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Click to Expand/Collapse OptionEtymArab
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BDː (BDD) بدّ / بدد
ID ... • Sw – • BP – • APD ... • Aut SG
▪ BDː (BDD)_1 ‘to distribute, spread, disperse’ →badda
▪ BDː (BDD)_2 ‘way out, escape’ →budd_1
▪ BDː (BDD)_3 ‘idol, temple consecrated to an idol’ →budd_2
▪ BDː (BDD)_4 ‘wish, intention, desire’ (LevAr badd , bidd < *bi‑wadd , *bi‑widd ) →wadda

Other values, now obsolete:
▪ BDː (BDD)_5 ‘beam, bar, baulk’: ClassAr badd .
▪ BDː (BDD)_6 ‘(olive) oil press’: ClassAr badd ; ‘arm of an (olive) press’: ClassAr budd . ▪ BDː (BDD)_7 ‘equal, similar’: ClassAr bidd .
▪ BDː (BDD)_8 ‘power, strength; want’: ClassAr badad .
▪ While the two values [v1] ‘to distribute, spread, disperse’ and [v2] ‘way out, escape’ may be etymologically connected, [v3] ‘idol, temple consecrated to an idol’ is with all probability borrowed from Pers, and [v4] is a dialectal contraction of the preposition →bi‑ and the word for ‘wish, intention, desire’, wadd or widd . The origin of the obsolete [v5] is not clear; it may be related to [v1], a beam, bar, baulk being a kind of separator that creates a distance between two sides or parts. [v6] is clearly a loan from Aram; but the Aram word seems to be akin to [v5]. [v7] is a specialisation of [v1] in the sense of ‘to distribute in equal portions ’, hence the notion of ‘equality, similarity’ of o.’s share or contribution. Etymology of [v8] unclear.
▪ BDː (BDD)_1 is thought by many to best represent the 2-consonantal nucleus →*BD from which a number of 3-consonantal roots derive by extension (see DISC below). The value of this nucleus is given as ‘to cut’ or ‘to separate’ by DRS and Gabal2012, and as ‘to appear, emerge’ by Ehret1989.
▪ For BDː (BDD)_1 an AfrAs background has been suggested: OrelStolbova1994 reconstruct AfrAs *bad‑ ʻto separateʼ.
▪ The reconstruction of AfrAs *bud‑ or *bud(VH)‑ ((OrelStolbova and Militarev, respectively) ‘stick’ for BDː (BDD)_5 is rather speculative.
▪ [BDː (BDD)_1] DRS 2 (1994)#BDD–1. Akk buddudu ‘dissiper, gaspiller’, Hbr bōdēd ‘séparé’, lᵉ-bādād ‘seul’, nHbr bādad ‘disperser, être seul’, EmpAram bdd (?) ‘disperser, anéantir’, Syr bad ‘mélanger, troubler; se répandre, déborder (fleuve)’, Ar badida ‘se tenir les jambes écartées’, badda ‘séparer, écarter, vaincre, repousser’, baddada ‘répandre, disperser’, ʔabadda ‘distribuer par portion’, tabaddada ‘gaspiller sa santé, dépérir’, Tham *bdd ‘repousser’, Hbr bad , Ar budd , buddaẗ ‘partie, portion’, Tham mbd ‘quote-part’, SAr bd ‘contrevaleur’, bd , bdd ‘espace de temps’; ? Te bad ‘pauvreté’, Aram bādīd ‘bêche; tranchée, sillon’, Te bädäd belä ‘déborder, être répandu’, Tña bəddəd bälä ‘se lever rapidement’.
▪ [BDː (BDD)_1] OrelStolbova1994 (#171): Ug bd ‘to take awayʼ,1 Hbr bdd ‘to separate’, EmpAram bdd ‘to disperse’, Ḥrs abdōd , Mhr abdēd , Śḥr ɛbded . – Outside Sem, (HEC) Sid bad‑ ‘to separate’, as well as bad‑ and badda ‘to split, cut (wood)’ in 2 Omot langs. Cf. also Militarev2006 (#492): abde ‘to split, divide, separate’ in a WCh idiom.
▪ [BDː (BDD)_3]: For what OrelStolbova1994 and Militarev2006 assume to be cognates in- and outside Sem, cf. →budd_2 .
▪ [BDː (BDD)_5] DRS 2 (1994)#BDD –2. Hbr bad ‘rameau, branche’, JP baddā ‘tige, perche’, Ar badd ‘poutre’.
▪ [BDː (BDD)_6] DRS 2 (1994)#BDD –3. Aram bad , Ar badd ‘pressoir à olive’, budd ‘axe de pressoir’.
▪ For the wider context cf. DISC.
1. Tropper2008: Ug bddy ‘alone (?)’.
▪ [BDː (BDD)_1] DRS 2 (1994)#BDD: 1. Les sens réunis ici semblent bien liés sémantiquement: séparation, dispersion, partage, épuisement, etc. [...]. Il est possible que 2 et 3 n’en sont aussi que des dérivations [...]. Le sens premier paraît être celui de ‘trancher, séparer’ commun à plusieures racines formées d’une labiale et d’une dentale, voir →BD. [..., cf. also →BDĠ, →BDQ, →BDL] — 3. Ar < Aram. — Like DRS 2 (1994), also Gabal2012 assumes ‘separation’ as the basic value underlying extensions of a biconsonantal nucleus →BD, more specifically an ‘extended separation or longtime distancing’ as a result of the emergence of a gap’ (tafrīq mumtadd ʔaw ʔibʕād dāʔim yulzimuhu ḥudūṯ farāġ ). The basic value of *BD is best represented in the unextended root BDː (BDD). — Ehret1989, who postulates a similar dependence of triradical roots on biradical nuclei, assumes ‘to appear, emerge’ as the primary value, without however connecting the geminated root BDː (BDD) to the *BD- nucleus (the only derivatives/extensions he mentions are →badaʔa ,→badara , →badaʕa , →badaha , and →badā ).
▪ [BDː (BDD)_1] OrelStolbova1994 (#171) reconstruct Sem *bud‑ ‘to take away; to separate; to disperse’, HEC *bad‑ ‘separate’, Omot *bad‑ ‘split, cut (wood)’, to which Militarev2006 (#492) adds WCh *bad‑ ‘to split, divide, separate’, all from AfrAs *bad‑ ʻto separateʼ (with secondary *‑u‑ in Sem).
▪ [BDː (BDD)_2] budd ‘way out, escape’: not mentioned in DRS. Related to BDː (BDD)_1 ‘to distribute, spread, disperse’? Rolland2014 assumes a Sem origin but does not give details.
▪ [BDː (BDD)_3] budd ‘idol, temple consecrated to an idol’: accord. to Rolland2014 a loanword from Pers but ‘idol’ (cf. also Buddha ?). In contrast, OrelStolbova1994 and Militarev2006 assume a Sem (< AfrAs) origin. For details, cf. →budd_2 .
▪ [BDː (BDD)_4] LevAr badd , bidd ‘wish, intention, desire’: contracted from *bi-wadd , *bi-widd : see →wadda .
▪ [BDː (BDD)_5] The sense of ‘pole, beam, bar, baulk’ (DRS #BDD-2) for badd does not appear in ClassAr dictionaries and is not attested in MSA (for sources, cf. DRS). The etymological origin is not clear either; it may be related to [v1], a pole, beam, bar, baulk being a kind of separator that creates a distance between two sides, or parts. – Given the Hbr and Aram cognates, OrelStolbova1994 reconstruct Sem *bad(d)‑ ‘pole, stick, beam’. On the evidence of what the authors think to be Berb and ECh cognates, they also assume Berb *budid‑ ‘pole of a hut’ (with secondary *u after labial and partial reduplication, hypostacized from Irjen a-budid ) and ECh *bVdVH‑ ‘stick’ to be cognate. The common ancestor of the Sem, Berb and ECh forms is thought to be AfrAs *bud‑ ‘stick’. In StarLing, the ECh items are no longer mentioned; instead, there is given Mofu-Gudur bébeḍ < CCh *bV-bVḍ‑ (< *bVdVH‑ ) ‘digging stick’, and the origin of all is modified into AfrAs *bud(VH)‑ ‘stick’.
▪ [BDː (BDD)_6] badd as ‘pressoir, grande machine servant à presser des olives ou du raisin, moulin à huile’ is given by Dozy1881 and said to be from Aram, cf. Syr baḏā , bā̆ḏā ‘beam of an oil- or wine-press’ (PayneSmith1903). The Aram word itself seems in turn to be akin to [v5].
▪ [BDː (BDD)_7] ‘equal, similar’ (ClassAr bidd ; cf. also bādda , vb. III, ‘to contribute equally for the purchasing of corn, or food, to eat; to have people’s money, or property, divided into lots, or portions, and distributed in shaires among them; to divide property among a people in shares’): not mentioned in DRS; derived, as a specialization in meaning, from the notion of ‘to distribute portionwise’ in vb. I, badda .
▪ [BDː (BDD)_8] ‘power, strength; want’: no etymological suggestions available so far. Probably related to [v1].
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