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Aśvaghoṣa: Buddhacarita

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Note on the transliteration:
The transliteration system of the BP/TLB is based on the Unicode/UTF-8 system. However, there may be difficulties with some of the letters – particularly on PC/Windows-based systems, but not so much on the Mac. We have chosen the most accepted older and traditional systems of transliteration against, e.g, Wylie for Tibetan, since with Unicode it is possible, in Sanskrit and Tibetan, etc., to represent one sound with one letter in almost all the cases (excepting Sanskrit and Tibetan aspirated letters, and Tibetan tsa, tsha, dza). We thus do not use the Wylie system which widely employs two letters for one sound (ng, ny, sh, zh etc.).
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    Click to Expand/Collapse Option Complete text
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionTitle
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionPreface
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 1: Bhagavatprasūti
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 2: Antaḥpuravihāra
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 3: Saṃvegotpatti
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 4: Strīvighātana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 5: Abhiniṣkramaṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 6: Chandakanivartana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 7: Tapovanapraveśa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 8: Antaḥpuravilāpa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 9: Kumārānveṣaṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 10: Śreṇyābhigamana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 11: Kāmavigarhaṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 12: Arāḍadarśana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 13: Māravijaya
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 14: Englightenment
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 15: Turning the Wheel of the Law
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 16: Many Conversions
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 17: Conversion (pravrajyā) of the Great Disciples
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 18: The Instruction of Anāthapiṇḍada
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 19: The Meeting of Father and Son
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 20: Acceptance of Jetavana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 21: Progress (srotas) of the Mission
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 22: The Visit to Amrapāli's Grove
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 23: Fixing the Factors of Bodily Life
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 24: Compassion for the Licchavis
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 25: The Journey to Nirvāṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 26: The Mahāparinirvāṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 27: Eulogy of Nirvāṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 28: The Division of the Relics
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionColophon
tato mahārhāṇi ca candanāni ratnāvalīś cauṣadhibhiḥ sagarbhāḥ |
mṛgaprayuktān rathakāṃś ca haimān ācakrire ’smai suhṛdālayebhyaḥ || 2.21 || 
(13)無價栴檀香 閻浮檀名寶
(14)護身神仙藥 瓔珞莊嚴身 
de nas rin thaṅ chen po’i tsandan (8a1)rnams daṅ ni | | rin chen phreṅ ba sman gyi sñiṅ por bcas rnams daṅ | |
ri drags rab tu sbyar ba’i gser gyi śiṅ rta rnams | | ’di yi ched du gśegs kyi khyim rnams dag nas blaṅs | | 
148. (His body exhaled) the perfume of priceless sandal wood, (decorated with) the famed Gambunada gold (gems); divine medicines (there were) to preserve him in health, glittering necklaces upon his person; 
21. Then they brought him as presents from the houses of his friends costly unguents of sandalwood, and strings of gems exactly like wreaths of plants, and little golden carriages yoked with deer; 
vayo anurūpāṇi ca bhūṣaṇāni hiraṇmayān1 hastimṛgāśvakāṃś2 ca |
rathāṃś3 ca goputrakasaṃprayuktān4 putrīś5 ca cāmīkararūpyacitrāḥ || 2.22 || 
(15)附庸諸隣國 聞王生太子
(16)奉獻諸珍異 牛羊鹿馬車 
laṅ tsho ñid daṅ rjes su mthun pa’i rgyan rnams daṅ | | gser gyi raṅ bźin (2)ri dags glaṅ chen rta rnams daṅ | |
gser daṅ dṅul gyis bris pa’i mi chuṅ gzugs rnams daṅ | | śiṅ rta ba glaṅ byuṅ dus yaṅ dag sbyar rnams blaṅs | | 
149. The members of tributary states, hearing that the king had an heir born to him, sent their presents and gifts of various kinds, oxen, sheep, deer, horses, and chariots, 
22. Ornaments also suitable to his age, and elephants, deer, and horses made of gold, carriages and oxen decked with rich garments, and carts gay with silver and gold. 
evaṃ sa tais tair viṣayopacārair vayoanurūpair upacaryamāṇaḥ |
bālo ’py abālapratimo babhūva dhṛtyā ca śaucena dhiyā śriyā ca || 2.23 || 
(17)寶器莊嚴具 助悦太子心
(18)雖有諸嚴飾 嬰童玩好物」 
de ni laṅ tsho rjes mthun yul la ñe spyod pa | | de rnams kyis ni yul la ñer spyad la | |
dpa’ daṅ brtan pa yis daṅ blo daṅ (3)dpal gyis kyaṅ | | byis pa yin yaṅ byis min rab mtshuṅs byuṅ bar gyur | | 
150. Precious vessels and elegant ornaments, fit to delight the heart of the prince; but though presented with such pleasing trifles, the necklaces and other pretty ornaments, 
23. Thus indulged with all sorts of such objects to please the senses as were suitable to his years, child as he was, he behaved not like a child in gravity, purity, wisdom, and dignity. 
vayaś ca kaumāram atītya samyak6 saṃprāpya kāle pratipattikarma7 |
alpair ahobhir bahuvarṣagamyā jagrāha vidyāḥ svakulānurūpāḥ || 2.24 || 
(19)太子性安重 形少而心宿
(20)心栖高勝境 不染於榮華 
laṅ tsho gźon nu śin tu ’das nas yaṅ dag par | | ’du byed las ni rab tu thob nas dus su ni | |
lo maṅ dag gis rtogs bya ñin źag ñuṅ ṅu yis | | raṅ daṅ rjes su mthun pa’i rigs pa (4)rnams ni blaṅs | | 
151. The mind (nature) of the prince was unmoved, his bodily frame small indeed, but his heart established; his mind at rest within its own high purposes, was not to be disturbed by glittering baubles. 
24. When he had passed the period of childhood and reached that of middle youth, the young prince learned in a few days the various sciences suitable to his race, which generally took many years to master. 
naiḥśreyasaṃ tasya tu bhavyam arthaṃ śrutvā purastād asitān maharṣeḥ |
kāmeṣu saṅgaṃ janayāṃ babhūva vanāni yāyād iti śākyarājaḥ8 || 2.25 || 
(21)修學諸術藝 一聞超師匠
(22)父王見聰達 深慮1 踰世表 
draṅ sroṅ chen po dkar min las ni sṅon rol du | | de yi ñes legs don gyi skal ba thob nas ni | |
nags su gśegs par ’gyur źes ś’akya’i rgyal po yis | | ’dod pa rnams la chags pa skyed du bcug par gyur | | 
152. And now he was brought to learn the useful arts, when lo! once instructed (at one hearing) he surpassed his teachers. His father, the king, seeing his exceeding talent, and his deep purpose to have done with the world and its allurements, 
25. But having heard before from the great seer Asita his destined future which was to embrace transcendental happiness, the anxious care of the king of the present Sâkya race turned the prince to sensual pleasures. 
kulāt tato ’smai sthiraśīlayuktāt9 sādhvīṃ vapurhrīvinayopapannām |
yaśodharāṃ nāma yaśoviśālāṃ vāmābhidhānaṃ10 śriyam ājuhāva || 2.26 || 
(23)廣訪名豪族 風教禮義門
(24)容姿端正女 名耶輪陀羅 
brtan pa’i tshul khrims spyod pa can gyi (5)rigs de la | | ṅo tsha daṅ ni dul ba ñer ldan legs ldan ma | |
grags ’dzin ma źes grags pa rnam par yaṅs pa ma | | btsun mor mṅon par brjod pa’i dpal mo ’di la blaṅs | | 
153. Began to enquire as to the names of those in his tribe who were renowned for elegance and refinement. Elegant and graceful, and a lovely maiden, was she whom they called Yasodharâ; 
26. Then he sought for him from a family of unblemished moral excellence a bride possessed of beauty, modesty, and gentle bearing, of wide-spread glory, Yasodharâ by name, having a name well worthy of her, a very goddess of good fortune. 
vidyotamāno vapuṣā pareṇa11 sanatkumārapratimaḥ kumāraḥ |
sārdhaṃ tayā śākyanarendravadhvā śacyā sahasrākṣa ivābhireme || 2.27 || 
(25)應嫂太子妃 誘導留其心
(26)太子志高遠 徳盛貎清明
(27)猶梵天長子 2 舍那鳩摩羅 
kun ’gyed gźon nu daṅ ni rab tu mtshuṅs pa yis | | mchog gi lus kyis snaṅ źiṅ (6)gsal ba de ñid ni | |
ś’akya’i rgyal po’i mna’ ma de daṅ thabs cig tu | | bde sogs ma daṅ mig stoṅ ldan bźin mṅon par dga’ | | 
154. In every way fitting to become a consort for the prince; and to allure by pleasant wiles his heart. The prince with a mind so far removed (from the world), with qualities so distinguished, and with so charming an appearance,
155. Like the elder son of Brahmadeva, Sanatkumâra (She-na Kiu-ma-lo); 
27. Then after that the prince, beloved of the king his father, he who was like Sanatkumâra, rejoiced in the society of that Sâkya princess as the thousand-eyed (Indra) rejoiced with his bride Sacî. 
kiṃcin manaḥkṣobhakaraṃ pratīpaṃ kathaṃ na12 paśyed iti so ’nucintya |
vāsaṃ nṛpo vyādiśati13 sma tasmai harmyodareṣv eva na bhūpracāram || 2.28 || 
(28)賢妃美容貎 窈窕淑妙姿
(29)瑰艷若天后 同處日夜歡 
yid kyaṅ dpyod par byed la cuṅ źig rab log pa | | gaṅ gis mthoṅ mi ’gyur źes rjes su bsams byas nas | |
sa la rab tu spyod (7)min ldiṅ khaṅ lto ñid du | | gnas dag mi skyoṅ gis ni de la rnam par bstan | | 
the virtuous damsel, lovely and refined, gentle and subdued in manner;
156. Majestic like the queen of heaven, constant ever, cheerful night and day, 
28. ‘He might perchance see some inauspicious sight which could disturb his mind,’--thus reflecting the king had a dwelling prepared for him apart from the busy press in the recesses of the palace. 
tataḥ śarattoyadapāṇḍareṣu bhūmau vimāneṣv iva rāñjiteṣu |
harmyeṣu sarvartusukhāśrayeṣu strīṇām udārair vijahāra tūryaiḥ || 2.29 || 
(4c1)爲立清淨宮 宏麗極莊嚴
(2)高峙在虚空 3 迢遰若秋雲 
de nas gźal med nam mkhar sa la spyod pa bźin | | ston kha’i dus kyi chu gter sprin ni dkar po yi | |
dus sbyor kun du bde ba’i gźi yi ldiṅ khaṅ la | | bud med rnams kyi sil sñan rgya chen rnams kyis rnam (8b1)par gśegs | | 
establishing the palace in purity and quiet, full of dignity and exceeding grace,
157. Like a lofty hill rising up in space; or as a white autumn cloud; 
29. Then he spent his time in those royal apartments, furnished with the delights proper for every season, gaily decorated like heavenly chariots upon the earth, and bright like the clouds of autumn, amidst the splendid musical concerts of singing-women. 
kalair hi cāmīkarabaddhakakṣair nārīkarāgrābhihatair mṛdaṅgaiḥ |
varāpsaronṛtyasamaiś ca nṛtyaiḥ kailāsavat tad bhavanaṃ rarāja || 2.30 || 
(3)温涼四時適 隨時擇善居
(4)妓女衆圍遶 奏合天樂音
(5)勿4 隣穢聲色 (6)令生厭世想  
gser gyis gdams ba’i rṅa śiṅ can gyi rdza rṅa’i skad | | mi mo’i lag pa’i rtse mos mṅon par brduṅs pa yi | |
lha mchog ma yi gar daṅ mñam pa’i gar rnams kyis | | ti se’i gaṅs ltar de yi pho braṅ mdzes par gyur | | 
warm or cool according to the season; choosing a proper dwelling according to the year,
158. Surrounded by a return of singing women, who join (their voices) in harmonious heavenly concord, without any jarring or unpleasant sound, exciting (in the hearers) forgetfulness of worldly cares. 
30. With the softly-sounding tambourines beaten by the tips of the women’s hands, and ornamented with golden rims, and with the dances which were like the dances of the heavenly nymphs, that palace shone like Mount Kailâsa. 
vāgbhiḥ kalābhir lalitaiś ca hāvair14 madaiḥ sakhelair madhuraiś ca hāsaiḥ |
taṃ tatra nāryo ramayāṃ babhūvur bhrūvañcitair ardhanirīkṣitaiś ca || 2.31 || 
如天5 犍撻婆 (7)自然寶宮殿
樂女奏天音 (8)聲色耀心目 菩薩處高宮
ṅag daṅ gzo daṅ rol daṅ rnam (2)’gyur rnams kyis kyaṅ | | rgyags daṅ rtse daṅ dgod pa dṅar mo rnams kyis daṅ | |
smin ma bskyod pa yis daṅ phyed mig lta rnams kyis | | de la der ni mi mo rnams ni dga’ bar gyur | | 
159. As the heavenly Gandharvas of themselves in their beauteous palaces (cause) the singing women to raise heavenly strains, the sounds of which and their beauty ravish both eyes and heart;
160. (So) Bodhisattva dwelt in his lofty palace, with music such as this. 
31. There the women delighted him with their soft voices, their beautiful pearl-garlands, their playful intoxication, their sweet laughter, and their stolen glances concealed by their brows. 
tataḥ sa15 kāmāśrayapaṇḍitābhiḥ strībhir gṛhīto ratikarkaśābhiḥ |
vimānapṛṣṭhān na mahīṃ jagāma vimānapṛṣthād iva puṇyakarmā || 2.32 || 
父王爲太子 (10)靜居修純徳
仁慈正法化 (11)親賢遠惡友  
de nas de ni ’dod pa bsten par mkhas pa yi | | dga’ bas dregs pa’i bud med rnams (3)kyis bzuṅ gyur la | |
gźal med khaṅ ni rgyab nas bsod nams las can bźin | | gźal med khaṅ ni rgyab nas sa la ma gśegs so | | 
The king his father, for the prince’s sake, dwelt purely in his palace, practising every virtue;
161. Delighting in the teaching of the true law, he put away from him every evil companion, 
32. Borne in the arms of these women well-skilled in the ways of love, and reckless in the pursuit of pleasure, he fell from the roof of a pavilion and yet reached not the ground, like a holy sage stepping from a heavenly chariot. 
nṛpas tu tasyaiva vivṛddhihetos tadbhāvinārthena ca codyamānaḥ |
śame ’bhireme virarāma pāpād bheje damaṃ saṃvibabhāja sādhūn || 2.33 || 
心不染恩愛 (12)於欲起毒想
攝情撿諸根 (13)滅除輕躁意  
mi skyoṅ gis kyaṅ de ñid bskyed pa’i ched las ni | | de yi ’byuṅ bar ’gyur ba’i don gyis bskul gyur te | |
sdig pa las ni dga’ bral źi la (4)mṅon dga’ źiṅ | | legs la skal bar bgos śiṅ dul la bsñen par gyur | | 
(that) his heart might not be polluted by lust; regarding inordinate desire as poison,
162. Keeping his passion and his body in due control, destroying and repressing all trivial thoughts, 
33. Meanwhile the king for the sake of ensuring his son’s prosperity and stirred in heart by the destiny which had been predicted for him, delighted himself in perfect calm, ceased from all evil, practised all self-restraint, and rewarded the good. 
nādhīravat kāmasukhe sasañje na saṃrarañje viṣamaṃ jananyām |
dhṛtyendriyāśvāṃś capalān vijigye bandhūṃś ca paurāṃś ca guṇair jigāya || 2.34 || 
和顏善聽6 訟 (14)慈教厭衆心
宣化諸外道 (15)斷諸謀逆術 
brtan min bźin du ’dod pa’i bde la ma źen la | | ma ruṅs skyed ma la ni yaṅ dag chags ma gyur | |
brtan pas dbaṅ po’i rta ni stobs las rnam thul źiṅ | | gñen daṅ groṅ khyer pa rnams yon tan rnams kyis (5)rgyal | | 
desiring to enjoy virtuous conversation, loving instruction (fit) to subdue the hearts of men,
163. Aiming to accomplish the conversion of unbelievers; removing all schemes of opposition (from whatever source they came), 
34. He turned to no sensual pleasures like one wanting in self-control; he felt no violent delight in any state of birth; he subdued by firmness the restless horses of the senses; and he surpassed his kindred and citizens by his virtues. 
nādhyaiṣṭa duḥkhāya parasya vidyāṃ jñānaṃ śivaṃ yat tu tad adhyagīṣṭa |
svābhyaḥ prajābhyo hi yathā tathaiva sarvaprajābhyaḥ śivam āśaśaṃse || 2.35 || 
教學濟世方 (16)萬民得安樂
7 令我子安 (17)萬民亦如是  
gźan gyi sdug bsṅal phyir ni rig pa ma brjod la | | ye śes dge ba gaṅ yaṅ de la lhag par brjod | |
des ni raṅ gi skye dgu rnams la ji lta bar | | de ltar skye dgu rnams la dge ba’i bsṅags pa mdzad | | 
by the enlightening power of his doctrine, aiming to save the entire world; (thus he desired) that the body of people should obtain rest;
164. Even as we desire to give peace to our children, so did he long to give rest to the world. 
35. He sought not learning to vex another; such knowledge as was beneficent, that only he studied; he wished well to all mankind as much as to his own subjects. 
bhaṃ16 bhāsuraṃ cāṅgirasādhidevaṃ yathāvad ānarca tadāyuṣe saḥ |
juhāva havyāny akṛśe kṛśānau dadau dvijebhyaḥ kṛśanaṃ ca gāś ca || 2.36 || 
事火奉諸神 (18)叉手飮8 月光
祈福非存己 (20)唯子及萬民  
8. Soma. 
skar ma rgyal snaṅ śes ldan sras po lhag pa’i lha | | ji lta bar ni de yi tshe riṅ phyir mchod des | |
chud min me la (6)bsreg bya rnams ni bsregs gyur la | | gñis skyes rnams la gser daṅ ba laṅ rnams kyaṅ byin | | 
He also attended to his religious duties (sacrificing by fire to all the spirits), with clasped hands adoring the moon (drinking the moon’s brightness);
165. Bathing his body in the waters of the Ganges; cleansing his heart in the waters of religion, performing his duties with no private aim, but regarding his child and the people at large, 
36. He worshipped also duly the brilliant (Agni) that tutelary god of the Aṅgirasas, for his son’s long life; and he offered oblations in a large fire, and gave gold and cows to the Brâhmans. 
sasnau śarīraṃ pavituṃ manaś ca tīrthāmbubhiś caiva guṇāmbubhiś ca |
vedopadiṣṭaṃ samam ātmajaṃ ca somaṃ papau śāntisukhaṃ ca hārdam || 2.37 || 
9 言非無義 (21)義言非不愛
愛言非不實 (22)實言非不愛  
’gram stegs chab rnams kyis daṅ yon tan chab rnams kyis | | gtsaṅ sgra’i ched du lus daṅ yid la khrus byas te | |
rig byed du ni ñe bar bstan pa’i chad rnams daṅ | | źi ba bdag (7)skyes sñiṅ la źi ba’i bde la ’thuṅ | | 
166. Loving righteous conversation, righteous words with loving (aim), loving words with no mixture of falsehood, true words imbued by love, 
37. He bathed to purify his body and mind with the waters of holy places and of holy feelings; and at the same time he drank the soma-juice as enjoined by the Veda, and the heartfelt self-produced happiness of perfect calm. 
sāntvaṃ babhāṣe na ca nārthavad yaj jajalpa tattvaṃ na ca vipriyaṃ yat |
sāntvaṃ hy atattvaṃ paruṣaṃ ca tattvaṃ hriyāśakan nātmana eva vaktum || 2.38 || 
以有慚愧故 (23)不能如實説
於愛不愛事 (24)不依貪恚想  
gaṅ źig don daṅ mi ldan źi ba ma smras la | | gaṅ źig dga’ ba daṅ bral de ñid ma brjod de | |
źi ba de ñid med daṅ rtsub pa’i de ñid phyir | | ṅo tsha ba yis bdag ñid kho na brjod ma nus | | 
167. And yet withal so modest and self-distrustful, unable on that account to speak as confident of truth; loving to all, and yet not loving the world, with no thought of selfishness or covetous desire, 
38. He only spoke what was pleasant and not unprofitable; he discoursed about what was true and not ill-natured, he could not speak even to himself for very shame a false pleasant thing or a harsh truth. 
iṣṭeṣv aniṣṭeṣu ca kāryavatsu na rāgadoṣāśrayatāṃ prapede |
śivaṃ siṣeve vyavahāraśuddhaṃ17 yajñaṃ hi mene na tathā yathā tat18 || 2.39 || 
志存於寂默 (25)平10 正止諍訟
不以祠天會 (26)勝於斷事福  
don ldan ’dod pa rnams daṅ mi ’dod pa rnams la | | chags (9a1)pa’i skyon la brten nas rab tu ’thob min te | |
dge ba’i tha sñad gtsaṅ ma la ni bsñen gyur la | | mchod sbyin la yaṅ ma mos de ltar ji lta bźin | | 
168. Aiming to restrain the tongue and in quietness to find rest from wordy contentions, not seeking in the multitude of religious duties to condone for a worldly principle in action; 
39. In things which required to be done, whether they were pleasant or disagreeable, he found no reason either for desire or dislike; he pursued the advantageous which could be attained without litigation; he did not so highly value sacrifice. 
āśāvate cābhigatāya sadyo deyāmbubhis tarṣam acechidiṣṭa19 |
yuddhād ṛte vṛttaparaśvadhena dviḍdarpam udvṛttam abebhidiṣṭa || 2.40 || 
11 彼多求衆 (27)豐施過其望
心無戰爭想 (28)以徳降怨敵  
sred pa daṅ ldan mṅon par ’oṅs pa de ma thag | | sbyin bya chu ’dra rnams kyis skom pa bcad gyur (2)la | |
g-yul las ma gtogs ye śes kyi ni sta ri yis | | dgra bo rnams kyi ṅa rgyal chen po bcom par gyur | | 
169. But aiming to benefit the world, by a liberal and unostentatious charity; the heart without any contentious thought, but resolved by goodness to subdue the contentious, 
40. When a suppliant came to him with a petition, he at once hastened to quench his thirst with the water sprinkled on his gift; and without fighting, by the battle-axe of his demeanour he smote down the arrogant armed with double pride. 
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