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Click to Expand/Collapse OptionEtymArab
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*BD‑
ID ... • Sw – • BP – • APD ... • Aut SG
BD‑
2-cons. "root nucleus"
See section CONCISE below.
2-consonantal nucleus with the basic meaning(s) of ‘to cut’ (to separate, split, pierce, disperse, etc.) (DRS, s.v. BD-1), or ‘extended separation or longtime distancing as the result of the emergence of a gap’ (Gabal2012), and ‘to prowl, wander around, to disappear’ (DRS, s.v. BD-3), or ‘to appear’ (Ehret1989).
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▪ DRS 2 (1994)#BD: »1 Une des séquences radicales formées d’un phonème labial et d’un phonème dental (parfois aussi ś ou š ) qui entrent dans la constitution de nombreuses racines ayant pour valeur fondamentale la notion de ‘couper’, associée le plus souvent aux notions connexes de ‘séparer, fendre, percer, disperser, etc.’. Souvent aussi ces notion s’accompagnent, pour les mêmes racines et éventuellement pour les mêmes langues, de celles de ‘jaillir, suinter (à travers une brèche), poindre, germer’, parfois de celles de ‘creuser, fouiller, rechercher, examiner’. – Dans un certain nombre de cas, les racines ont leurs deux dernières radicales semblables. Mais il est plus fréquent (aussi bien pour les triconsonnes que pour les quadriconsonnes) que les radicales complémentaires soient des liquides (l ou r , plus rarement n ), des semi-voyelles, parfois d’autres consonnes (palatales, vélaires, pharyngales, laryngales). Il peut s’agir soit de biconsonnes étoffées, soit de variantes par échange de consonnes de localisation voisine, soit souvent de croisement avec d’autres racines de sens voisin. (Il est à noter que d’autres séquences – palatale + dentale par exemple, v.s. GD, ou labiale + palatale ou vélaire, voir en particulier sous PQ – entrent aussi dans la constitution de racines ayant les valeurs de ‘couper’ et de ‘fendre’.) – Voir p.e. pour les racines avec BD : →BDː (BDD), →BDL, →BDĠ, →BDQ. – Mais voir aussi les renvois sous →BḎ, →BZ, →BṬ, →BṢ/Ḍ, BŚ, BŠ, →BT, →BṮ. – Pour d’autres labiales initiales, voir aux lettres M et P. — 2 Quelques-unes des racines comportant une labiale + dentale ont soit comme valeur unique, soit comme valeur associée aux précédentes, les sens de ‘mépriser, dédaigner’, parfois ‘être hautain, arrogant’. — 3 Pour une valeur ‘errer, disparaître etc.’, voir →ʔBD/T, BDBD, →BDW/Y, →BWD, →BYD.«
▪ Another series of extensions/derivations from a biconsonantal basis *BD is postulated by Ehret1989: From a reconstructed root *BD ‘to appear, emerge’, the author derives: (+ concisive *‑ʔ =) badʔ (→badaʔa ) ‘to begin, do a thing first’, (+ diffusive *‑r =) badr (→badara ) ‘to come quickly or unexpectedly on, surprise, break forth suddenly’, (+ sunderative *‑ʕ =) badʕ (→badaʕa ) ‘to produce, originate, begin’ (presumed earlier sense: ‘to bring forth from’), (+ amplificative *‑h =) badh (→badaha ) ‘to come unexpectedly, surprise’, (+ inchoative/denominative *‑w =) badw (→badā ) ‘to appear’, (+ inchoative/denominative *‑y =) bady (merged with →badaʔa ) ‘to begin’.
▪ Gabal2012, like DRS for BD#1, assumes a basic value of ‘separation’ for the biconsonantal nucleus *BD, more specifically an ‘extended separation or longtime distancing as the result of the emergence of a gap’ (tafrīq mumtadd ʔaw ʔibʕād dāʔim yulzimuhu ḥudūṯ farāġ ). Among the derivations/extension, however, Gabal also includes many values that Ehret1989 derives from what he assumes to be the basic meaning, namely ‘to appear’: →badaʔa ‘to start, begin’ (the final *‑ʔ adding the notion of s.th. that is slipping into the gap designated by the nuclear *BD, and thus appearing in it for the first time ), →ʔabada ‘to last long’ (the initial *ʔ‑ underlining the persistence of the separation expressed in BD), →bāda (< *bayada ) ‘to perish’ (*‑y‑ inserted between the two nuclear radicals to express a prolonged continuity of the gaping), →badara ‘to break forth suddenly’ (*‑r denoting the tendency of the unexpected ‘intruder’ into the void space to unfold and expand itself until fullness, as with the full moon, →badr ), →badaʕa ‘to originate, do for the first time’ (*‑ʕ indicating newness of the intruder into the void space), →badala ‘to replace, exchange’ (*‑l , in itself expressing ‘independence’, when added to BD signifying together the disappearance of s.th. and its reappearance in another place), →badana ‘to be fat, corpulent’ (*‑n expressing a ‘soft extension, or continuity’ inside ; added to *BD, it produces the notion of amassing and corpulence).
Opinion differs as to which 3-consonantal roots are derived from the 2-consonantal nucleus:

→ʔBD (DRS #BD-3, Gabal2012)
→BDː (BDD) (DRS #BD-1)
→BDʔ (Ehret1989, Gabal2012)
BDBD (DRS #BD-3)
→BDR (Ehret1989, Gabal2012)
→BDʕ (Ehret1989, Gabal2012)
→BDĠ (DRS #BD-1)
→BDQ (DRS #BD-1)
→BDL (DRS #BD-1, Gabal2012)
→BDN (Gabal2012)
→BDH (Ehret1989)
→BDW/Y (Ehret1989, DRS #BD-3)
→BWD (DRS #BD-3)
→BYD (DRS #BD-3, Gabal2012)
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