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BRǦ برج
ID ... • Sw – • BP – • APD ... • Aut SG
▪ BRǦ_1 ‘to show, play up o.’s charms (woman), adorn herself, make herself pretty (woman)’ →tabarraǧa
▪ BRǦ_2 ‘warship, battleship’ →bāriǧaẗ
▪ BRǦ_3 ‘tower; signs of the Zodiac’ →burǧ

Other meanings, now obsolete, include:
  • BRǦ_4 [= DRS #BRǦ-1] ‘to have abundant provisions, have good fare’: bariǧa a (baraǧ )
  • BRǦ_5 [= DRS #BRǦ-2] ‘beauty of the eyes’: baraǧ . – Cf. also ʔabraǧᵘ (f. barǧāʔᵘ , pl. burǧ ) ‘having beautiful eyes’.
  • BRǦ_6 ‘experienced, able sailor’: bāriǧ(aẗ)
  • BRǦ_7 ‘rebellious, recalcitrant person’: bāriǧaẗ
  • BRǦ_8 [= DRS #BRǦ-5] ‘butterskin’1 : ʔibrīǧ
BadawiAbdelHaleem2008: ‘height, prominence; beauty of the eyes; tower; signs of the zodiac; fortification; (of women) to display their charm’
1. Lane: ‘the vessel, or receptacle, [generally a skin,] in which milk is churned, or beaten and agitated, or in which the butter of the milk is extracted, or fetched out, by putting water in it, and agitating it’
While both bāriǧaẗ ‘battleship’ (BRǦ_2) and burǧ ‘tower’ (BRǦ_3) traditionally have been regarded, by non-Arab etymologists, as foreign words, ClassAr lexicography as well as, recently, also Rolland derive them from the same Ar root BRǦ as also all the other values. The original meaning of the root is given as ‘to be(come) apparent, manifest, conspicuous, high, elevated’ by Lane (bariǧa , a , baraǧ ), ‘glänzen’ (to shine, be brilliant, glare, gleam) by Fraenkel1886:235,1 and ‘to deal a blow’ by Rolland2015_BRǦ.
1. Cf. also Gabal2012 who gives the basic meaning of BRǦ as burūzu nāṣiʕin qawiyyin min bayni mā yaktanifu-hū fī ẓāhir al-šayʔ ‘appearance/emergence of an intensely brilliant thing, coming from inside a thing, on its surface’.
In adition to the items mentioned above, dictionaries of ClassAr still list the following:
▪ BRǦ_3 : 1 denom. barraǧa , IV ʔabraǧa ‘to build a tower’; 2 denom. baraǧa u ‘to appear; to ascend (stars)’, II barraǧa ‘to augur by the course of the stars’
▪ BRǦ_2, 6, 7: For bāriǧ , ClassAr dictionaries give not only ‘experienced, able sailor’ but (hence?) also ‘liberal (ḫuluq disposition)’; and bāriǧaẗ is not only ‘warship, battleship’ and ‘rebellious, recalcitrant person’, but also ‘cuirasse’ and ‘man-of-war’.
▪ DRS 2 #BRG-1 Ar bariǧa ‘avoir des provisions abondantes’; ?dial. mér. baraǧ ‘payer ses dettes’; SAr brg ‘acheter, donner le prix’. -2 Ar baraǧ ‘beauté (des yeux)’. -3 Te bärräg belä ‘être épouvanté’; Amh bäräggägä ‘tressaillir’; Te bärgä ‘se mettre en route’. -4 Syr burgā ‘tour’; Ar burǧ ‘fortin’. -5 Ar ʔibrīǧ ‘outre à beurre’.
▪ ClassAr dictionaries tend to take bariǧa (a , baraǧ ) ‘to be(come) apparent, manifest, conspicuous, high, elevated’ (Lane) as the etymon from which all other meanings are derived. For Gabal2012, the one basic meaning is ‘appearance/emergence of intensely brilliant, coming from inside a thing, on its surface’.
▪ In a similar vein, Rolland2015_BRǦ too thinks that almost all values to be found in this root, even burǧ ‘tower’, go back to one original meaning, which he thinks is *‘to deal a blow’ (porter un coup). From this, the author says, six new values developed (and produced further derivations): 1 ‘to cut’ (couper): barīǧ ‘quartier de fruit’, mubarraǧ ‘festonné’, baraǧ ‘séparation des sourcils’; 2 ‘to chop, split, dissect’ (fendre): burǧ ‘angle’, bāriǧ ‘marin habile’, bāriǧaẗ ‘vaisseau de guerre’; 3 ‘to pierce’ (percer): bariǧa ‘devenir apparent, manifeste, visible, être haut, élevé’, mubarraǧ ‘voyant’; 4 ‘to be brilliant, beautiful’ (être éclatant, beau, briller): tabarraǧa ‘se faire voir dans l’éclat de sa toilette et de sa parure, se parer’, baraǧ ‘éclat de l’œil qui consiste en ce que le noir de la prunelle est encadré dans le blanc bien prononcé; beau de visage; éclatant; beauté des yeux’, ʔabraǧ ‘qui a de beaux yeux’, burūǧ ‘constellations remarquables; signes du Zodiaque’; 5 ‘to leave a mark’ (laisser une marque): mubarraǧ ‘tacheté’; 6 ‘to beat [cream, butter]’ (briser): ʔibrīǧ ‘outre à beurre’. – Quant à une relation entre l’ensemble de vocables ci-dessus et ceux dont nous avons vu dès le début de cette étude qu’ils relevaient du parallelisme sémantique ‘manger’ > ‘être fort’: bariǧa ‘faire bonne chère, manger et boire beaucoup’, ou ‘avoir des provisions de bouche en abondance’, burǧ ‘force’, ʔabraǧ ‘plus fort’, burǧ ‘bastion; citadelle; fort, fortin; tour’, bāriǧaẗ ‘forte tête’.
▪ BRǦ_3 (DRS #BRG-4): Traditionally thought to be from Grk pýrgos , Lat burgus ; but this is contested by the ClassAr lexicographers and also Rolland2015_BRǦ (while Rolland2014a still traces it back, via Aram burgā , to Grk pýrgos ).
▪ BRǦ_2,6,7: For bāriǧaẗ in the sense of ‘vessel, battleship, flagship’, a Copt, an Ind and a Pers source have been suggested. Some believe also that it is the result of a fusion between the latter and burǧ < Aram burgā < Grk pýrgos . For these, the relation, if any, between bāriǧaẗ and bāriǧ ‘experienced sailor’ remains equally obscure. – In contrast, both ClassAr tradition and Rolland2015_BRǦ regard the item as derived from Ar BRǦ.
▪ BRǦ_2 : According to a number of earlier studies, bāriǧaẗ ‘warship, battleship’ may be akin to Engl barge , bark , barque .
▪ BRǦ_3 : Traditionally, burǧ is regarded to be from Lat burgus or Grk pýrgos , which are of IndEur origin (IndEur *bʰergʰ- ‘high’, > *bʰergʰ-os ‘mountain’) and therefore related to many words in Eur langs, e.g. nHGe Berg ‘mountain’, Burg ‘fortress, stronghold, castle’.
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