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Thesaurus Literaturae Buddhicae
ā ī ū
ś ź
š č ǰ γ    
Note on the transliteration:
The transliteration system of the BP/TLB is based on the Unicode/UTF-8 system. However, there may be difficulties with some of the letters – particularly on PC/Windows-based systems, but not so much on the Mac. We have chosen the most accepted older and traditional systems of transliteration against, e.g, Wylie for Tibetan, since with Unicode it is possible, in Sanskrit and Tibetan, etc., to represent one sound with one letter in almost all the cases (excepting Sanskrit and Tibetan aspirated letters, and Tibetan tsa, tsha, dza). We thus do not use the Wylie system which widely employs two letters for one sound (ng, ny, sh, zh etc.).
We ask you in particular to note the use of the ’ apostrophe and not the ' representing the avagrāha in Sanskrit, and most important the ’a-chuṅ in Tibetan. On the Mac the ’ is Alt-M.
If you cannot find the letters on your key-board, you may click on the link "Diacritica" to access it for your search.
Choose specific texts..
The THESAURUS LITERATURAE BUDDHICAE (TLB) is a multilingual presentation of Buddhist literature sentence by sentence in Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan, English, etc.


The Thesaurus Literaturae Buddhicae is dedicated to the great scholar


Étienne Lamotte


on whom a whole generation of Buddhist scholars depends for his immense work on Buddhism.





Étienne Paul Marie Lamotte (1903-1983) was a Professor of Greek at the Catholic University of Louvain, but spent most of his time making the rich literature of Mahāyāna Buddhism available to the Western scholarly world, employing sources in Sanskrit, Chinese and Tibetan. The picture of Lamotte as reproduced here was taken by Professor Pierre Jodogne the 29th of August 1979 outside the family country house of Professor Lamotte in Ave-et-Auffe (Namur, Belgium). Upon being asked whether he believed in the Buddhist teachings he studied, Lamotte answered: “What Lamotte means is not important.” Indeed his legacy has enormous importance. Professor Jodogne kindly gave me this picture in 2009.

The texts of the TLB can be accessed:
  1. sentence by sentence for continuous reading;
  2. by searching the text records, being sentences, for words and phrases in any of the languages Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan, English, etc.;
  3. as continuous texts in Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan, English, etc., either one by one or more in synoptic format, with the default format of two parallel texts;
  4. as images of original manuscript materials connected to the TLB texts.
The TLB is a cumulative work with its origin connected to the Norwegian Institute of Philology. The materials so far comprise:
-Sūtra (Individual texts):

-Sūtra Collections

Buddhāvataṃsaka (BA):

Prajñāpāramitā (PP):

Ratnakūṭa/Mahāratnakūṭa (RK):

-Vinaya (Discipline)

Mūlasarvāstivādavinaya (MSV):

-Abhidharma (Commentaries):
-Stotra (Praises):
-Manuscript materials:
-Dictionaries and Grammars:
Students and scholars are cordially invited to input their favourite Buddhist texts and to contribute any material to the project. At the University of Oslo, Department of Culture Studies and Oriental languages, seminars are conducted for students and scholars to study the necessary multilingual philology of Buddhism. Those who might wish to participate in the seminars or the TLB project, and those who would like to have more information on the TLB, may contact or Any comments and corrections are also very much welcomed.
Relevant lexical resources: DDBC glossaries projectDigital Dictionary of Buddhism; Linguamongolia DictionaryMonier Williams Sanskrit Dictionary; Thesaurus Linguae SericaeTHL Tibetan Dictionary.
Textual resources: ACIP; Buddhist Digital Resource Center; CBETAGRETIL; Indoskript; Resources for Kanjur & Tanjur Studies; SAT Daizōkyō Text DatabaseThe Korean Buddhist Canon: A Descriptive Catalogue; THL Kangyur.
The copyrights for all the texts in the Bibliotheca Polyglotta belong to Jens Braarvig and the Norwegian Institute of Philology. Any fair use of the texts is allowed under general Open Access conditions. 

The Bibliotheca Polyglotta application is Copyright 2007-2022 University of Oslo, Norwegian Institute of Palaeography and Historical Philology, Jens Braarvig, Asgeir Nesøen, and released under the GNU General Public License version 3.

General statement on sources, relevant for all BP Libraries:


In the Bibliotheca Polyglotta there are cases where source references for the materials employed are insufficient. This is due to the fact that the work on the BP is cumulative and often incomplete. In most cases there are proper references, but where this is not the case, all the textual materials should be in accordance with the general rules and conventions of copyright. If it is found that it is not, we ask to be notified so that it can be corrected. The textual materials are 1) Accessed through open access internet pages, 2) generated for the BP with OCR from books out of copyright space or with the agreement with publishers and authors, 3) manually written and transliterated for the BP from original manuscripts or block prints, or printed editions not anymore copyrighted.

Authors, translators, editors and other contributors
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