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Etymological Dictionary of Arabic

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Click to Expand/Collapse OptionEtymArab
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ʔBD أبد
ID 001 • Sw – • BP – • APD ... • Aut SG
ʔBD
"root"
▪ ʔBD_1 ‘to stay, abide; to last, persist; endless, eternal; (?) liveforever, sempervivum ’ →ʔabada_1
▪ ʔBD_2 ‘to be wild, untamed, shy, run away (animal, game); to be unusual, prodigious’ →ʔabada_2

BadawiAbdelHaleem2008: ‘[1]long time, eternity; [2] to go wild; to desert, be deserted; wild animals’
▪ Arab lexicographers relate ʔBD_1 and ʔBD_2 to each other via the participle ʔābid(aẗ) saying that ‘wild animals live long, unless killed by accident’– Lane i 1863.
...
▪ DRS 1 (1994)#ʔBD/T-1 Akk abātu ‘jeter à terre, détruire, anéantir’ (réfl. à n- ‘être perdu, périr’); Ug ʔbd , oCan *abada , Phoen (impfv) yʔbd , Mo ʔbd , Hbr ʔābad , EpigAram ʔbd , JP ʔᵃbad , Mand abad ‘être perdu, périr, errer’; Ar ʔabida ‘s’irriter contre qn’; ʔabada ‘s’enfuir (animal), devenir sauvage (bétail)’; ʔabidaẗ ‘malheur; chose extraordinaire, étrange’; Gz ʔabda ‘fuir, errer; agir sottement, être fou’; Amh abbädä ‘être fou, furieux’; Te ʔabbädä ‘tromper’; ʔabəd , Tña ʔəbud , Amh Arg əbd ‘fou’. -2 ?Ug ʔubdy ‘(bail) de longue durée’; Hbr ʔobēd ‘toujours’; Ar ʔabada ‘s’arrêter, faire halte dans un lieu, durer’; ʔabadan ‘toujours, jamais’; ʔabad , ʔabaǧ ‘éternité’. -3 Ar taʔabbada ‘être marqué de taches de rousseur (visage)’. -4 ʔabid ‘joubarbe’. -5 ʔubayd ‘sorte de millet’.
▪ ...
▪ The two values may belong together, cf. DRS I (1994), s.v. ʔBD, where it is asked whether √ʔBD_1 should be made dependent on ʔBD_2 ; the hypothesis of a general value of ‘transgression of limits/boundaries’ for ʔBD_2 would permit that.
▪ Arab lexicographers ‎relate √ʔBD_1 and √ʔBD_2 to each other via the participle ʔābid(aẗ) saying that »wild animals ‎live long, unless killed by accident« (Lane i 1863).
▪ The value ‘liveforever, sempervivum ’ (ʔabid ) is listed as a distinct value by DRS I (1994), (#ʔBD-4 ‘joubarbe’). However, given the fact that sempervivum does not seem to occur endemically in Ar-speaking regions it may just be a calque from a language that termed it ‘liveforever’, perhaps from Lat?
▪ Accord. to DRS, the root belongs to a group of roots that can be assumed to be derived from a nuclear *BD because all show the basic meaning of ‘to prowl, wander around, to disappear’, cf. also BDBD, →BDW/Y, →BWD, →BYD.
▪ Gabal2012 makes a similar assumption, but thinks that the meaning of the biconsonantal nucleus *BD is ‘extended separation or longtime distancing as the result of the emergence of a gap’. Accord. to him, preceding *ʔ‑ underlines the persistence of the separation expressed in *BD, modifying it to give ‘to last long’. – Cf. also →badaʔa , →badara , →badaʕa , →badala , →badan , →bāda .[(Ehret1989 too assumes a bi-consonantal nuclear *BD from which a number of 3-radical roots are derived by extension. For him, *BD has the basic meaning ‘to appear’. However, he does not include ʔBD in the list of roots that he thinks are derived from *BD.)]
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