντα.  πρῶτον μὲν οὖν ᾗ πῦρ θερμὸν λέγομεν, ἴδωμεν ὧδε σκοποῦντες, τὴν διάκρισιν καὶ τομὴν αὐτοῦ περὶ τὸ σῶμα ἡμῶν γιγνομένην ἐννοηθέντες.  ὅτι μὲν γὰρ ὀξύ τι τὸ πάθος, πάντες σχεδὸν αἰσθανόμεθα·  τὴν δὲ λεπτότητα τῶν πλευρῶν καὶ γωνιῶν ὀξύτητα τῶν τε μορίων σμικρότητα καὶ τῆς φορᾶς τὸ τάχος, οἷς πᾶσι σφοδρὸν ὂν καὶ τομὸν ὀξέως τὸ προστυχὸν ἀεὶ τέμνει,  λογιστέον ἀναμιμνῃσκομένοις τὴν τοῦ σχήματος αὐτοῦ γένεσιν, ὅτι μάλιστα ἐκείνη καὶ οὐκ ἄλλη φύσις διακρίνουσα ἡμῶν κατὰ σμικρά τε τὰ σώματα κερματίζουσα τοῦτο ὃ νῦν θερμὸν λέγομεν εἰκότως τὸ πάθημα καὶ τοὔνομα παρέσχεν.  τὸ δ’ ἐναντίον τούτων κατάδηλον μέν, ὅμως δὲ μηδὲν ἐπιδεὲς ἔστω λόγου.  τὰ γὰρ δὴ τῶν περὶ τὸ σῶμα ὑγρῶν μεγαλομερέστερα εἰσιόντα, τὰ σμικρότερα ἐξωθοῦντα, εἰς τὰς ἐκείνων οὐ δυνάμενα ἕδρας ἐνδῦναι, συνωθοῦντα ἡμῶν τὸ νοτερόν,  ἐξ ἀνωμάλου κεκινημένου τε ἀκίνητον δι’ ὁμαλότητα καὶ τὴν σύνωσιν ἀπεργαζόμενα πήγνυσιν·  τὸ δὲ παρὰ φύσιν συναγόμενον μάχεται κατὰ φύσιν αὐτὸ ἑαυτὸ εἰς τοὐναντίον ἀπωθοῦν.  τῇ δὴ μάχῃ καὶ τῷ σεισμῷ τούτῳ τρόμος καὶ ῥῖγος ἐτέθη, ψυχρόν τε τὸ πάθος ἅπαν τοῦτο καὶ τὸ δρῶν αὐτὸ ἔσχεν ὄνομα.  σκληρὸν δέ, ὅσοις ἂν ἡμῶν ἡ σὰρξ ὑπείκῃ, μαλακὸν δέ, ὅσα ἂν τῇ σαρκί·  πρὸς ἄλληλά τε οὕτως.  ὑπείκει δὲ ὅσον ἐπὶ σμικροῦ βαίνει·  τὸ δὲ ἐκ τετραγώνων ὂν βάσεων, ἅτε βεβηκὸς σφόδρα, ἀντιτυπώτατον εἶδος, ὅτι τε ἂν εἰς πυκνότητα συνιὸν πλείστην ἀντίτονον ᾖ μάλιστα.  βαρὺ δὲ καὶ κοῦφον μετὰ τῆς τοῦ κάτω φύσεως ἄνω τε λεγομένης ἐξεταζόμενον ἂν δηλωθείη σαφέστατα.  φύσει γὰρ δή τινας τόπους δύο εἶναι διειληφότας διχῇ τὸ πᾶν ἐναντίους, τὸν μὲν κάτω, πρὸς ὃν φέρεται πάνθ’ ὅσα τινὰ ὄγκον σώματος ἔχει, τὸν δὲ ἄνω, πρὸς ὃν ἀκουσίως ἔρχεται πᾶν, οὐκ ὀρθὸν οὐδαμῇ νομίζειν·  τοῦ γὰρ παντὸς οὐρανοῦ σφαιροειδοῦς ὄντος, ὅσα μὲν ἀφεστῶτα ἴσον τοῦ μέσου γέγονεν ἔσχατα, ὁμοίως αὐτὰ χρὴ ἔσχατα πεφυκέναι, τὸ δὲ μέσον τὰ αὐτὰ μέτρα τῶν ἐσχάτων ἀφεστηκὸς ἐν τῷ καταντικρὺ νομίζειν δεῖ πάντων εἶναι.  τοῦ δὴ κόσμου ταύτῃ πεφυκότος, τί τῶν εἰρημένων ἄνω τις ἢ κάτω τιθέμενος οὐκ ἐν δίκῃ δόξει τὸ μηδὲν προσῆκον ὄνομα λέγειν;  ὁ μὲν γὰρ μέσος ἐν αὐτῷ τόπος οὔτε κάτω πεφυκὼς οὔτε ἄνω λέγεσθαι δίκαιος, ἀλλ’ αὐτὸ ἐν μέσῳ·  ὁ δὲ πέριξ οὔτε δὴ μέσος οὔτ’ ἔχων διάφορον αὑτοῦ μέρος ἕτερον θατέρου μᾶλλον πρὸς τὸ μέσον ἤ τι τῶν καταντικρύ.  τοῦ δὲ ὁμοίως πάντῃ πεφυκότος ποῖά τις ἐπιφέρων ὀνόματα αὐτῷ ἐναντία καὶ πῇ καλῶς ἂν ἡγοῖτο λέγειν;  εἰ γάρ τι καὶ στερεὸν εἴη κατὰ μέσον τοῦ παντὸς ἰσοπαλές, εἰς οὐδὲν ἄν ποτε τῶν ἐσχάτων ἐνεχθείη διὰ τὴν πάντῃ ὁμοιότητα αὐτῶν·  ἀλλ’ εἰ καὶ περὶ αὐτὸ πορεύοιτό τις ἐν κύκλῳ, πολλάκις ἂν στὰς ἀντίπους ταὐτὸν αὐτοῦ κάτω καὶ ἄνω προσείποι.  τὸ μὲν γὰρ ὅλον, καθάπερ εἴρηται νυνδή, σφαιροειδὲς ὄν, τόπον τινὰ κάτω, τὸν δὲ ἄνω λέγειν ἔχειν οὐκ ἔμφρονος·  ὅθεν δὲ ὠνομάσθη ταῦτα καὶ ἐν οἷς ὄντα εἰθίσμεθα δι’ ἐκεῖνα καὶ τὸν οὐρανὸν ὅλον οὕτω διαιρούμενοι λέγειν, ταῦτα διομολογητέον ὑποθεμένοις τάδε ἡμῖν.  εἴ τις ἐν τῷ τοῦ παντὸς τόπῳ καθ’ ὃν ἡ τοῦ πυρὸς εἴληχε μάλιστα φύσις, οὗ καὶ πλεῖστον ἂν ἠθροισμένον εἴη πρὸς ὃ φέρεται,  ἐπεμβὰς ἐπ’ ἐκεῖνο καὶ δύναμιν εἰς τοῦτο ἔχων, μέρη τοῦ πυρὸς ἀφαιρῶν ἱσταίη τιθεὶς εἰς πλάστιγγας,  αἴρων τὸν ζυγὸν καὶ τὸ πῦρ ἕλκων εἰς ἀνόμοιον ἀέρα βιαζόμενος δῆλον ὡς τοὔλαττόν που τοῦ μείζονος ῥᾷον βιᾶται·  ῥώμῃ γὰρ μιᾷ δυοῖν ἅμα μετεωριζομένοιν τὸ μὲν ἔλαττον μᾶλλον, τὸ δὲ πλέον ἧττον ἀνάγκη που κατατεινόμενον συνέπεσθαι τῇ βίᾳ,  καὶ τὸ μὲν πολὺ βαρὺ καὶ κάτω φερόμενον κληθῆναι, τὸ δὲ σμικρὸν ἐλαφρὸν καὶ ἄνω.  ταὐτὸν δὴ τοῦτο δεῖ φωρᾶσαι δρῶντας ἡμᾶς περὶ τόνδε τὸν τόπον.  ἐπὶ γὰρ γῆς βεβῶτες γεώδη γένη διιστάμενοι, καὶ γῆν ἐνίοτε αὐτὴν ἕλκομεν εἰς ἀνόμοιον ἀέρα βίᾳ καὶ παρὰ φύσιν, ἀμφότερα τοῦ συγγενοῦς ἀντεχόμενα,  τὸ δὲ σμικρότερον ῥᾷον τοῦ μείζονος βιαζομένοις εἰς τὸ ἀνόμοιον πρότερον συνέπεται·  κοῦφον οὖν αὐτὸ προσειρήκαμεν καὶ τὸν τόπον εἰς ὃν βιαζόμεθα, ἄνω, τὸ δ’ ἐναντίον τούτοις πάθος βαρὺ καὶ κάτω.  ταῦτ’ οὖν δὴ διαφόρως ἔχειν αὐτὰ πρὸς αὑτὰ ἀνάγκη διὰ τὸ τὰ πλήθη τῶν γενῶν τόπον ἐναντίον ἄλλα ἄλλοις κατέχειν  - τὸ γὰρ ἐν ἑτέρῳ κοῦφον ὂν τόπῳ τῷ κατὰ τὸν ἐναντίον τόπον ἐλαφρῷ καὶ τῷ βαρεῖ τὸ βαρὺ τῷ τε κάτω τὸ κάτω καὶ τὸ ἄνω τῷ ἄνω πάντ’ ἐναντία καὶ πλάγια καὶ πάντως διάφορα πρὸς ἄλληλα ἀνευρεθήσεται γιγνόμενα καὶ ὄντα  - τόδε γε μὴν ἕν τι διανοητέον περὶ πάντων αὐτῶν, ὡς ἡ μὲν πρὸς τὸ συγγενὲς ὁδὸς ἑκάστοις οὖσα βαρὺ μὲν τὸ φερόμενον ποιεῖ, τὸν δὲ τόπον εἰς ὃν τὸ τοιοῦτον φέρεται, κάτω, τὰ δὲ τούτοις ἔχοντα ὡς ἑτέρως θάτερα.  περὶ δὴ τούτων αὖ τῶν παθημάτων ταῦτα αἴτια εἰρήσθω.  λείου δ’ αὖ καὶ τραχέος παθήματος αἰτίαν πᾶς που κατιδὼν καὶ ἑτέρῳ δυνατὸς ἂν εἴη λέγειν·  σκληρότης γὰρ ἀνωμαλότητι μειχθεῖσα, τὸ δ’ ὁμαλότης πυκνότητι παρέχεται. 
                                                                                         
                                                                                         
Hactenus eas species quae figuris, commutationibusque invicem varian(6)tur, pene iam demonstravimus:  quas vero ob causas passiones earum nascantur, dein(7)ceps demonstrare conabimur.  Principio sensum his quae dicta sunt, adesse semper opor(8)tet. Carnis vero et eorum quae carnem attinent, generationem, animae quoque quan(9)tum mortale est, nondum declaravimus.  Sunt enim haec a passionibus quaecunque cum (10) sensu sunt, minime separata, et illae sine his exponi sufficienter non possunt, simul vero (11)expleri ferme nequeunt.  Prima igitur alia ponenda sunt: denique quae sequuntur, ex(12)pedienda.  Ut ergo deinceps in disputando genera passiones ipsae sequantur, prima no(13)bis extent quae ad corpus et animam pertinent.  In primis quae ratione ignis calidus di(14)citur, videamus. quod ita demum perspiciemus, si discretionem divisionemque ab eo in (15) nostro corpore facta, consideremus.  quod enim acumen quoddam ea passio est, fer(16)me est omnibus manifestum.  Tenuitatem vero angulorum laterumque subtilitatem, (17) parvitatem particularum, motus velocitatem, quibus omnibus vehemens et penetrans (18) est, velociterque quod occurrit, dividit semper et dissipat, considerare debemus,  figurae (19) ipsius generationem memoria repetentes. ea quippe, non alia natura corpora nostra di(20)videns, et in partes exiguas partiens, merito passionem illam quae legitime calor nomi(21)natur, inducit.  Contraria vero huic passio licet cuique manifesta, sua tamen explanati(22)one non careat.  humidae nanque partes corporum, partibus nostris humidis grandio(23)res, cum in corpus influunt nostrum, minores quidem partes extrudunt, sed in earum (24) sedes sese insinuare non possunt, humorem autem nostrum coagulant,  atque ex inaequa(25)li et agitato immobilem propter aequalitatem coagulumque faciunt, inque angustum co(26)gunt.  Quod autem praeter naturam coactum est, secundum naturam renititur, seque revo(27)cat in contrarium.  In hac reluctatione quassationeque tremor rigorque consistit, omnisque hu(28)iusmodi passio, frigus, quodve eam infert, frigidum nominatur.  Durum autem dici(29)mus illud cui caro nostra cedit, molle quod carni:  resque ipsas invicem et duras et mol(30)les, eadem ratione vocamus.  Cedit autem quicquid parvo nititur.  Quod vero ex trian(31)qularibus basibus firmantisque est, utpote plano vehementer innixum, renititur maxi(32)me atque restitit: quodve summopere densum est, contra venientia vehementer repercu(33)tit.  Grave praeterea et leve cum ea natura simul quae sursum deorsumve dicitur, commo(34)dissime declarabitur.  Sed illud dictu absurdum est, esse duo quaedam natura loca a se in(35)vicem longo intervallo distincta: et unum quidem deorsum vocari, ad quem locum ea (36) deferantur omnia quaecunque molem quandam corporis habent: alterum vero sursum, ad quem vi omnia moveantur.  Cum enim coelum omne rotundum sit, quaecunque a me(37)dio aeque distantia extrema fata sunt, similiter esse oportet extrema. Medium quoque (38) aequalibus lineis ab extremis undique distans, eregione aeque omnia respicit.  Quoniam (40) igitur ita mundus dispositus est, siquis dictorum quicquam sursum esse dixerit vel deor(41)sum, non inuria errare videbitur.  Medius enim locus in ipso, neque sursum, neque de(42)orsum dici debet, sed medius.  Quod rursus undique circuit, neque medium est, neque par(43)tem in se habet aliam ab alia differentem, quo ad ipsum medium, et omnino quicquid sit (44) eregione locatum.  Ei vero quod sui ipsius simillimum est, contraria nomina iure nullus at(45)tribuet.  Siquid enim solidum aequilibratumque in universi medio sit, ad nullam extremo(46)rum partem propter perfectam ipsorum similitudinem declinabit:  at siquis circa illud ob(47)ambulet, saepe sibimet plantis stabit oppositis, eandemque illius partem, tum sursum, tum de(48)orsum vocabit.  Itaque universum quemadmodum paulo ante diximus, cum sit rotun(49)dum, locum habere superiorem aut inferiorem vir prudens minime affirmabit.  Sed unde (50) nomina sunt ista, et in quibus ea intuiti ex illis ad mundum totum transtulimus, huius(51)modi quaedam in primis ponentes, investigemus.  Siquis in ea mundi regione quam ut (52) plurimum fortitus est ignis, et ad quam undique fertur, insideat, vimque aliquam nancisca(53)tur,  per quam ignis partes arripiat libretque,  aut ubi in staterae lancibus collocavit, ut deor(54)sum in dissimilem detorqueat aerem, constat plane minorem ignis portionem maiori fa(1)cilius coactum iri.  Ubi enim duo simul uno rubore suspenduntur, minus quidem ma(2)gis, plus autem minus inferenti vim cedit.  Et unum quidem grave deorsumque ferri di(3)citur, alterum vero sursum ac leve.  Idem nobis terram habitantibus accidit.  Nam terrae (4) innixi, perque eam gradientes, terrena genera invicem separamus atque distinguimus, (5) et saepe terram in dissimilem acrem iacimus violenter, praeterque naturam, saepe partes (6) utrasque cognatae naturae participes.  Hic portio minor facilius quam maior ad dissimi(724,7)lem locum iacta, prius violentiae cedit,  eamque levem cognominavimus: et locum ad (8) quem compellimus, sursum. Contrariam his affectionem grave quiddam, atque deor(9)sum.  Haec utique differre invicem necessarium est, propterea quod generum multitudi(10)nes locum aliis contrarium obtinent.  Quod enim in alio loco leve est, levi quod on lo(11)co est contrario: et grave similiter gravi: et ei quod deorsum dicitur, id quod deor(12)sum: eique quod sursum, id quod dicitur sursum. omnia enim haec transversa invicem et (13) contraria ac penitus differentia esse fierique reperientur.  Unum tamen id de his omni(14)bus cogitandum, quod via gressioque singulorum ad simile atque cognatum ferens, gra(15)ve facit id quod fertur: locum vero in quem tale quid fertur, deorsum. Quae aliter se ha(16)bent, aliter efficit.  Harum igitur passionum huiusmodi quaedam dictae sint causae.  Lenis (17) item et asperae passionis causam quilibet intuitus aperire aliis poterit.  Durities enim hanc (18) inaequalitati permixta, illam vero aequalitas exhibet densitati. 
[From objects of sense we pass on to consider flesh, which perceives sensations, and sensations themselves.] I have thus shown the various classes of bodies as they are diversified by their forms and combinations and changes into one another,  and now I must endeavour to set forth their affections and the causes of them.  In the first place, the bodies which I have been describing are necessarily objects of sense. But we have not yet considered the origin of flesh, or what belongs to flesh, or of that part of the soul which is mortal.  And these things cannot be adequately explained without also explaining the affections which are concerned with sensation, nor the latter without the former: and yet to explain them together is hardly possible;  for which reason we must assume first one or the other and afterwards examine the nature of our hypothesis.  In order, then, that the affections may follow regularly after the elements, let us presuppose the existence of body and soul.  [i. Sensations common to the whole body:—(1) Heat, due to the sharpness of fire, which cuts the flesh. (2) Cold, due to contraction. (3) Hardness, and (4) Softness, the qualities in things which make them resist or yield. (5) Lightness, and (6) Heaviness, are not to be explained by dividing the world into an upper and a lower region. For the universe is shaped like a globe, and its extremes, being similarly related to the centre, cannot have opposite predicates applied to them. Lightness and heaviness are really due to attraction. Bodies are drawn towards the mass of their kindred with a force proportionate to their size. The greater this force, the greater the weight. (7) Roughness; and (8) Smoothness.] First, let us enquire what we mean by saying that fire is hot; and about this we may reason from the dividing or cutting power which it exercises on our bodies.  We all of us feel that fire is sharp;  and we may further consider the fineness of the sides, and the sharpness of the angles, and the smallness of the particles, and the swiftness of the motion;—all this makes the action of fire violent and sharp, so that it cuts whatever it meets.  And we must not forget that the original figure of fire [i. e. the pyramid], more than any other form, has a dividing power which cuts our bodies into small pieces (κερματίζει), and thus naturally produces that affection which we call heat; and hence the origin of the name (θερμὸς, κέρμα).  Now, the opposite of this is sufficiently manifest; nevertheless we will not fail to describe it.  For the larger particles of moisture which surround the body, entering in and driving out the lesser, but not being able to take their places, compress the moist principle in us;  and this from being unequal and disturbed, is forced by them into a state of rest, which is due to equability and compression.  But things which are contracted contrary to nature are by nature at war, and force themselves apart;  and to this war and convulsion the name of shivering and trembling is given; and the whole affection and the cause of the affection are both termed cold.  That is called hard to which our flesh yields, and soft which yields to our flesh;  and things are also termed hard and soft relatively to one another.  That which yields has a small base;  but that which rests on quadrangular bases is firmly posed and belongs to the class which offers the greatest resistance; so too does that which is the most compact and therefore most repellent.  The nature of the light and the heavy will be best understood when examined in connexion with our notions of above and below;  for it is quite a mistake to suppose that the universe is parted into two regions, separate from and opposite to each other, the one a lower to which all things tend which have any bulk, and an upper to which things only ascend against their will.  For as the universe is in the form of a sphere, all the extremities, being equidistant from the centre, are equally extremities, and the centre, which is equidistant from them, is equally to be regarded as the opposite of them all.  Such being the nature of the world, when a person says that any of these points is above or below, may he not be justly charged with using an improper expression?  For the centre of the world cannot be rightly called either above or below, but is the centre and nothing else;  and the circumference is not the centre, and has in no one part of itself a different relation to the centre from what it has in any of the opposite parts.  Indeed, when it is in every direction similar, how can one rightly give to it names which imply opposition?  For if there were any solid body in equipoise at the centre of the universe, there would be nothing to draw it to this extreme rather than to that, for they are all perfectly similar;  and if a person were to go round the world in a circle, he would often, when standing at the antipodes of his former position, speak of the same point as above and below;  for, as I was saying just now, to speak of the whole which is in the form of a globe as having one part above and another below is not like a sensible man.  The reason why these names are used, and the circumstances under which they are ordinarily applied by us to the division of the heavens, may be elucidated by the following supposition:  —If a person were to stand in that part of the universe which is the appointed place of fire, and where there is the great mass of fire to which fiery bodies gather—  if, I say, he were to ascend thither, and, having the power to do this, were to abstract particles of fire and put them in scales and weigh them,  and then, raising the balance, were to draw the fire by force towards the uncongenial element of the air, it would be very evident that he could compel the smaller mass more readily than the larger;  for when two things are simultaneously raised by one and the same power, the smaller body must necessarily yield to the superior power with less reluctance than the larger;  and the larger body is called heavy and said to tend downwards, and the smaller body is called light and said to tend upwards.  And we may detect ourselves who are upon the earth doing precisely the same thing.  For we often separate earthy natures, and sometimes earth itself, and draw them into the uncongenial element of air by force and contrary to nature, both clinging to their kindred elements.  But that which is smaller yields to the impulse given by us towards the dissimilar element more easily than the larger;  and so we call the former light, and the place towards which it is impelled we call above, and the contrary state and place we call heavy and below respectively.  Now the relations of these must necessarily vary, because the principal masses of the different elements hold opposite positions;  for that which is light, heavy, below or above in one place will be found to be and become contrary and transverse and every way diverse in relation to that which is light, heavy, below or above in an opposite place.  And about all of them this has to be considered:—that the tendency of each towards its kindred element makes the body which is moved heavy, and the place towards which the motion tends below, but things which have an opposite tendency we call by an opposite name.  Such are the causes which we assign to these phenomena.  As to the smooth and the rough, any one who sees them can explain the reason of them to another.  For roughness is hardness mingled with irregularity, and smoothness is produced by the joint effect of uniformity and density. 
                                                                                         
(ἡδονὴ καὶ λύπη) Μέγιστον δὲ καὶ λοιπὸν τῶν κοινῶν περὶ ὅλον τὸ σῶμα παθημάτων τὸ τῶν ἡδέων καὶ τῶν ἀλγεινῶν αἴτιον ἐν οἷς διεληλύθαμεν, καὶ ὅσα διὰ τῶν τοῦ σώματος μορίων αἰσθήσεις κεκτημένα καὶ λύπας ἐν αὑτοῖς ἡδονάς θ’ ἅμα ἑπομένας ἔχει.  ὧδ’ οὖν κατὰ παντὸς αἰσθητοῦ καὶ ἀναισθήτου παθήματος τὰς αἰτίας λαμβάνωμεν,  ἀναμιμνῃσκόμενοι τὸ τῆς εὐκινήτου τε καὶ δυσκινήτου φύσεως ὅτι διειλόμεθα ἐν τοῖς πρόσθεν·  ταύτῃ γὰρ δὴ μεταδιωκτέον πάντα ὅσα ἐπινοοῦμεν ἑλεῖν.  τὸ μὲν γὰρ κατὰ φύσιν εὐκίνητον, ὅταν καὶ βραχὺ πάθος εἰς αὐτὸ ἐμπίπτῃ, διαδίδωσιν κύκλῳ μόρια ἕτερα ἑτέροις ταὐτὸν ἀπεργαζόμενα, μέχριπερ ἂν ἐπὶ τὸ φρόνιμον ἐλθόντα ἐξαγγείλῃ τοῦ ποιήσαντος τὴν δύναμιν·  τὸ δ’ ἐναντίον ἑδραῖον ὂν κατ’ οὐδένα τε κύκλον ἰὸν πάσχει μόνον, ἄλλο δὲ οὐ κινεῖ τῶν πλησίον,  ὥστε οὐ διαδιδόντων μορίων μορίοις ἄλλων ἄλλοις τὸ πρῶτον πάθος ἐν αὐτοῖς ἀκίνητον εἰς τὸ πᾶν ζῷον γενόμενον ἀναίσθητον παρέσχεν τὸ παθόν.  ταῦτα δὲ περί τε ὀστᾶ καὶ τὰς τρίχας ἐστὶν καὶ ὅσ’ ἄλλα γήϊνα τὸ πλεῖστον ἔχομεν ἐν ἡμῖν μόρια·  τὰ δὲ ἔμπροσθεν περὶ τὰ τῆς ὄψεως καὶ ἀκοῆς μάλιστα, διὰ τὸ πυρὸς ἀέρος τε ἐν αὐτοῖς δύναμιν ἐνεῖναι μεγίστην.  τὸ δὴ τῆς ἡδονῆς καὶ λύπης ὧδε δεῖ διανοεῖσθαι·  τὸ μὲν παρὰ φύσιν καὶ βίαιον γιγνόμενον ἁθρόον παρ’ ἡμῖν πάθος ἀλγεινόν, τὸ δ’ εἰς φύσιν ἀπιὸν πάλιν ἁθρόον ἡδύ, τὸ δὲ ἡρέμα καὶ κατὰ σμικρὸν ἀναίσθητον, τὸ δ’ ἐναντίον τούτοις ἐναντίως.  τὸ δὲ μετ’ εὐπετείας γιγνόμενον ἅπαν αἰσθητὸν μὲν ὅτι μάλιστα, λύπης δὲ καὶ ἡδονῆς οὐ μετέχον,  οἷον τὰ περὶ τὴν ὄψιν αὐτὴν παθήματα, ἣ δὴ σῶμα ἐν τοῖς πρόσθεν ἐρρήθη καθ’ ἡμέραν συμφυὲς ἡμῶν γίγνεσθαι.  ταύτῃ γὰρ τομαὶ μὲν καὶ καύσεις καὶ ὅσα ἄλλα πάσχει λύπας οὐκ ἐμποιοῦσιν, οὐδὲ ἡδονὰς πάλιν ἐπὶ ταὐτὸν ἀπιούσης εἶδος,  μέγισται δὲ αἰσθήσεις καὶ σαφέσταται καθ’ ὅτι τ’ ἂν πάθῃ καὶ ὅσων ἂν αὐτή πῃ προσβαλοῦσα ἐφάπτηται·  βία γὰρ τὸ πάμπαν οὐκ ἔνι τῇ διακρίσει τε αὐτῆς καὶ συγκρίσει.  τὰ δ’ ἐκ μειζόνων μερῶν σώματα μόγις εἴκοντα τῷ δρῶντι, διαδιδόντα δὲ εἰς ὅλον τὰς κινήσεις, ἡδονὰς ἴσχει καὶ λύπας,  ἀλλοτριούμενα μὲν λύπας, καθιστάμενα δὲ εἰς τὸ αὐτὸ πάλιν ἡδονάς.  ὅσα δὲ κατὰ σμικρὸν τὰς ἀποχωρήσεις ἑαυτῶν καὶ κενώσεις εἴληφεν, τὰς δὲ πληρώσεις ἁθρόας καὶ κατὰ μεγάλα, κενώσεως μὲν ἀναίσθητα, πληρώσεως δὲ αἰσθητικὰ γιγνόμενα,  ὅσα δὲ ἀπαλλοτριοῦται μὲν ἁθρόα, λύπας μὲν οὐ παρέχει τῷ θνητῷ τῆς ψυχῆς, μεγίστας δὲ ἡδονάς· ἔστιν δὲ ἔνδηλα περὶ τὰς εὐωδίας.  κατὰ σμικρὰ δὲ μόγις τε εἰς ταὐτὸν πάλιν ἑαυτοῖς καθίσταται, τοὐναντίον τοῖς ἔμπροσθεν πάντα ἀποδίδωσιν·  ταῦτα δ’ αὖ περὶ τὰς καύσεις καὶ τομὰς τοῦ σώματος γιγνόμενά ἐστιν κατάδηλα.  Καὶ τὰ μὲν δὴ κοινὰ τοῦ σώματος παντὸς παθήματα, τῶν τ’ ἐπωνυμιῶν ὅσαι τοῖς δρῶσιν αὐτὰ γεγόνασι, σχεδὸν εἴρηται·  τὰ δ’ ἐν ἰδίοις μέρεσιν ἡμῶν γιγνόμενα, τά τε πάθη καὶ τὰς αἰτίας αὖ τῶν δρώντων, πειρατέον εἰπεῖν, ἄν πῃ δυνώμεθα.  πρῶτον οὖν ὅσα τῶν χυμῶν πέρι λέγοντες ἐν τοῖς πρόσθεν ἀπελίπομεν, ἴδια ὄντα παθήματα περὶ τὴν γλῶτταν, ἐμφανιστέον ᾗ δυνατόν.  φαίνεται δὲ καὶ ταῦτα, ὥσπερ οὖν καὶ τὰ πολλά, διὰ συγκρίσεών τέ τινων καὶ διακρίσεων γίγνεσθαι, πρὸς δὲ αὐταῖς κεχρῆσθαι μᾶλλόν τι τῶν ἄλλων τραχύτησί τε καὶ λειότησιν.  ὅσα μὲν γὰρ εἰσιόντα περὶ τὰ φλέβια, οἷόνπερ δοκίμια τῆς γλώττης τεταμένα ἐπὶ τὴν καρδίαν, εἰς τὰ νοτερὰ τῆς σαρκὸς καὶ ἁπαλὰ ἐμπίπτοντα γήϊνα μέρη κατατηκόμενα συνάγει τὰ φλέβια καὶ ἀποξηραίνει, τραχύτερα μὲν ὄντα στρυφνά, ἧττον δὲ τραχύνοντα αὐστηρὰ φαίνεται·  τὰ δὲ τούτων τε ῥυπτικὰ καὶ πᾶν τὸ περὶ τὴν γλῶτταν ἀποπλύνοντα, πέρα μὲν τοῦ μετρίου τοῦτο δρῶντα καὶ προσεπιλαμβανόμενα ὥστε ἀποτήκειν αὐτῆς τῆς φύσεως, οἷον ἡ τῶν λίτρων δύναμις, πικρὰ πάνθ’ οὕτως ὠνόμασται,   τὰ δὲ ὑποδεέστερα τῆς λιτρώδους ἕξεως ἐπὶ τὸ μέτριόν τε τῇ ῥύψει χρώμενα ἁλυκὰ ἄνευ πικρότητος τραχείας καὶ φίλα μᾶλλον ἡμῖν φαντάζεται.  τὰ δὲ τῇ τοῦ στόματος θερμότητι κοινωνήσαντα καὶ λεαινόμενα ὑπ’ αὐτοῦ, συνεκπυρούμενα καὶ πάλιν αὐτὰ ἀντικάοντα τὸ διαθερμῆναν, φερόμενά τε ὑπὸ κουφότητος ἄνω πρὸς τὰς τῆς κεφαλῆς αἰσθήσεις,  τέμνοντά τε πάνθ’ ὁπόσοις ἂν προσπίπτῃ, διὰ ταύτας τὰς δυνάμεις δριμέα πάντα τὰ τοιαῦτα ἐλέχθη.  τὸ δὲ αὖ τῶν προλελεπτυσμένων μὲν ὑπὸ σηπεδόνος, εἰς δὲ τὰς στενὰς φλέβας ἐνδυομένων, καὶ τοῖς ἐνοῦσιν αὐτόθι μέρεσιν γεώδεσιν καὶ ὅσα ἀέρος συμμετρίαν ἔχοντα, ὥστε κινήσαντα περὶ ἄλληλα ποιεῖν κυκᾶσθαι,  κυκώμενα δὲ περιπίπτειν τε καὶ εἰς ἕτερα ἐνδυόμενα ἕτερα κοῖλα ἀπεργάζεσθαι περιτεινόμενα τοῖς εἰσιοῦσιν ἃ δὴ νοτίδος περὶ ἀέρα κοίλης περιταθείσης, τοτὲ μὲν γεώδους, τοτὲ δὲ καὶ καθαρᾶς, νοτερὰ ἀγγεῖα ἀέρος, ὕδατα κοῖλα περιφερῆ τε γενέσθαι,  καὶ τὰ μὲν τῆς καθαρᾶς διαφανεῖς περιστῆναι κληθείσας ὄνομα πομφόλυγας, τὰ δὲ τῆς γεώδους ὁμοῦ κινουμένης τε καὶ αἰρομένης ζέσιν τε καὶ ζύμωσιν ἐπίκλην λεχθῆναι - τὸ δὲ τούτων αἴτιον τῶν παθημάτων ὀξὺ προσρηθῆναι.  σύμπασιν δὲ τοῖς περὶ ταῦτα εἰρημένοις πάθος ἐναντίον ἀπ’ ἐναντίας ἐστὶ προφάσεως·  ὁπόταν ἡ τῶν εἰσιόντων σύστασις ἐν ὑγροῖς, οἰκεία τῇ τῆς γλώττης ἕξει πεφυκυῖα, λεαίνῃ μὲν ἐπαλείφουσα τὰ τραχυνθέντα, τὰ δὲ παρὰ φύσιν συνεστῶτα ἢ κεχυμένα τὰ μὲν συνάγῃ, τὰ δὲ χαλᾷ, καὶ πάνθ’ ὅτι μάλιστα ἱδρύῃ κατὰ φύσιν, ἡδὺ καὶ προσφιλὲς παντὶ πᾶν τὸ τοιοῦτον ἴαμα τῶν βιαίων παθημάτων γιγνόμενον κέκληται γλυκύ.  Καὶ τὰ μὲν ταύτῃ ταῦτα·  περὶ δὲ δὴ τὴν τῶν μυκτήρων δύναμιν, εἴδη μὲν οὐκ ἔνι.  τὸ γὰρ τῶν ὀσμῶν πᾶν ἡμιγενές, εἴδει δὲ οὐδενὶ συμβέβηκεν συμμετρία πρὸς τό τινα σχεῖν ὀσμήν·  ἀλλ’ ἡμῶν αἱ περὶ ταῦτα φλέβες πρὸς μὲν τὰ γῆς ὕδατός τε γένη στενότεραι συνέστησαν, πρὸς δὲ τὰ πυρὸς ἀέρος τε εὐρύτεραι,  διὸ τούτων οὐδεὶς οὐδενὸς ὀσμῆς πώποτε ᾔσθετό τινος, ἀλλὰ ἢ βρεχομένων ἢ σηπομένων ἢ τηκομένων ἢ θυμιωμένων γίγνονταί τινων.  μεταβάλλοντος γὰρ ὕδατος εἰς ἀέρα ἀέρος τε εἰς ὕδωρ ἐν τῷ μεταξὺ τούτων γεγόνασιν, εἰσίν τε ὀσμαὶ σύμπασαι καπνὸς ἢ ὁμίχλη,  τούτων δὲ τὸ μὲν ἐξ ἀέρος εἰς ὕδωρ ἰὸν ὁμίχλη, τὸ δὲ ἐξ ὕδατος εἰς ἀέρα καπνός·  ὅθεν λεπτότεραι μὲν ὕδατος, παχύτεραι δὲ ὀσμαὶ σύμπασαι γεγόνασιν ἀέρος.  δηλοῦνται δὲ ὁπόταν τινὸς ἀντιφραχθέντος περὶ τὴν ἀναπνοὴν ἄγῃ τις βίᾳ τὸ πνεῦμα εἰς αὑτόν·  τότε γὰρ ὀσμὴ μὲν οὐδεμία συνδιηθεῖται, τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα τῶν ὀσμῶν ἐρημωθὲν αὐτὸ μόνον ἕπεται.  δύ’ οὖν ταῦτα ἀνώνυμα τὰ τούτων ποικίλματα γέγονεν, οὐκ ἐκ πολλῶν οὐδὲ ἁπλῶν εἰδῶν ὄντα,  ἀλλὰ διχῇ τό θ’ ἡδὺ καὶ τὸ λυπηρὸν αὐτόθι μόνω διαφανῆ λέγεσθον,  τὸ μὲν τραχῦνόν τε καὶ βιαζόμενον τὸ κύτος ἅπαν, ὅσον ἡμῶν μεταξὺ κορυφῆς τοῦ τε ὀμφαλοῦ κεῖται,  τὸ δὲ ταὐτὸν τοῦτο καταπραῧνον καὶ πάλιν ᾗ πέφυκεν ἀγαπητῶς ἀποδιδόν.  Τρίτον δὲ αἰσθητικὸν ἐν ἡμῖν μέρος ἐπισκοποῦσιν τὸ περὶ τὴν ἀκοήν, δι’ ἃς αἰτίας τὰ περὶ αὐτὸ συμβαίνει παθήματα, λεκτέον.  ὅλως μὲν οὖν φωνὴν θῶμεν τὴν δι’ ὤτων ὑπ’ ἀέρος ἐγκεφάλου τε καὶ αἵματος μέχρι ψυχῆς πληγὴν διαδιδομένην,  τὴν δὲ ὑπ’ αὐτῆς κίνησιν, ἀπὸ τῆς κεφαλῆς μὲν ἀρχομένην, τελευτῶσαν δὲ περὶ τὴν τοῦ ἥπατος ἕδραν, ἀκοήν·  ὅση δ’ αὐτῆς ταχεῖα, ὀξεῖαν, ὅση δὲ βραδυτέρα, βαρυτέραν·  τὴν δὲ ὁμοίαν ὁμαλήν τε καὶ λείαν, τὴν δὲ ἐναντίαν τραχεῖαν·  μεγάλην δὲ τὴν πολλήν, ὅση δὲ ἐναντία, σμικράν.  τὰ δὲ περὶ συμφωνίας αὐτῶν ἐν τοῖς ὕστερον λεχθησομένοις ἀνάγκη ῥηθῆναι.  Τέταρτον δὴ λοιπὸν ἔτι γένος ἡμῖν αἰσθητικόν, ὃ διελέσθαι δεῖ συχνὰ ἐν ἑαυτῷ ποικίλματα κεκτημένον,  ἃ σύμπαντα μὲν χρόας ἐκαλέσαμεν, φλόγα τῶν σωμάτων ἑκάστων ἀπορρέουσαν, ὄψει σύμμετρα μόρια ἔχουσαν πρὸς αἴσθησιν·  ὄψεως δ’ ἐν τοῖς πρόσθεν αὐτὸ περὶ τῶν αἰτίων τῆς γενέσεως ἐρρήθη.  τῇδ’ οὖν τῶν χρωμάτων πέρι μάλιστα εἰκὸς πρέποι τ’ ἂν ἐπιεικεῖ λόγῳ διεξελθεῖν·  τὰ φερόμενα ἀπὸ τῶν ἄλλων μόρια ἐμπίπτοντά τε εἰς τὴν ὄψιν τὰ μὲν ἐλάττω, τὰ δὲ μείζω, τὰ δ’ ἴσα τοῖς αὐτῆς τῆς ὄψεως μέρεσιν εἶναι·  τὰ μὲν οὖν ἴσα ἀναίσθητα, ἃ δὴ καὶ διαφανῆ λέγομεν,  τὰ δὲ μείζω καὶ ἐλάττω, τὰ μὲν συγκρίνοντα, τὰ δὲ διακρίνοντα αὐτήν, τοῖς περὶ τὴν σάρκα θερμοῖς καὶ ψυχροῖς καὶ τοῖς περὶ τὴν γλῶτταν στρυφνοῖς, καὶ ὅσα θερμαντικὰ ὄντα δριμέα ἐκαλέσαμεν, ἀδελφὰ εἶναι,  τά τε λευκὰ καὶ τὰ μέλανα, ἐκείνων παθήματα γεγονότα ἐν ἄλλῳ γένει τὰ αὐτά, φανταζόμενα δὲ ἄλλα διὰ ταύτας τὰς αἰτίας.  οὕτως οὖν αὐτὰ προσρητέον· τὸ μὲν διακριτικὸν τῆς ὄψεως λευκόν, τὸ δ’ ἐναντίον αὐτοῦ μέλαν,  τὴν δὲ ὀξυτέραν φορὰν καὶ γένους πυρὸς ἑτέρου προσπίπτουσαν καὶ διακρίνουσαν τὴν ὄψιν μέχρι τῶν ὀμμάτων, αὐτάς τε τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν τὰς διεξόδους βίᾳ διωθοῦσαν καὶ τήκουσαν, πῦρ μὲν ἁθρόον καὶ ὕδωρ, ὃ δάκρυον καλοῦμεν,  ἐκεῖθεν ἐκχέουσαν, αὐτὴν δὲ οὖσαν πῦρ ἐξ ἐναντίας ἀπαντῶσαν, καὶ τοῦ μὲν ἐκπηδῶντος πυρὸς οἷον ἀπ’ ἀστραπῆς, τοῦ δ’ εἰσιόντος καὶ περὶ τὸ νοτερὸν κατασβεννυμένου, παντοδαπῶν ἐν τῇ κυκήσει ταύτῃ γιγνομένων χρωμάτων, μαρμαρυγὰς μὲν τὸ πάθος προσείπομεν,  τὸ δὲ τοῦτο ἀπεργαζόμενον λαμπρόν τε καὶ στίλβον ἐπωνομάσαμεν.  τὸ δὲ τούτων αὖ μεταξὺ πυρὸς γένος, πρὸς μὲν τὸ τῶν ὀμμάτων ὑγρὸν ἀφικνούμενον καὶ κεραννύμενον αὐτῷ, στίλβον δὲ οὔ·  τῇ δὲ διὰ τῆς νοτίδος αὐγῇ τοῦ πυρὸς μειγνυμένου χρῶμα ἔναιμον παρασχομένῃ, τοὔνομα ἐρυθρὸν λέγομεν.  λαμπρόν τε ἐρυθρῷ λευκῷ τε μειγνύμενον ξανθὸν γέγονεν·  τὸ δὲ ὅσον μέτρον ὅσοις, οὐδ’ εἴ τις εἰδείη, νοῦν ἔχει τὸ λέγειν, ὧν μήτε τινὰ ἀνάγκην μήτε τὸν εἰκότα λόγον καὶ μετρίως ἄν τις εἰπεῖν εἴη δυνατός.  ἐρυθρὸν δὲ δὴ μέλανι λευκῷ τε κραθὲν ἁλουργόν· ὄρφνινον δέ, ὅταν τούτοις μεμειγμένοις καυθεῖσίν τε μᾶλλον συγκραθῇ μέλαν.  πυρρὸν δὲ ξανθοῦ τε καὶ φαιοῦ κράσει γίγνεται, φαιὸν δὲ λευκοῦ τε καὶ μέλανος, τὸ δὲ ὠχρὸν λευκοῦ ξανθῷ μειγνυμένου.  λαμπρῷ δὲ λευκὸν συνελθὸν καὶ εἰς μέλαν κατακορὲς ἐμπεσὸν κυανοῦν χρῶμα ἀποτελεῖται, κυανοῦ δὲ λευκῷ κεραννυμένου γλαυκόν, πυρροῦ δὲ μέλανι πράσιον.  τὰ δὲ ἄλλα ἀπὸ τούτων σχεδὸν δῆλα αἷς ἂν ἀφομοιούμενα μείξεσιν διασῴζοι τὸν εἰκότα μῦθον.  εἰ δέ τις τούτων ἔργῳ σκοπούμενος βάσανον λαμβάνοι, τὸ τῆς ἀνθρωπίνης καὶ θείας φύσεως ἠγνοηκὼς ἂν εἴη διάφορον,  ὅτι θεὸς μὲν τὰ πολλὰ εἰς ἓν συγκεραννύναι καὶ πάλιν ἐξ ἑνὸς εἰς πολλὰ διαλύειν ἱκανῶς ἐπιστάμενος ἅμα καὶ δυνατός,  ἀνθρώπων δὲ οὐδεὶς οὐδέτερα τούτων ἱκανὸς οὔτε ἔστι νῦν οὔτε εἰς αὖθίς ποτε ἔσται.  Ταῦτα δὴ πάντα τότε ταύτῃ πεφυκότα ἐξ ἀνάγκης ὁ τοῦ καλλίστου τε καὶ ἀρίστου δημιουργὸς ἐν τοῖς γιγνομένοις παρελάμβανεν,  ἡνίκα τὸν αὐτάρκη τε καὶ τὸν τελεώτατον θεὸν ἐγέννα,  χρώμενος μὲν ταῖς περὶ ταῦτα αἰτίαις ὑπηρετούσαις, τὸ δὲ εὖ τεκταινόμενος ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς γιγνομένοις αὐτός.  διὸ δὴ χρὴ δύ’ αἰτίας εἴδη διορίζεσθαι, τὸ μὲν ἀναγκαῖον, τὸ δὲ θεῖον,  καὶ τὸ μὲν θεῖον ἐν ἅπασιν ζητεῖν κτήσεως ἕνεκα εὐδαίμονος βίου, καθ’ ὅσον ἡμῶν ἡ φύσις ἐνδέχεται,  τὸ δὲ ἀναγκαῖον ἐκείνων χάριν, λογιζόμενον ὡς ἄνευ τούτων οὐ δυνατὰ αὐτὰ ἐκεῖνα ἐφ’ οἷς σπουδάζομεν μόνα κατανοεῖν οὐδ’ αὖ λαβεῖν οὐδ’ ἄλλως πως μετασχεῖν. 
                                                                                                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                                                           
Sed earum passionum quae (19) circa totum corpus communiter accidunt, ea restat maxima quae voluptatis dolorisque est (20) causa in his quae diximus. Similiter quacunque per corporis partes sensibus patent, do(21)loresque et voluptates cient.  Ita igitur omnis tam sensibilis quam insensibilis passionis, (22) causas capiamus,  in primis memoria repetentes quod de ea natura quae facile move(23)tur, deque ea quae movetur difficile, supra diximus.  hoc pacto ea persequi debe(24)mus omnia quae comprehendere cupimus.  Quando in id quod facile moveri solet, ali(25)qua vel brevis incidit passio, pars eius quaelibet sequentibus partibus undique passionem (26) ipsam transfundit, quousque ad prudentiae sedem perveniatur: ubi per hos quasi nun(27)cios potentia illius quod passionem intulit, noscitur.  Quod vero contra est affectum, et (28) immobile quodammodo permanet circularem illam transfusionem non habet: et ip(29)sum quidem patitur solum, proxima vero minime movet.  Quapropter cum partes aliae (30) aliis passionem primam non impertiant, totumque animal hinc minime agitetur, sensus (31) expers id quod patitur extat.  Id profecto circa ossa capillosqueet reliquas partes quae ter(32)renae ut plurimum in nobis sunt, accidit.  Visus vero et auditus instrumenta aliter omni(33)ino efficiunt, quia illis ignis aerisque vis maxima inest.  Quod praeterea ad voluptatem at(34)tinet et dolorem, ita consideretur.  Passio violenter praeterque naturam abunde simulque (35) nobis illata, molesta fit. Rursus quae in naturam abunde simulque revertitur, dulcis: quae (36) contra fit, contra.  Passio vero magna cum facillitate illata sentitur quidem maxime, vo(37)luptatis autem et doloris minime particeps.  huiusmodi sunt, quae ex aspectu proveni(38)unt. Cui quidem corpus nostrum cognatum fieri in die supra narravimus,  huic adustio(39)nes sectionesve et quaecunque passiones huiusmodi, dolorem non inferunt: nec etiam (40) quando in suam speciem fit/sit[?] restitutio, voluptatem.  Sensus tamen vehementes clarissimi(41)que ipsi competunt, quatenus aliquid patitur, incurritque in aliquid et attingit.  Violentia (42) siquidem huius discretioni concretionive nulla penitus inest.  Corpora vero ex partibus (43) grandioribus constituta, et vix agenti cedentia, quando motiones illatas in totum corpus (44) traiiciunt, voluptates doloresque continet:  quando videlicet e suo statu moventur, dolo(45)res: quando redeunt, voluptates.  Quaecunque paulatim abscessus evacuationesque sui(46) perpetiuntur, repletiones vero simul atque abunde, cum evacationis quidem sensum ha(47)beant nullum, repletionis autem habeant,  mortalitate ipsius potentiae dolores nullos vo(48)luptates vero maximas afferunt. Quod ex suavium odorum perceptione cognoscitur.  (49) Atque e sua natura simul et abunde pelluntur, paulatim vero vix in eam restituuntur, (50) contra quam superiora affici solent,  hoc plane in secandis utendisque membris apparet.  (51) Iam communes toti corpori passiones, easque inferentium cognomens attractavimus. (52)  Nunc igitur eas quae certis nostris corporis partibus accedunt, et unde proveniunt, qui(53)busve causis inferuntur, pro viribus exponamus.  Principio quae supra quando de hu(54)moribus agebamus reliquimus, cum linguea passiones sint, siquo modo possumus decla[(725,1)]remus.  Videntur autem haec quemadmodum et alia multa discretionibus quibusdam et (2) concretionibus fieri, ac praeterea lenitate asperitateque magis quam cetera uti.  Tendun(3)tur a lingua venae ad cordis sedem, saporum nunciae: in quas siqua ita inciderint ut hu(4)midam carnis mollitiem penetrantia terrestri sua natura modice liquefacta, venas ipsas (5) contrahant arefaciantque, sapores huiusmodi pariunt.  Videlicet si asperiore sunt acerbos (6) acresque: sin aspera minus, austreros et ponticos. Quae et illas purgant, et siqua lin(7)guae inhaerescunt, abluunt, si ultra modum id faciant, naturaeque ipsius nonnihil liquefa(8)ciant, qualis est in nitro potentia, amara omnia nominantur.  Sin autem vim nitro tempe(9)ratiorem habent, leniusque abstergunt, falsa sine amaritudinis asperitate, magisque ami(10)ca nobis apparent.  Quae autem applicata oris caliditati, ab eoque mollita et fervefacta (11) ipsum vicissim fervefaciunt, suaque levitate sursum ad sensus capitis elevantur,  suoque at(12)tractu singula dividunt, propter huiusmodi vires acuta vocantur.  Quandoque vero (13) haec eadem ex putredine attenuata angustas venas ingrediuntur, coguntque partes inte(14)riores tam terrenas quam quodammodo aereas iactatas invicem commisceri, permixtas(15)que circumlabi alias ingredi,  ingressuque suo penetratas concavas tensasque effi(16)cere, ubi concavas et ampullosus humor aeri circunfunditur: isque humor alias terreus quo(17)quo modo est, alias purus, fitque ex aqua concava vasculum aeris humidum atque cla(18)rum. Sed quod ex pura nascitur aqua, perlucet undique, ampullasque vocatur.  Quod au(19)tem ex lutulento magis humore simul agitato quidem elatoque et circumtenso conficitur, (20) ebullitio, bulla, fermentumque dicitur. harum omnium passionum causa acida qualitas (21) appellatur.  His omnibus quae de his dicta sunt contraria passio, a contraria causa proficisci(22)tur.  Quando vero ingrediuntum qualitas humida est linguae qualitati naturaliter con(23)cors et consentanea, ac lenit mollitque eam, contractamque demulcet asperitatem, et quae (24) in nobis praeter naturam contracta vel sparsa fuerunt, relaxat vel colligit, ac summatim (25) naturalem singulis restituit habitum, suave huiusmodi omne amicumque est omnibus, (26) violentarum quoque passionum medicina atque remedium, dulceque vocatur.  Circa (27) narium vim species non sunt.    Semigenia enim odorum natura. Speciei vero nulli com(28)petit odorem ullum habere.  Sed nostrae circa haec venae ad terrae et aquae genera angusti(29)ores sunt, ad ignis vero aerisque genera latiores.  Quocirca nemo unquam istorum ali(30)quem sensit odorem. Sed in madefactione quorundam, vel, putredine, vel liquefactio(31)ne, vel evaporatione gignuntur odores.  Cum enim aerem aqua vel aer in aquam tran(32)sit, in medio istorum odores fiunt, omnisque odor aut fumus est, aut caligo.  Sed horum (33) quod ex aere mutatur in aquam, caligo: quod vero ex aqua in aerem, fumus.  hinc fit ut (34) aqua odores teniores sint, aere crassiores.  Quod maxime perspicuum fit, quando cer(35)ta quadam re naribus occurrente aliquis in se ipsum vehementer spiritum retrahit.  Tunc (36) sane nullus simul influit odor, spiritus autem ab odore nudus solus sequitur.  Duae igi(37)tur hae in his varietates absque nomine sunt, nec ex pluribus, nec ex simplicibus specie(38)bus:  sed duo ibi nomina tantum manifesta sunt, suave scilicet et molestum.  Hoc quidem (39)disturbat violatque omnem eam capacitatem quae a summo capitis vertice ad umbilicum (40) protenditur.  Illud vero eandem mulcet, et amico quodam ingressu naturalem eius ser(41)vat habitum.  Tertiam praeterea vim sentiendi, auditum videlicet, ita considerare debe(42)mus, ut quibus ex causis passiones eius proveniant, exponamus.  Omnino igitur vocem (43) ponamus pulsationem quandam ab aere, per aures cerebrumque et sanguinem usque ad (44) animam penetrantem.  Natam quoque ex aere ea motionem incipientem a capite, et in sedem (45) iecoris desinentem, auditum vocemus.  Motio quidem velox, acuta provenit: tarda, (46) gravis.  Una aequalis atque lenis, contraria vero aspera.  Magna quae multa, parva quae pau(47)ca.  Harum vocum concordiam consonantiasque in sequentibus declarabimus.  Sequitur (48) quartum sentiendi genus exponendum, quod varietatem in se plurimam continet:  et quae (49) sub eo sunt omnia, colores vocantur. Est autem color veluti flammula quaedam fulgorque a (50) singulis corporibus emanans, partes habens visui ad sentiendum accommodatas.  Causas (51) vero ex quibus visus gignitur, supra tractavimus.  Nunc de coloribus potissimum hoc pa(52)cto probabilia dicenda videntur.  Quae ab aliis delata partibus in aspectum cadunt, partim (53) minora, partim maiora, partim visus ipsius partibus aequalia sunt,  Aequalia quidem sen(726, 1)tiri non possunt, quae diaphana, id est utrinque perspicua nominantur.  Minora vero aut (2) maiora partim discernere, partim contrahere visum dicimus, instar eorum quae calidi(3)tate vel frigiditate carnem, aut eorum quae acrimonia vel acumine caliditateve linguam (4) contrahunt vel discernunt.   Atque ea quae visum sic afficiunt alba nigrave vocamus.(5) Quae quidem passiones eorum sunt quae modo narrabam, et illorum quidem germana (6) eademque quodammodo, sed in genere alio, diversa tamen propter has causas esse viden(7)tur.  Sic utique appellanda sunt ista. Quod visum disgregat, album, nigrum vero quod (8) congregat.   Motionem profecto acutiorem alteriusque generis ignis, incidentem disper(9)gentemque visum usque ad oculos, orbesque ipsos oculorum meatusque vi diverberantem (10) liquefacientemque, ignem esse dicimus ex opposito obviantem, cuius occursu lacrima, (11) corpus ex igni et aqua mixtum, effunditur.   Et uno quidem igne velut e coruscatione (12) quadam exiliente, altero vero penetrante et ab humore extincto, varii creantur ex hu(13)iusmodi mixtione colores,  atque ipsam passionem fulgorem coruscationemque voca(14)mus, quodve id facit, splendidum atque coruscum.  Horum medium ignis genus ad ocu(15)lorum humorem perveniens illique se miscens, minime quidem coruscum,  sed ex ipsa (16) ignei radii ad humorem admixtione, sanguineum creante colorem, rubeum nominavi(17)mus.  Splendidum albumque rubeo mixtum flavum procreat.  Quo autem mensurae mo(18)do singula singulis misceantur, etiam si quis noverit, narrare prudentis non est, praeser(19)tim cum neque necessariam neque verisimilem de his rationem afferre ullo modo pos(20)sit.  Rubeum cum albo nigroque purpureum generat. Paulo obscurior moreus lutheo(21)lusque fit color quando his invicem conflatis adustisque magis est adiuncta nigredo.  Ful(22)vum flavi fuscique temperatione producitur. Fuscum vero albi et nigri confusione. Pal(23)lorem albi flavique copula generat.  Splendidum albo adiunctum plurimaque obfusum ni(24)gredine caeruleum efficit. Caeruleum cum albo glaucum creat. Fulvi nigrique temperie (25) color viridis nascitur.  Cetera ferme ex his omnia manifesta fiunt. Siquis enim supe(26)riores mixtiones imitatus reliquos reliquos colores exequitur, probabilibus rationibus diputa(27)bit.  At si quis horum discussionem probationemque opere ipso aggredietur, quid inter (28) humanam divinamque naturam intersit, ignorare videbitur.  Nempe deus multa in unum (29) colligere, rursusque unum in multa producere sufficiens est. Scit enim simul ac potest.  Ho(30)mo autem nullus qui alterutrum valeat aut est nunc aut unquam erit.  Haec sane omnia (31) ita tunc naturaliter affecta ex necessitate ille pulcherrimi optimique operis fabricator in (32) his quae gignebantur assumebat,  quando deum seipso sufficientem et perfectissimum ge(33)nerabat,  utens quidem causis ad haec ministris, quod autem bene se habebat, ipse in singu(34)lis agens.  Duas enim causarum species distinguere decet. Unam quidem necessariam, (35) alteram vero divinam.  Ac divinam in omnibus quaerere ut beatam vitam quoad natu(36)rae nostrae possibile est adipiscamur.  Necessariam quoque causam illorum gratia per(37)scrutari. Cogitare enim oportet absque his illa in quibus studium ponimus non posse in(38)telligi vel comprehendi vel quomodocumque aliter percipi. 
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