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Aśvaghoṣa: Buddhacarita

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    Click to Expand/Collapse Option Complete text
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionTitle
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionPreface
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 1: Bhagavatprasūti
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 2: Antaḥpuravihāra
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 3: Saṃvegotpatti
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 4: Strīvighātana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 5: Abhiniṣkramaṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 6: Chandakanivartana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 7: Tapovanapraveśa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 8: Antaḥpuravilāpa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 9: Kumārānveṣaṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 10: Śreṇyābhigamana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 11: Kāmavigarhaṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 12: Arāḍadarśana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 13: Māravijaya
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 14: Englightenment
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 15: Turning the Wheel of the Law
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 16: Many Conversions
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 17: Conversion (pravrajyā) of the Great Disciples
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 18: The Instruction of Anāthapiṇḍada
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 19: The Meeting of Father and Son
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 20: Acceptance of Jetavana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 21: Progress (srotas) of the Mission
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 22: The Visit to Amrapāli's Grove
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 23: Fixing the Factors of Bodily Life
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 24: Compassion for the Licchavis
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 25: The Journey to Nirvāṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 26: The Mahāparinirvāṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 27: Eulogy of Nirvāṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 28: The Division of the Relics
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionColophon
tatas tadā mantripurohitau tau bāṣpapratodābhihitau1 nṛpeṇa |
viddhau sadaśvāv iva sarvayatnāt sauhārdaśīghraṃ yayatur vanaṃ tat || 9.1 || 
(16)王正以憂悲 感切師大臣
(17)如鞭策良馬 馳駛若迅流
(18)身疲不辭勞 逕詣苦行林 
de nas de’i tshe mdun na ’don daṅ blon po de | | mi skyoṅ mchi ma’i lcag gis mṅon par bsnun pa dag | | phug pa’i dam pa’i rta bźin ’bad pa thams cad las | | (5)bsam pa bzaṅ pos skyen par nags der soṅ bar gyur | | 
665. The king now suppressing (regulating) his grief, urged an his great teacher and chief minister, as one urges on with whip a ready horse, to hasten onwards as the rapid stream;
666. Whilst they fatigued, yet with unflagging effort, come to the place of the sorrow-giving grove; 
1. Then the two, the counsellor and the family priest, beaten by the king with his scourge of tears, went with every effort to that forest in the hurry of affection, like two noble horses goaded. 
tam āśramam jātapariśramau tāv upetya kāle sadṛśānuyātrau |
rājarddhim utsṛjya vinītaceṣṭāv upeyatur bhārgavadhiṣṇyam eva || 9.2 || 
(19)捨俗五儀飾 善攝諸情根
(20)入梵志精廬 敬禮彼諸仙
(21)諸仙請就1 座 説法安慰之 
’dra ba’i rjes ’braṅs ṅal ba skyes pa de gñis ni | | dka’ thub nags der dus su ñe bar phyin nas ni | |
rgyal po’i rdzu ’phrul dor de dul ba’i spyod pa yis | | draṅ sroṅ śes ldan bu yi khaṅ par ñe bar soṅ | | 
then laying on one side the five outward marks of dignity and regulating well their outward gestures,
667. They entered the Brahmans’ quiet hermitage, and paid reverence to the Rishis. They, on their part, begged them to be seated, and repeated the law for their peace and comfort. 
2. Having come at last full of weariness to that hermitage, accompanied by a fitting train,--they dismissed their royal pomp and with sober gestures entered the abode of Bhârgava. 
tau nyāyatas taṃ pratipūjya vipraṃ tenārcitau tāv api cānurūpam |
kṛtāsanau bhārgavam āsanasthaṃ chittvā kathām ūcatur ātmakṛtyam || 9.3 || 
(22)即白仙人言 意有所諮問
(23)2 淨稱淨飮王 甘蔗名3 勝胄
(24)我等爲師臣 法教典要事 
de dag gis ni tshul (6)bźin bram ze de mchod nas | | de ni de dag la yaṅ rjes mthun mchod pa ste | |
gdan byas pa dag bdag tu lta ba bcad nas ni | | śes ldan sras po gdan gnas pa la gtam smras so | | 
668. Then forthwith they addressed the Rishis and said: ’We have on our minds a subject on which we would ask (for advice). There is one who is called Suddhodana râga, a descendant of the famous Ikshvâku family,
669. ’We are his teacher and his minister, who instruct him in the sacred books as required. 
3. Having saluted that Brâhman with due respect, and having been honoured by him with due reverence in return, having seated themselves, plunging at once into the subject, they addressed Bhârgava, who was likewise seated, concerning their errand. 
śuddhaujasaḥ śuddhaviśālakīrter ikṣvākuvaṃśaprabhavasya rājñaḥ |
imaṃ janaṃ vettu bhavān adhītaṃ2 śrutagrahe mantraparigrahe ca || 9.4 || 
mdaṅs gtsaṅ gtsaṅ źiṅ rnam par grags pa’i yaṅs pa mṅa’ | | bu ram (7)śiṅ pa’i rigs su rab ’khruṅs rgyal po yis | |
śru ka rab tu ’dzin daṅ gsaṅ sṅags yoṅs ’dzin la | | nag por skye bo ’di ni khyod kyis rig par mdzod | | 
4. ‘Let your honour know us to be respectively imperfect proficients in preserving the sacred learning and in retaining the state-counsels,--in the service of the monarch of the Ikshvâku race, pure in his valour and pure and wide in his glory. 
tasyendrakalpasya jayantakalpaḥ putro jarāmṛtyubhayaṃ titīrṣuḥ |
ihābhyupetaḥ kila tasya hetor āvām upetau bhagavān avaitu || 9.5 || 
(25)王如天帝釋 子如4 闍延多
(26)爲度老病死 出家或投此
(27)我等爲彼來 惟尊應當知 
dbaṅ po daṅ mtshuṅs de yi rgyal ba daṅ mtshuṅs sras | | rga daṅ ’chi ba’i ’jigs pa dag ni sgrol ’dod de | |
(32b1)’di na mṅon par ñe bar ’oṅs grag de yi phyir | | bdag cag ñe bar ’oṅs par bcom ldan mkhyen par mdzod | | 
The king indeed is like Indra (for dignity); his son, like Ke-yan-to (Gayanta),
670. ’In order to escape old age, disease, and death, has become a hermit, and depends on this; on his account have we come hither, with a view to let your worships know of this.’ 
5. ‘His son, who is like Jayanta, while he himself is like Indra, has come here, it is said, desirous to escape from the fear of old age and death,--know that we two are come here on account of him.’ 
tau so ’bravīd asti sa dīrghabāhuḥ prāptaḥ kumāro na tu nāvabuddhaḥ |
dharmo ’yam āvartaka ity avetya yātas tv arāḍābhimukho mumukṣuḥ || 9.6 || 
(28)答言有此人 長臂大人相
(29)擇我等所行 隨順生死法
(16c1)往詣阿羅藍 以求勝解脱 
de dag la des smras pa phyag riṅ gyur pa de | | rab tu thob gyur gźon nu śes pa min pa min | |
chos ’di ’khor bar byed ces mṅon par mkhyen nas ni | | (2)mṅon par gdoṅ phyogs ma yin thar bźed skyen par gśegs | | 
671. Replying, they said: ’With respect to this youth,. has he long arms and the signs of a great man? Surely he is the one who, enquiring into our practice, discoursed so freely on the matter of life and death.
672. ’He has gone to the abode of Arâda, to seek for a complete mode of escape.’ 
6. He answered them, ‘That prince of the long arms did indeed come here, but not as one unawakened; "this dharma only brings us back again,"--recognising this, he went off forthwith towards Arâḍa, seeking liberation.’ 
tasmāt tatas tāv upalabhya tattvaṃ taṃ vipram āmantrya3 tadaiva sadyaḥ |
khinnāv akhinnāv iva rājabhaktyā4 prasasratus tena yataḥ sa yātaḥ || 9.7 || 
(2)既得定實已 5 遵崇王速命
(3)不敢計疲勞 尋路而馳進
(4)見太子處林 悉捨俗儀飾
(5)眞體猶光耀 如日出烏雲 
de nas de las de ñid de dag ñer thob nas | | bram ze de la sñan dṅags phab nas de ma thag | |
dub kyaṅ ma dub pa bźin rgyal po la gus pas | | de ñid gaṅ nas gśegs pa de nas rab tu soṅ | | 
Having received this certain information, respectfully considering the urgent commands of the anxious king,
673. They dared not hesitate in their undertaking, but straightway took the road and hastened on.
Then seeing the wood in which the royal prince dwelt, and him, deprived of all outward marks of dignity,
674. His body still glorious with lustrous shining, as when the sun comes forth from the black cloud; 
7. Then they two, having understood the true state of things, bade that Brâhman at once farewell, and wearied though they were, went on as if they were unwearied, thither whither the prince was gone. 
yāntau tatas tau mṛjayā5 vihīnam apaśyatāṃ taṃ vapuṣojjvalantam6 |
upopaviṣṭaṃ7 pathi vṛkṣamūle sūryaṃ ghanābhogam iva praviṣṭam || 9.8 || 
(6)國奉天神師 執正法大臣
(7)捨除俗威儀 下乘而歩進 
soṅ ste de nas de dag (3)gi ni rṅon pa daṅ | | rnam par bral ba’i sku lus rab tu ’bar ba de | |
ñi ma sdug po’i loṅs spyod dag la źugs pa ltar | | lam ni śiṅ gi rtsa bar ñe bar bźugs pa mthoṅ | | 
then the religious teacher of the country and the great minister holding to the true law,
675. Put off from them their courtly dress, and descending from the chariot gradually advanced, 
8. As they were going, they saw him bereft of all ornaments, but still radiant with his beauty, sitting like a king in the road at the foot of a tree, like the sun under the canopy of a cloud. 
yānaṃ vihāyopayayau tatas taṃ purohito mantradhareṇa sārdham |
yathā vanasthaṃ sahavāmadevo rāmaṃ didṛkṣur munir aurvaśeyaḥ || 9.9 || 
(8)猶王6 婆摩疊 仙人7 婆私吒
(9)往詣山林中 見王子羅摩
(10)各隨其本儀 恭敬禮問訊 
de nas de la mdun na ’don daṅ sṅags ’dzin bcas | | theg pa rnam par spaṅs nas ñe bar gśegs pa ste | |
(4)slar gnas thub pa’i bu ni g-yon gyi lhar bcas pas | | nags gnas lhag spyod lta bar ’dod pa ji ltar ro | | 
like the royal Po-ma-ti (? Bharata) and the Rishi Vasishtha,
676. Went through the woods and forests, and seeing the royal prince Râma, each according to his own prescribed manner, paid him reverence, as he advanced to salute him; 
9. Leaving his chariot, the family priest then went up to the prince with the counsellor, as the saint Aurvaseya went with Vâmadeva, wishing to see Râma when he dwelt in the forest. 
tāv arcayām āsatur arhatas taṃ divīva śukrāṅgirasau mahendram |
pratyarcayām āsa sa cārhatas tau divīva śukrāṅgirasau mahendraḥ || 9.10 || 
(11)猶如8 儵迦羅 及與央耆羅
(12)盡心加恭敬 奉事天帝釋 
lha na pa ba saṅs daṅ phur bus dbaṅ chen bźin | | de dag gis ni de ñid bskyed ciṅ mchod pa’o | |
lha na pa saṅs phur bu dag la dbaṅ chen bźin | | mchod ’os des ni de gñis (5)dag la slar mchod do | | 
677. Or as Sukra, in company with Aṅgiras, with earnest heart paid reverence, and sacrificed to Indra râga. 
10. They paid him honour as was fitting, as Sukra and Aṅgiras honoured Indra in heaven; and he in return paid due honour to them, as Indra in heaven to Sukra and Aṅgiras. 
kṛtābhyanujñāv abhitas tatas tau niṣedatuḥ8 śākyakuladhvajasya |
virejatus tasya ca saṃnikarṣe punarvasū yogagatāv ivendoḥ || 9.11 || 
(13)王子亦隨敬 王師及大臣
(14)如帝釋安慰 儵迦央耆羅
(15)即命彼二人 坐於王子前
(16)如9 富那婆藪 兩星侍月傍 
sbyor bar soṅ ba’i zla ba ñe sar nab so bźin | | de nas kun nas mṅon par rjes gnaṅ byas pa ni | |
de dag ś’a kya’i rigs kyi rgyal mtshan de yi ni | | ñe logs dag tu soṅ ba rnam par mdzes par gyur | | 
678. Then the royal prince in return paid reverence to the . royal teacher and the great minister, as the divine Indra placed at their ease Sukra and Aṅgiras;
679. Then, at his command, the two men seated themselves before the prince, as Pou-na (Punarvasû) and Pushya, the twin stars attend beside the moon; 
11. Then they, having obtained his permission, sat down near him who was the banner of the Sâkya race; and they shone in his proximity like the two stars of the asterism Punarvasû in conjunction with the moon. 
taṃ vṛkṣamūlastham abhijvalantaṃ purohito rājasutaṃ babhāṣe |
yathopaviṣṭaṃ divi pārijāte bṛhaspatiḥ śakrasutaṃ jayantam || 9.12 || 
(17)王師及大臣 啓請於王子
(18)如毘利波低 語彼闍延多 
śiṅ gi rtsa bar gnas pa mṅon par ’bar ba yi | | rgyal po’i (6)sras po de la mdun na ’don gyis smras | |
lha na yoṅs ’dus dag la brgya byin sras po ni | | rgyal ba ñe bar gnas la phur bu ji ltar ro | | 
680. Then the Purohita and the great minister respectfully explained to the royal prince, even as Pi-li-po-ti (Brihaspati) spoke to that Gayanta: 
12. The family priest addressed the prince who shone brightly as he sat at the foot of the tree, as Vrihaspati addressed Indra’s son Jayanta, seated in heaven under the heavenly tree pârijâta: 
tvacchokaśalye hṛdayāvagāḍhe mohaṃ gato bhūmitale muhūrtam |
kumāra rājā nayanāmbuvarṣo yat tvām avocat tad idaṃ nibodha || 9.13 || 
(19)父王念太子 如利刺貫心
(20)荒10 迷發狂亂 臥於塵土中
(21)日夜増悲思 流涙常如雨 
khyod kyi mya ṅan zug rdu sñiṅ la btags pa na | | sa yi logs la rmoṅs śiṅ brgyal bar gyur pa ste | |
gźon nu mig gi chu yi char ltar rgyal po yis | | (7)gaṅ źig khyod la smras pa ’di ni mkhyen par mdzod | | 
681. ’Your royal father, thinking of the prince, is pierced in heart, as with an iron point; his mind distracted, raves in solitude; he sleeps upon the dusty ground;
682. ’By night and day he adds to his sorrowful reflections; his tears flow down like the incessant rain; 
13. ‘O prince, consider for a moment what the king with his eyes raining tears said to thee, as he lay fainting on the ground with the arrow of thy sorrow plunged into his heart. 
jānāmi dharmaṃ prati niścayaṃ te paraimi te bhāvinam9 etam artham |
ahaṃ tv akāle vanasaṃśrayāt te śokāgnināgnipratimena dahye || 9.14 || 
(22)勅我有所命 唯願留心聽
(23)知汝樂法情 決定無所疑 
khyod kyis chos la rab dmigs ṅes par śes pa ste | | khyod kyi ’byuṅ bar ’gyur pa’i don ni śes pa’o | |
khyod kyi dus ma yin par nags su bsñen las bdag | | me daṅ rab mtshuṅs mya ṅan me yis tshig pa’o | | 
and now to seek you out, he has sent us hither. Would that you would listen with attentive mind;
683. ’We know that you delight to act religiously; it is certain, then, without a doubt, 
14. ‘"I know that thy resolve is fixed upon religion, and I am convinced that this purpose of thine is unchanging; but I am consumed with a flame of anguish like fire at thy flying to the woods at an inopportune time. 
tad ehi dharmapriya matpriyārthaṃ dharmārtham eva tyaja buddhim etām |
ayaṃ hi mā śokarayaḥ pravṛddho nadīrayaḥ kūlam ivābhihanti || 9.15 || 
(24)非時入林藪 悲戀11 嬈我心
(25)汝若念法者 應當哀愍我
(26)望寛遠遊情 以慰我懸心
(27)勿令憂悲水 崩壞我心岸 
de phyir tshur (33a1)spyon chos dga’ dag gi dga’ ston du | | chos kyi don du blo gros de ñid thoṅ mdzod daṅ | |
chu bo’i śugs kyis ’gram ṅogs mṅon par bcom pa bźin | | bdag la mya ṅan śugs ’dir rab tu ’phel ba’o | | 
this is not the time for you to be a hermit (to enter the forest wilds); a feeling of deep pity consumes our heart!
684. ’You, if you be indeed, moved by religion, ought to feel some pity for our case;
let your kindly feelings flow abroad, to comfort us who are worn at heart;
685. ’Let not the tide of sorrow and of sadness completely overwhelm the outlets of our heart; 
15. ‘"Come, thou who lovest duty, for the sake of what is my heart’s desire,--abandon this purpose for the sake of duty; this huge swollen stream of sorrow sweeps me away as a river’s torrent its bank. 
meghāmbukakṣādriṣu yā hi vṛttiḥ samīraṇārkāgnimahāśanīnām |
tāṃ vṛttim asmāsu karoti śoko vikarṣaṇocchoṣaṇadāhabhedaiḥ || 9.16 || 
(28)如雲水草山 風日火雹災
(29)憂悲爲四患 飄乾燒壞心 
rluṅ daṅ ñi ma me daṅ thog chen rnams kyi ni | | ’jug (2)pa gaṅ źig sprin daṅ chu me ri rnams su | |
rnam par ’byer daṅ skems daṅ srog daṅ ’byed rnams kyis | | bdag cag rnams la mya ṅan gyis ’jug pa de byed | | 
as the torrents (which roll down) the grassy mountains; or the calamities of tempest, fiery heat, and lightning;
686. ’For so the grieving heart has these four sorrows, turmoil and drought; passion and overthrow. 
16. ‘"That effect which is wrought in the clouds, water, the dry grass, and the mountains by the wind, the sun, the fire, and the thunderbolt,--that same effect this grief produces in us by its tearing in pieces, its drying up, its burning, and its cleaving. 
tad bhuṅkṣva tāvad vasudhādhipatyaṃ kāle vanaṃ yāsyasi śāstradṛṣṭe |
aniṣṭabandhau kuru mayy apekṣāṃ10 sarveṣu bhūteṣu dayā hi dharmaḥ || 9.17 || 
(17a1)且還食土邑 時至更遊仙
(2)不顧於親戚 父母亦棄捐
(3)此豈名慈悲 覆護一切耶 
de phyir re źig nor ’dzin bdag ñid loṅs spyod la | | dus su bstan bcos mthoṅ ste nags su gśegs gyur te | |
’byuṅ po (3)thams cad la ni brtse ba chos yin phyir | | mi ’dod gñen ’dun kho bo la ni ltos par mdzod | | 
But come! return to your native place, the time will arrive when you can go forth again as a recluse.
687. ’But now to disregard your family duties, to turn against father and mother, how can this be called love and affection? that love which overshadows and embraces all. 
17. ‘"Enjoy therefore for a while the sovereignty of the earth,--thou shalt go to the forest at the time provided by the sâstras,--do not show disregard for thy unhappy kindred,--compassion for all creatures is the true religion. 
na caiṣa dharmo vanae eva siddhaḥ pure ’pi siddhir niyatā yatīnām |
buddhiś ca yatnaś ca nimittam atra vanaṃ ca liṅgaṃ ca hi bhīrucihnam || 9.18 || 
(4)法不必山林 在家亦脩閑
(5)覺悟勤方便 是則名出家 
chos de nags ñid kho nar ’grub pa ma yin te | | sdom brtson rnams kyis ṅes par groṅ khyer na yaṅ ’grub | |
’dir ni blo daṅ ’bad pa dag ni mtshan ma ste | | nags daṅ stag ni ’jigs pa dag gi (4)mtshan ma’o | | 
688. ’Religion requires not the wild solitudes; you can practise a hermit’s duties in your home; studiously thoughtful, diligent in expedients, this is to lead a hermit’s life in truth. 
18. ‘"Religion is not wrought out only in the forests, the salvation of ascetics can be accomplished even in a city; thought and effort are the true means; the forest and the badge are only a coward’s signs. 
maulīdharair aṃsaviṣaktahāraiḥ keyūraviṣṭabdhabhujair11 narendraiḥ |
lakṣmyaṅkamadhye parivartamānaiḥ prāpto gṛhasthair api mokṣadharmaḥ || 9.19 || 
(6)剃髮服染衣 自12 放山藪間
(7)此則懷畏怖 何足名學仙
(8)願得一抱汝 以水雨其頂
(9)冠汝以天冠 置於傘蓋下
(10)矚目一觀汝 然後我出家 
dbu rgyan ’dzin źiṅ dpuṅ par rna cha do śal daṅ | | dpuṅ rgyan rnam par reṅs pa’i phyag mṅa’ mi dbaṅ rnams | |
phun tshogs yan lag dbus na yoṅs su gnas rnams kyis | | khyim na gnas kyaṅ thar ba’i lam ni rab tu thob | | 
689. A shaven head, and garments soiled with dirt,--to wander by yourself through desert wilds,--this is but to encourage constant fears, and cannot be rightly called "an awakened hermit’s (life)."
690. ’Would rather we might take you by the hand, and sprinklewater on your head, and crown you with a heavenly diadem, and place you underneath a flowery canopy,
691. ’That all eyes might gaze with eagerness upon you; after this, in truth, we would leave our home with joy. 
19. ‘"Liberation has been attained even by householders, Indras among men, who wore diadems, and carried strings of pearls suspended on their shoulders, whose garlands were entangled with bracelets, and who lay cradled in the lap of Fortune. 
dhruvānujau yau balivajrabāhū vaibhrājam āṣāḍham athāntidevam |
videharājaṃ janakaṃ tathaiva drumaṃ12 senajitaś ca rājñaḥ || 9.20 || 
(11)13 頭留摩先王 阿闍阿14
(12)跋闍羅婆休 毘跋羅安提
(13)毘提15 訶闍那 那羅濕波羅 
bstan pa’i nu bo (5)stobs daṅ rdo rje’i lag pa daṅ | | rnam mdzes bu daṅ chu stod de nas mthar gnas lha | |
lus ’phags rgyal po skyes byed daṅ ni de bźin du | | groṅ daṅ ljon śiṅ can daṅ sde rgyal rgyal po rnams | | 
The former kings Teou-lau-ma (Druma?), A-neou-ke-o-sa (Anugasa or Anudâsa),
692. ’Po-ke-lo-po-yau (Vagrabâhu), Pi-po-to-’an-ti (Vaibhrâga), Pi-ti-o-ke-na (Vatâgana?), Na-lo-sha-po-lo (Narasavara?), 
20. ‘"Bali and Vajrabâhu, the two younger brothers of Dhruva, Vaibhrâja, âshâḍha and Antideva, and Ganaka also, the king of the Videhas, and king Senajit’s son, his tree of ripe blessing; 
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Enhet: Det humanistiske fakultet   Utviklet av: IT-seksjonen ved HF