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Aśvaghoṣa: Buddhacarita

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Note on the transliteration:
The transliteration system of the BP/TLB is based on the Unicode/UTF-8 system. However, there may be difficulties with some of the letters – particularly on PC/Windows-based systems, but not so much on the Mac. We have chosen the most accepted older and traditional systems of transliteration against, e.g, Wylie for Tibetan, since with Unicode it is possible, in Sanskrit and Tibetan, etc., to represent one sound with one letter in almost all the cases (excepting Sanskrit and Tibetan aspirated letters, and Tibetan tsa, tsha, dza). We thus do not use the Wylie system which widely employs two letters for one sound (ng, ny, sh, zh etc.).
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    Click to Expand/Collapse Option Complete text
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionTitle
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionPreface
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 1: Bhagavatprasūti
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 2: Antaḥpuravihāra
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 3: Saṃvegotpatti
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 4: Strīvighātana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 5: Abhiniṣkramaṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 6: Chandakanivartana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 7: Tapovanapraveśa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 8: Antaḥpuravilāpa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 9: Kumārānveṣaṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 10: Śreṇyābhigamana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 11: Kāmavigarhaṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 12: Arāḍadarśana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 13: Māravijaya
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 14: Englightenment
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 15: Turning the Wheel of the Law
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 16: Many Conversions
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 17: Conversion (pravrajyā) of the Great Disciples
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 18: The Instruction of Anāthapiṇḍada
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 19: The Meeting of Father and Son
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 20: Acceptance of Jetavana
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 21: Progress (srotas) of the Mission
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 22: The Visit to Amrapāli's Grove
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 23: Fixing the Factors of Bodily Life
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 24: Compassion for the Licchavis
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 25: The Journey to Nirvāṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 26: The Mahāparinirvāṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 27: Eulogy of Nirvāṇa
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionChapter 28: The Division of the Relics
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionColophon
saśiṣyaḥ kapilaś ceha pratibuddhir1 iti smṛtiḥ |
saputro ’pratibuddhas tu2 prajāpatir ihocyate || 12.21 || 
(23)1 迦毘羅仙人 及弟子眷屬
(24)於此我要義 修學得解脱
(25)彼迦毘羅者 今2 波闍波提 
slob ma daṅ bcas ser skya yis | | ’di ni (3)rab tu rtogs źes dran | |
bu daṅ bcas pa’i rtogs pa yaṅ | | skye dgu’i bdag por ’di brjod do | | 
938. ’Kapila the Rishi and his numerous followers, on this deep principle of "soul," practising wisdom (Buddhi), found deliverance.
939. ’Kapila and now Vâkaspati, by the power of "Buddhi" perceiving the character of birth, old age, and death, 
21. ‘Kapila with his disciple became the illuminated,--such is the tradition; and he, as the illuminated, with his son is now called here Prajâpati. 
jāyate jīryate caiva bādhyate3 mriyate ca yat |
tad vyaktam iti vijñeyam avyaktaṃ tu viparyayāt || 12.22 || 
(26)覺知生老死 是説名爲3
(27)與上相違者 説名爲不見 
skye ba ñid daṅ rga ba daṅ | | na ba daṅ ni ’chi ba daṅ | |
de ni gsal źes rtogs bya ste | | bzlog las mi gsal ba yaṅ do | | 
declare that on this is founded true philosophy;
940. ’Whilst all opposed to this, they say, is false. 
22. ‘That which is born and grows old and is bound and dies,--is to be known as "the manifested," and "the unmanifested" is to be distinguished by its contrariety. 
ajñānaṃ karma tṛṣṇā ca jñeyāḥ saṃsārahetavaḥ |
sthito ’smiṃs tritaye jantus4 tat sattvaṃ nātivartate5 || 12.23 || 
(28)4 愚癡業愛欲 是説爲24
5 (29)若住此三種 是衆生不離 
mi śes pa daṅ las daṅ srid | | ’khor ba’i rgyu rnams (4)śes bya ste | |
gsum po ’dir gnas ’gro ba ni | | sñiṅ stobs de ni ’da’ ba med | | 
"Ignorance" and "passion," causing constant "transmigration,"
941. ’Abiding in the midst of these (they say) is the lot of "all that lives." 
23. ‘Ignorance, the merit or demerit of former actions, and desire are to be known as the causes of mundane existence; he who abides in the midst of this triad does not attain to the truth of things, Þ 
vipratyayād ahaṃkārāt saṃdehād abhisaṃplavāt |
aviśeṣānupāyābhyāṃ saṅgād abhyavapātataḥ || 12.24 || 
log pa las daṅ ṅar ’dzin las | | the tshom las daṅ mṅon ’phyo las | |
khyad par med las thabs min las | | chags pa las daṅ mṅon lhuṅ las | | 
Doubting the truth of "soul" is called "excessive doubt," and without distinguishing aright, there can be no method of escape.
942. ’Deep speculation as to the limits of perception is but to involve the "soul;" 
24. ‘From mistake, egoism, confusion, fluctuation, indiscrimination, false means, inordinate attachment, and gravitation. 
tatra vipratyayo nāma viparītaṃ pravartate |
anyathā kurute kāryaṃ mantavyaṃ manyate ’nyathā || 12.25 || 
(3)不信顛倒轉 異作亦異解
(4)我説我知覺 我去來7 我住
(5)如是等計我 是名我作轉 
de la log pa źes bya ba | | phyin ci log tu ’jug (5)pa ste | |
bsam par bya ba gźan sems śiṅ | | bya ba gźan ni byed pa’o | | 
thus unbelief leads to confusion, and ends in differences of thought and conduct.
943. ’Again, the various speculations on "soul" (such as) "I say," "I know and perceive," "I come" and "I go" or "I remain fixed," these are called the intricacies (windings) of "soul"’ 
25. ‘Now "mistake" acts in a contrary manner, it does wrongly what it should do, and what it should think it thinks wrongly. 
bravīmy aham ahaṃ vedmi gacchāmy aham ahaṃ sthitaḥ |
itīhaivam ahaṃkāras tv anahaṃkāra vartate || 12.26 || 
(6)於諸性猶豫 是非不得實
(7)如是不決定 是説名爲疑 
smra ba daṅ rig pa daṅ | | ’gro ba ṅa daṅ gnas pa ṅa | |
de ltar ’di ni ṅar ’dzin pa | | ṅar ’dzin med kyi ’jug pa’o | | 
944. ’And then the fancies raised in different natures, some saying "this is so," others denying it, and this condition of uncertainty is called the state of "darkness." 
26. ‘"I say," "I know," "I go," "I am firmly fixed," it is thus that "egoism" shows itself here, O thou who art free from all egoism. 
yas tu bhāvān asaṃdigdhān6 ekībhāvena paśyati |
mṛtpiṇḍavad asaṃdeha saṃdehaḥ sa ihocyate || 12.27 || 
(8)若説法是我 説彼即是意
(9)亦説覺與業 8 諸數復説我 
gaṅ źig the tshom med dṅos rnams | | gcig tu gyur pas mthoṅ ba ste | |
the tshom med (6)pas ’jim goṅ ltar | | de ’dir the tshom du brjod do | | 
945. ’Then there are those who say that outward things (resembling forms) are one with "soul," who say that the "objective" is the same as "mind," who confuse "intelligence" with "instruments," who say that "number" is the "soul." 
27. ‘That state of mind is called "confusion," O thou who art all unconfused, which views under one nature, massed like a lump of clay, objects that thus become confused in their nature. 
ya evāhaṃ sa evedaṃ mano buddhiś ca karma ca |
yaś caivaiṣa7 gaṇaḥ so ’ham iti yaḥ so ’bhisaṃplavaḥ || 12.28 || 
gaṅ źig ṅa ñid de ñid ’di | | yin daṅ blo daṅ las yin la | |
gaṅ źig draṅs te de ñid ṅa | | źes gaṅ de ni mṅon par ’phyo | | 
28. ‘That state of mind which says that this mind, intellect, and these actions are the same as "I," and that which says that all this aggregate is the same as "I,"--is called "fluctuation." 
aviśeṣaṃ viśeṣajña pratibuddhāprabuddhayoḥ |
prakṛtīnāṃ ca yo veda so ’viśeṣa iti smṛtaḥ || 12.29 || 
(10)如是不分別 是説名總9
(11)愚黠性變等 不了名不別 
rab rgyas rab rgyas ma yin pa’i | | khyad par med pa’i khyad śes kye | |
raṅ bźin rnams kyis gaṅ śes (7)pa | | de ni khyad par med ces dran | | 
946. ’Thus not distinguishing aright, these are called "excessive quibbles," "marks of folly," "nature changes," and so on. 
29. ‘That state of mind is called "indiscrimination," O thou who art discriminating, which thinks there is no difference between the illuminated and the unwise, and between the different evolvents. 
namaskāravaṣaṭkārau prokṣaṇābhyukṣaṇādayaḥ |
anupāya iti prājñair upāyajña praveditaḥ || 12.30 || 
(12)禮拜誦諸典 殺生10 祀天祠
(13)水火等爲淨 而作解脱想
(14)如是種種見 是名無方便 
phyag ’tshal ba daṅ gźi mi ’grib | | bsaṅ gtor daṅ ni mṅon ’thor sogs | |
thabs min źes ni śes ldan gyis | | rab tu rtogs bya thabs śes kyi | | 
947. ’To worship and recite religious books, to slaughter living things in sacrifice, to render pure by fire and water, and thus awake the thought of final rescue,
948. ’All these ways of thinking are called "without right expedient," 
30. ‘Uttering "namas" and "vashañ," sprinkling water upon sacrifices, &c. with or without the recital of Vedic hymns, and such like rites,--these are declared by the wise to be "false means," O thou who art well skilled in true means. 
sajjate yena durmedhā manovāgbuddhikarmabhiḥ8 |
viṣayeṣv anabhiṣvaṅga so ’bhiṣvaṅga iti smṛtaḥ || 12.31 || 
(15)愚癡所計著 意言語覺業
(16)及境界計11 着 是説名爲著 
chags pa mi skye yul rnams la | | yid ṅag blo daṅ las rnams kyis | |
blo ṅan gaṅ gis (44a1)chags byed pa | | de ni mṅon par chags źes dran | | 
the result of ignorance and doubt, by means of word or thought or deed;
949. ’Involving outward relationships, this is called "depending on means;" 
31. ‘That is called "inordinate attachment," by which the fool is entangled in external objects through his mind, speech, actions, and thoughts, O thou who hast shaken thyself free from all attachments. 
mamedam aham asyeti yad duḥkham abhimanyate |
vijñeyo ’bhyavapātaḥ sa saṃsāre yena pātyate || 12.32 || 
(17)諸物悉我所 是名爲攝受
(18)如此八種惑 彌12 淪於生死 
bdag gi ’di daṅ ’di bdag ces | | gaṅ źig sdug bsṅal mṅon sñam ste | | gaṅ źig ’khor bar lhuṅ śes bya | | 
making the material world the ground of "soul," this is called "depending on the senses."
950. ’By these eight sorts of speculation are we involved in birth and death. 
32. ‘The misery which a man imagines by the ideas "This is mine," "I am connected with this," is to be recognised as "gravitation,"--by this a man is borne downwards into new births. 
ity avidyāṃ9 hi vidvān sa10 pañcaparvāṃ11 samīhate |
tamo mohaṃ mahāmohaṃ tāmisradvayam eva ca || 12.33 || 
(19)諸世間愚夫 攝受於五節
(20)闇癡與大癡 瞋恚與恐怖 
de ltar mkhas skye ma rig pa | | gnas skabs lṅa ni rab thob ste | |
mun pa rmoṅs pa (2)rmoṅs pa che | | mun las gyur pa gñis ñid do | | 
The foolish masters of the world make their classifications in these five ways, (viz.)
951. ’Darkness, folly, and great folly, angry passion, with timid fear. 
33. ‘Thus Ignorance, O ye wise, being fivefold in its character, energises towards torpor, delusion, the great delusion, and the two kinds of darkness. 
tatrālasyaṃ tamo viddhi mohaṃ mṛtyuṃ ca janma ca |
mahāmohas tv asaṃmoha kāma ity eva gamyatām12 || 12.34 || 
(21)13 嬾惰名爲闇 生死名爲癡
(22)愛欲名大癡 大人生惑故
(23)懷恨名瞋恚 心懼名恐怖 
de la mun pa le lor daṅ | | rmoṅs pa skye ’chir rtogs par mdzod | |
rmoṅs pa chen po ’dod pa źes | | kun nas rmoṅs med mkhyen par mdzod | | 
Indolent coldness is called "darkness;" birth and death are called "folly;"
952. ’Lustful desire is "great folly;" because of great men subjected to error, cherishing angry feelings, "passion" results; trepidation of the heart is called "fear." 
34. ‘Know, that among these indolence is "torpor," death and birth are "delusion," and be it clearly understood, O undeluded one, that desire is the "great delusion." 
yasmād atra ca bhūtāni pramuhyanti mahānty api |
tasmād eṣa mahābāho mahāmoha iti smṛtaḥ || 12.35 || 
(24)此愚癡凡夫 計著於五欲
(25)生死大苦本 輪轉五道生 
gaṅ phyir ’di na ’byuṅ rnams kyis | | chen por yaṅ ni rab rmoṅs byed | |
de phyir phyag chen (3)’di dag ni | | rmoṅs pa chen po źes dran no | | 
953. ’Thus these foolish men dilate upon the five desires; but the root of the great sorrow of birth and death, the life destined to be spent in the five ways, 
35. ‘Since by it even the higher beings are deluded, therefore, O hero, is this called the "great delusion." 
tāmisram iti cākrodha krodham evādhikurvate |
viṣādaṃ cāndhatāmisram aviṣāda pracakṣate || 12.36 || 
(26)轉生我見聞 我知我所作
(27)縁斯計我故 隨順生死流 
mun las gyur pa khro ñid du | | lhag par byed pa’o khro med kyis | |
mi śes mun las gyur pa ni | | skyo bar rab bśad skyo med kye | | 
954. ’The cause of the whirl of life, I clearly perceive, is to be placed in the existence of "I;" because of the influence of this cause, result the consequences of repeated birth and death; 
36. ‘They define anger, O thou angerless one, as "darkness;" and despondency, O undesponding, they pronounce to be the "blind darkness." 
anayāvidyayā bālaḥ saṃyuktaḥ pañcaparvayā |
saṃsāre duḥkhabhūyiṣṭhe janmasv abhiniṣicyate || 12.37 || 
(28)此因非性者 果亦非有性
(29)謂彼正思惟 四法向解脱
(23b1)14 黠慧與愚闇 顯現不顯現 
ma rig pa ’dis byis pa ’di | | gnas skabs lṅa daṅ ldan pa ste | | ’khor bar sdug bsṅal gyur pa yi | skye ba (4)rnams su ’bab par byed | | 
955. ’This cause is without any nature of its own, and its fruits have no nature; rightly considering what has been said, there are four matters which have to do with escape,
956. ’Kindling wisdom--opposed to dark ignorance,--making manifest--opposed to concealment and obscurity,-- 
37. ‘The child, entangled in this fivefold ignorance, is effused in his different births in a world abounding with misery. 
draṣṭā śrotā ca mantā ca kāryakaraṇam13 eva ca |
aham ity evam āgamya saṃsāre parivartate || 12.38 || 
lta bo ñan po śes pa po | | bya ba daṅ ni rgyu ñid dag | |
da źes de ltar ’oṅs nas ni | | ’khor bar yoṅs su ’khor bar byed | | 
38. ‘He wanders about in the world of embodied existence, thinking that I am the seer, and the hearer, and the thinker,--the effect and the cause. 
ihaibhir14 hetubhir dhīman janma15 srotaḥ pravartate |
hetvabhāvāt16 phalābhāva iti vijñātum arhasi || 12.39 || 
blo ldan rgyu ’di rnams kyis ’di | | skye ba’i rgyun la rab tu ’jug | |
rgyu med pa las ’bras bu med | | de ltar rnam par śes par (5)’os | | 
39. ‘Through these causes, O wise prince, the stream of "torpor" is set in motion; be pleased to consider that in the absence of the cause there is the absence of the effect. 
tatra samyaṅ17 matir vidyān mokṣakāma catuṣṭayam |
pratibuddhāprabuddhau ca vyaktam avyaktam eva ca || 12.40 || 
de la rgyun rab rab rgyas mig | | gsal ba daṅ ni mi gsal ñid | |
thar pa ’dod pa bźin rnams te | | yaṅ dag ’gro ba rigs par mdzod | | 
40. ‘Let the wise man who has right views know these four things, O thou who desirest liberation,--the illuminated and the unilluminated, the manifested and the unmanifested. 
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