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Aśvaghoṣa: Buddhacarita

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ā ī ū
ś ź
š č ǰ γ    
Note on the transliteration:
The transliteration system of the BP/TLB is based on the Unicode/UTF-8 system. However, there may be difficulties with some of the letters – particularly on PC/Windows-based systems, but not so much on the Mac. We have chosen the most accepted older and traditional systems of transliteration against, e.g, Wylie for Tibetan, since with Unicode it is possible, in Sanskrit and Tibetan, etc., to represent one sound with one letter in almost all the cases (excepting Sanskrit and Tibetan aspirated letters, and Tibetan tsa, tsha, dza). We thus do not use the Wylie system which widely employs two letters for one sound (ng, ny, sh, zh etc.).
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    Click to Expand/Collapse Option Complete text
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionTitle
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionPreface
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 1: Bhagavatprasūti
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 2: Antaḥpuravihāra
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 3: Saṃvegotpatti
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 4: Strīvighātana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 5: Abhiniṣkramaṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 6: Chandakanivartana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 7: Tapovanapraveśa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 8: Antaḥpuravilāpa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 9: Kumārānveṣaṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 10: Śreṇyābhigamana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 11: Kāmavigarhaṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 12: Arāḍadarśana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 13: Māravijaya
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 14: Englightenment
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 15: Turning the Wheel of the Law
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 16: Many Conversions
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 17: Conversion (pravrajyā) of the Great Disciples
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 18: The Instruction of Anāthapiṇḍada
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 19: The Meeting of Father and Son
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 20: Acceptance of Jetavana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 21: Progress (srotas) of the Mission
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 22: The Visit to Amrapāli's Grove
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 23: Fixing the Factors of Bodily Life
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 24: Compassion for the Licchavis
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 25: The Journey to Nirvāṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 26: The Mahāparinirvāṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 27: Eulogy of Nirvāṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 28: The Division of the Relics
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionColophon
jāmbūnadaṃ harmyam iva pradīptaṃ viṣeṇa saṃyuktam ivottamānnam |
grāhākulaṃ cāmbv iva sāravindaṃ Cca sthitaṃ rājyaṃ hi ramyaṃ vyasanāśrayaṃ ca || 9.41 ||1  
(6)七寶妙宮殿 於中盛火然
(7)天廚百味飯 於中有雜毒
(8)蓮華清涼池 於中多毒蟲 
’dzam bu chu gser bźin du gsal ba’i ldiṅ khaṅ ni | | ṅug daṅ ’dres pa’i kha zas bzaṅ po lta bu daṅ | |
gza’ yis ’khrugs pa’i padma daṅ bcas chu lta bu | | rgyal srid daṅ ni gser dag sdug bsṅal dag gi (7)rten | | 
718. ’The sumptuously ornamented and splendid palace (I look upon) as filled with fire; the hundred dainty dishes (tastes) of the divine kitchen, as mingled with destructive poisons;
719. ’The lily growing on the tranquil lake, in its midst harbours countless noisome insects; 
41. ‘The golden palace seems to me to be on fire; the daintiest viands seem mixed with poison; infested with crocodiles [is the tranquil lotus-bed].’ 
itthaṃ ca rājyaṃ na sukhaṃ na dharmaḥ pūrve yathā jātaghṛṇā narendrāḥ |
vayaḥprakarṣe ’parihāryaduḥkhe rājyāni muktvā vanam eva jagmuḥ || 9.42 ||2  
(9)1 位高爲災宅 慧者所不居
(10)古昔先勝王 見居國多愆
(11)楚毒加衆生 厭患而出家 
de ltar rgyal srid chos min bde ba ma yin pa | | ji ltar mi gtsaṅ skyes te mi dbaṅ sṅa ma rnams | |
sdug bsṅal yoṅs su spaṅ bya na tshod rab mchog tshe | | rgyal srid ṅes par dor nas nags su soṅ bar gyur | | 
and so the towering abode of the rich is the house of calamity; the wise will not dwell therein.
720. ’In former times illustrious kings, seeing the many crimes of their home and country, affecting as with poison the dwellers therein, in sorrowful disgust sought comfort in seclusion; 
42. And thus kingship is neither pleasure nor dharma, so that the kings of old, when age came on with it’s unavoidable suffering, felt disgust and, giving up their kingdoms, betook themselves to the forest.1  
varaṃ hi bhuktāni tṛṇāny araṇye toṣaṃ paraṃ ratnam ivopaguhya |
sahoṣitaṃ śrīsulabhair na caiva doṣair adṛśyair iva kṛṣṇasarpaiḥ || 9.43 ||3  
(12)故知王正苦 不如行法安
(13)寧處於山林 食草同禽獸
(14)不堪處深宮 黒2 蛇同其穴 
rin chen bźin du tshim ba mchog ni ñer mkhyud nas | | ’brog (34b1)dgon dag na rtswa dag zos pa mchog yin la | |
sbrul nag bźin du mthoṅ ba ma yin ñes pa ni | | rñed bla’i dpal daṅ lhan cig ñal ba mchog ma yin | | 
721. ’We know, therefore, that the troubles of a royal estate are not to be compared with the repose of a religious life; far better dwell in the wild mountains, and eat the herbs like the beasts of the field;
722. ’Therefore I dare not dwell in the wide palace, for the black snake has its dwelling there. 
43. For it is better to eat herbs in the forest, embracing the highest contentmentas if one were concealing a jewel, than to live with the dangers to which sovereignty is exposed, as if with loathsome black snakes. 
ślāghyaṃ hi rājyāni vihāya rājñāṃ dharmābhilāṣeṇa vanaṃ praveṣṭum |
bhagnapratijñasya na tūpapannaṃ vanaṃ parityajya gṛhaṃ praveṣṭum || 9.44 ||4  
(15)捨王位五欲 任苦遊山林
(16)此則爲隨順 樂法漸増明
(17)今棄閑靜林 還家受五欲
(18)日夜苦法増 此則非所應 
rgyal srid rnam par spaṅs pa rgyal po rnams kyi chos | | mṅon par ’dod pas nags su rab ’jug bsṅags pa ste | |
nags (2)tshal yoṅs su dor nas khyim du rab ’jug pa | | dam bca’ ñe bar bcom pa’i ’thad pa ma yin no | | 
I reject the kingly estate and the five desires [desires of the senses], to escape such sorrows I wander thro’ the mountain wilds.
723. ’This, then, would be the consequence of compliance, that I;
who, delighting in religion, am gradually getting wisdom, should now quit these quiet woods, and returning home, partake of sensual pleasures,
724. ’And thus by night and day increase my store of misery. Surely this is not what should be done! 
44. For it is praiseworthy for kings to leave their kingdoms and enter the forest in the desire for dharma, but it is not fitting to break one’s vow and forsaking the forest to go to one’s home. 
jātaḥ kule ko hi naraḥ sasattvo dharmābhilāṣeṇa vanaṃ praviṣṭaḥ |
kāṣāyam utsṛjya vimuktalajjaḥ puraṃdarasyāpi puraṃ śrayeta || 9.45 ||5  
(19)名族大丈夫 樂法而出家
(20)永背名稱族 建大丈夫志
(21)毀形被法服 樂法遊山林 
rigs su skyes śiṅ sems pa daṅ bcas mi gaṅ gis | | chos ni mṅon par ’dod pas nags su rab źugs la | |
ṅur smrig rab tu dor nas ṅo tsha rnam spaṅs nas | | groṅ khyer ’joms pa yi (3)yaṅ groṅ la bsñen ma yin | | 
that the great leader of an illustrious tribe, having left his home from love of religion,
725. ’And for ever turned his back upon tribal honour, desiring to confirm his purpose as a leader,--that he,--discarding outward form, clad in religious garb, loving religious meditation, wandering thro’ the wilds,-- 
45. For what man of resolution and good family, having once gone to the forest in the desire for dharma, would cast off the robe and, dead to shame, proceed to the city even of Puraüdara? 
lobhād dhi mohād athavā bhayena yo vāntam annaṃ punar ādadīta |
lobhāt sa mohād athavā bhayena saṃtyajya kāmān punar ādadīta || 9.46 ||6  
(22)今復棄法服 有違慚愧心
(23)天王尚不可 況歸人勝3
(24)已吐貪恚癡 4 而復還服食
(25)如人反食吐 此苦安可堪 
sred daṅ rnam par rmoṅs daṅ yaṅ na ’jigs pa yis | | gaṅ źig skyugs pa’i bza’ ba slar yaṅ len byed la | |
sred pa de ni rmoṅs daṅ yaṅ na ’jigs pa yis | | ’dod pa rnams ni dor nas slar yaṅ len par byed | | 
726. ’Should now reject his hermit vestment, tread down his sense of proper shame (and give up his aim). This, though I gained heaven’s kingly state, cannot be done! how much less to gain an earthly, though distinguished, home!
727. ’For having spued forth lust, passion, and ignorance, shall I return to feed upon it? as a man might go back to his vomit! such misery, how could I bear? 
46. For only the man, who from greed, delusion or fear, would take again the food he has vomited up, would from greed, delusion or fear, abondon the lusts of the flesh and then return to them. 
yaś ca pradīptāc charaṇāt kathaṃcin niṣkramya bhūyaḥ praviśet tad eva |
gārhasthyam utsṛjya sa dṛṣṭadoṣo mohena bhūyo ’bhilaṣed grahītum || 9.47 ||7  
(26)如5 世舍被燒 方便馳走出
(27)須臾還復入 此豈爲黠夫
(28)見生老死過 厭患而出家
(29)今當還復入 愚癡與彼同
(18a1)處宮修解脱 則無有是處
(2)解脱寂靜生 王者6 如楚罰 
gaṅ źig rab ’bar khaṅ pa dag nas ci źig (4)ltar | | byuṅ nas slar yaṅ de ñid kho nar rab ’jug la | |
ñas pa mthoṅ de khyim na gnas pa dor nas ni | | rmoṅs pas slar yaṅ len par mṅon par ’dod pa’o | | 
728. ’Like a man whose house has caught fire, by some expedient finds a way to escape, will such a man forthwith go back and enter it again? such conduct would disgrace a man!
729. ’So I, beholding the evils, birth, old age, and death, to escape the misery, have become a hermit; shall I then go back and enter in, and like a fool dwell in their company?
730. ’He who enjoys a royal estate and yet seeks rescue, cannot dwell thus, this is no place for him; escape (rescue) is born from quietness and rest; to be a king is to add distress and poison; 
47. And the man who, after escaping with difficulty from a burning house, would enter that very house again, only he, after giving up the state of a householder, because he sees its dangers, would desire out of delusion to assume it again. 
yā ca śrutir mokṣam avāptavanto nṛpā gṛhasthā iti naitad asti |
śamapradhānaḥ kva ca mokṣadharmo daṇḍapradhānaḥ kva ca rājadharmaḥ || 9.48 ||8  
(3)寂靜廢王威 王正解脱乖
(4)動靜猶水火 二理何得倶 
gaṅ yaṅ mi skyoṅ khyim na gnas pas thar pa ni | | ’thob pa daṅ ldan źes thos de ni med pa ste | |
źi ba gtso bo’i thar pa’i chos ni gaṅ la yaṅ | | (5)chad pa gtso bo’i rgyal po’i chos ni gaṅ du’o | | 
731. ’To seek for rest and yet aspire to royal condition is but a contradiction, royalty and rescue, motion and rest, like fire and water, having two principles, cannot be united. 
48. As for the tradition that kings obtained final emancipation while remaining in their homes, this is not the case. How can the dharma of salvation in which quietude predominates be reconciled with the dharma of kings in which severity of action predominates? 
śame ratiś cec chithilaṃ ca rājyaṃ rājye matiś cec chamaviplavaś ca |
śamaś ca taikṣṇyaṃ ca hi nopapannaṃ śītoṣṇayor aikyam ivodakāgnyoḥ || 9.49 ||9  
(5)決定修解脱 亦不居王位
(6)若言居王位 兼修解脱者
(7)此則非決定 決定解7 亦然 
źi ba dga’ ba gal te rgyal srid dman pa ste | | rgyal srid la blo gal te źi ba rnam par ñams | |
graṅ daṅ dro daṅ me daṅ chu yi gcig ñid bźin | | źi ba daṅ ni rno ñid ’thad pa ma yin no | |
me daṅ chu yi ’du ba yod pa ma yin la | | khram daṅ draṅ (6)po’i ’du ba yod pa ma yin źiṅ | |
’phags daṅ sdig pa’i ’du ba yod pa ma yin te | | źi daṅ chad pa’i ’du ba yod pa ma yin no | | 
732. ’So one resolved to seek escape cannot abide possessed of kingly dignity! and if you say a man may be a king, and at the same time prepare deliverance for himself,
733. ’There is no certainty in this! to seek certain escape is not to risk it thus; 
49. If a king delights in quietude, his kingdom collapses; if his mind turns to his kingdom, his quietude is ruined. For quietude and severity are incompatible, like the union of water which is cold and fire which is hot. 
tan niścayād vā vasudhādhipās te rājyāni muktvā śamam āptavantaḥ |
rājyāṅgitā vā nibhṛtendriyatvād anaiṣṭhike mokṣakṛtābhimānāḥ || 9.50 ||10  
(8)既非決定心 或出還復入
(9)我今已決定 斷親屬鉤餌
(10)正方便出家 云何還復入 
de phyir sa ’dzin bdag po de rnams ṅes pas sam | | rgyal po’i srid rnams spaṅs te źi ba thob pa can | |
rgyal srid dag la bsñen nam dbaṅ po sbas ñid las | | (7)mthar ma thug par thar par mṅon pa’i ṅa rgyal byas | | 
it is through this uncertain frame of mind that once a man gone forth is led to go back home again;
734. ’But I, my mind is not uncertain; severing the baited hook of relationship, with straightforward purpose, I have left my home. Then tell me, why should I return again?’ 
50. Either therefore these lords of the earth resolutely cast aside their kingdoms and obtained quietude, or stained by kingship, the claimed to have attained liberation on the ground that their senses were under control, but in fact only reached a state that was not final. 
teṣāṃ ca rājye ’stu śamo yathāvat prāpto vanaṃ nāham aniścayena |
chittvā hi pāśaṃ gṛhabandhusaṃjñaṃ muktaḥ punar na pravivikṣur asmi || 9.51 ||11  
de dag rnams kyi rgyal srid la źi ji lta bźin | | bdag ni nags tshal rab thob ṅes pas ma yin źiṅ | |
khyim daṅ gñen gyi ’du śes źags pa bcad nas ni | | thar gyur slar yaṅ rab tu ’jug par ’dod ma yin | | 
51. Or let it be conceded they duly attained quitude while holding kingship, still I have not gone to the forest with an undecided mind; for having cut through the net known as home and kindred I am freed and have no intention of re-entering the net." 
ity ātmavijñānaguṇānurūpaṃ muktaspṛhaṃ hetumad ūrjitaṃ ca |
śrutvā narendrātmajam uktavantaṃ pratyuttaraṃ mantradharo ’py uvāca || 9.52 || 
(11)大臣内思惟 太子8 大丈夫
(12)深識徳隨順 所説有因縁
(13)而告太子言 如王子所説 
de ltar bdag (35a1)ñid rnam śes yon tan rjes mthun pa | | re ’dod spaṅs śiṅ gtan tshigs ldan pa sgrogs pa ste | |
mi dbaṅ bdag ñid skyes kyi smra ldan thos gyur nas | | gsaṅ sṅags ’dzin pa yis kyaṅ lan ni smras pa’o | | 
735. The great minister, inwardly reflecting, (thought), ’The mind of the royal prince, my master, is full of wisdom, and agreeable to virtue, what he says is reasonable and fitly framed.’
736. Then he addressed the prince and said: ’According to what your highness states, 
42. Having heard the king’s son uttering this discourse, well suitable to his virtues and knowledge of the soul, freed from all desires, full of sound reasons, and weighty,--the counsellor thus made answer: 
yo niścayo dharmavidhau12 tavāyam nāyaṃ na yukto na tu kālayuktaḥ |
śokāya dattvā13 pitaraṃ vayaḥsthaṃ syād dharmakāmasya hi te na dharmaḥ || 9.53 || 
(14)求法法應爾 但今非是時
(15)父王衰暮年 念子増憂悲 
gaṅ źig chos kyi cho gar ṅes pa khyod kyi ’di | | (2)rig pa min pa ma yin ’di ni dus rig min | |
na tshod la gnas yab ma mya ṅan phyir byin nas | | chos ’dod khyod kyi chos ma yin par gyur pa’o | | 
he who seeks religion must seek it rightly; but this is not the fitting time (for you);
737. ’Your royal father, old and of declining years, thinking of you his son, adds grief to grief; 
43. ‘This resolve of thine is an excellent counsel, not unfit in itself but only unfit at the present time; it could not be thy duty, loving duty as thou dost, to leave thy father in his old age to sorrow. 
nūnaṃ ca buddhis tava nātisūkṣmā dharmārthakāmeṣv avicakṣaṇā vā |
hetor adṛṣṭasya phalasya yas tvaṃ pratyakṣam arthaṃ paribhūya yāsi || 9.54 || 
(16)雖曰樂解脱 反更爲非法
(17)雖樂出無慧 不思深細理
(18)不見因求果 徒捨現法9 歡 
ṅes par khyed kyi blo yaṅ śin tu phra min pa | | yaṅ na chos daṅ don daṅ ’dod par mkhas ma min | |
gaṅ źig ma mthoṅ ’bras bu’i don du khyed ñid (3)kyis | | mṅon sum don ni yoṅs su brñas par mdzad nas gśegs | | 
you say indeed, "I find my joy in rescue. To go back would be apostacy."
738. ’But yet your joy denotes unwisdom, and argues want of deep reflection; you do not see, because you seek the fruit, how vain to give up present duty. 
44. ‘Surely thy mind is not very penetrating, or it is ill-skilled in examining duty, wealth, and pleasure,--when for the sake of an unseen result thou departest disregarding a visible end. 
punarbhavo ’stīti ca kecid āhur nāstīti kecin niyatapratijñāḥ |
evaṃ yadā saṃśayito ’yam arthas tasmāt kṣamaṃ bhoktum upasthitā śrīḥ || 9.55 || 
(19)有言有後世 又復有言無
(20)有無既不判 何爲捨現樂 
yaṅ srid yod ces kha cig dag ni smra ba ste | | med ces kha cig dag ni ṅes par dam ’cha’o | |
de ltar gaṅ tshe don ’di the tshom gyur pa ste | | de phyir loṅs spyod par nus dpal ni ñe bar gnas | | 
739. ’There are some who say, There is "hereafter;" others there are who say, "Nothing hereafter." So whilst this question hangs in suspense, why should a man give up his present pleasure? 
45. ‘Again, some say that there is another birth,--others with confident assertion say that there is not; since then the matter is all in doubt, it is right to enjoy the good fortune which comes into thy hand. 
bhūyaḥ pravṛttir yadi kācid asti raṃsyāmahe tatra yathopapattau |
atha pravṛttiḥ parato na kācit siddho ’prayatnāj jagato ’sya mokṣaḥ || 9.56 || 
(21)若當有後世 應任其所得
(22)若言後世無 無即爲解脱 
gal te (4)slar yaṅ rab tu ’jug pa gaṅ yaṅ yod | | der ni ji ltar ’bad pa dag la dga’ bar bgyi | |
ci ste gźan du rab tu ’jug pa gaṅ yaṅ med | | ’gro ba ’di yi ’bad rtsol med las thar pa ’grub | | 
740. ’If perchance there is "hereafter," we ought to bear (patiently) what it brings; if you say, "Hereafter is not," then there is not either rescue (salvation)! 
46. ‘If there is any activity hereafter, we will enjoy ourselves in it as may offer; or if there is no activity beyond this life, then there is an assured liberation to all the world without any effort. 
astīti kecit paralokam āhur mokṣasya yogaṃ na tu varṇayanti |
agner yathā hy auṣṇyam14 apāṃ dravatvaṃ tadvat pravṛttau prakṛtiṃ vadanti || 9.57 || 
(23)10 有言有後世 不説解脱因
(24)如地堅火暖 水濕風飄動
(25)後世亦復然 此則性自爾 
kha cig ’jig rten pha rol yod ces smra ba ste | | thar pa’i sbyor ba la ni bsṅags pa byed (5)ma yin | |
ji ltar me yi dro daṅ chu yi gśer ba ñid | | de ltar rab tu ’jug par raṅ bźin ñid du smra | | 
741. ’If you say, "Hereafter is," you would not say, "Salvation causes it." As earth is hard, or fire is hot, or water moist, or wind is mobile,
742. ’"Hereafter" is just so. It has its own distinct nature. 
47. ‘Some say there is a future life, but they do not allow the possibility of liberation; as fire is hot by nature and water liquid, so they hold that there is a special nature in our power of action. 
kecit svabhāvād iti varṇayanti śubhāśubhaṃ caiva bhavābhavau ca |
svābhāvikaṃ sarvam idaṃ ca yasmād ato ’pi mogho bhavati prayatnaḥ || 9.58 || 
(26)有説淨不淨 各從自性起
(27)言可方便移 此則愚癡説 
dge daṅ mi dge ñid daṅ srid daṅ srid min la | | kha cig raṅ bźin las źes bsṅags pa byed pa ste | |
gaṅ phyir ’di dag thams cad raṅ bźin las yin te | | de yi phyir (6)yaṅ rab tu ’bad pa don med ’gyur | | 
So when we speak of pure and impure, each comes from its own distinctive nature.
743. ’If you should say, "By some contrivance this can be removed," such an opinion argues folly. 
48. ‘Some maintain that all things arise from inherent properties,--both good and evil and existence and non-existence; and since all this world thus arises spontaneously, therefore also all effort of ours is vain. 
yad indriyāṇāṃ niyataḥ pracāraḥ priyāpriyatvaṃ viṣayeṣu caiva |
saṃyujyate yaj jarayārtibhiś15 ca kas tatra yatno nanu sa svabhāvaḥ || 9.59 || 
(28)諸根行境界 自性皆決定
(29)愛念與不念 自性定亦然 
gaṅ źig dbaṅ po rnams kyis ṅes par rab spyod pa | | yul rnams la ni dga’ ba daṅ ni mi dga’ ñid | |
gaṅ źig dga’ daṅ nad rnams dag gis sbyor byed de | | de la gaṅ gis ’bad dam de ni raṅ bźin no | | 
Every root within the moral world (world or domain of conduct) has its own nature predetermined;
744. ’Loving remembrance and forgetfulness, these have their nature fixed and positive; 
49. ‘Since the action of the senses is fixed, and so too the agreeableness or the disagreeableness of outward objects,--then for that which is united to old age and pains, what effort can avail to alter it? Does it not all arise spontaneously? 
adbhir hutāśaḥ śamam abhyupaiti tejāṃsi cāpo gamayanti śoṣam |
bhinnāni bhūtāni śarīrasaṃsthāny aikyaṃ ca gatvā16 jagad udvahanti || 9.60 || 
(18b1)老病死等苦 誰方便使然
(2)謂水能滅火 火令水煎消
(3)自性増相壞 性和成衆生 
chu rnams kyis ni me rnams (7)źi bar ñe ’gro źiṅ | | ’od zer rnams kyis chu ni rkams par byed pa ste | |
lus la yaṅ dag gnas pa’i ’byuṅ ba tha dad rnams | | gcig ñid gyur nas ’gro ba dag ni ’dren par byed | | 
so likewise age, disease, and death, these sorrows, who can escape by strategy? (contrivance, upâya).
745. ’If you say, "Water can put out fire," or "Fire can cause water to boil and pass away," (then this proves only that) distinctive natures may be mutually destructive; but nature in harmony produces living things; 
50. ‘The fire becomes quenched by water, and fire causes water to evaporate; and different elements, united in a body, producing unity, bear up the world. 
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Enhet: Det humanistiske fakultet   Utviklet av: IT-seksjonen ved HF