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Click to Expand/Collapse OptionEtymArab
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BRQ برق
ID ... • Sw – • BP – • APD ... • Aut SG
BRQ
"root"
▪ BRQ_1 ‘lightning; to shine, glitter, flash; (ClassAr:) to threaten (with evil), frighten’ →barq
▪ BRQ_2 ‘telegram, wire, cable’ →barqiyyaẗ
▪ BRQ_3 ‘Alborak (name of the creature on which Mohammed made his ascension to the seven heavens)’: al- →burāq
▪ BRQ_4 ‘Cyrenaica (region of E Libya)’: al- →Barqaẗ

Other values, now obsolete or dialectal only, include:
  • BRQ_5 ‘to attire o.s. (woman)’ →baraqa u (burq )
  • BRQ_6 ‘to be astounded, dazzled; dread, fright’: bariqa a (baraq ); cf. also barūq ‘cowardly man’
  • BRQ_7 ‘to undertake a long journey’: barraqa
  • BRQ_8 ‘African lizard’: burq
  • BRQ_9 ‘ram, sheep, (Lane) lamb’: baraq (pl.pauc. ʔabrāq , pl.mult. birqān , burqān )
  • BRQ_10 (Lev.) ‘lumbago’: barqaẗ
  • BRQ_11 ‘hard ground, hard soil’: burqaẗ (pl. buraq ), ʔabraqᵘ (pl. ʔabāriqᵘ )
  • BRQ_12 ‘asphodill (a plant)’: barūq (Hava1899), barwaq , barwiq (Lane, Kaz.)
  • BRQ_13 ‘wart, verruca’: barrūqaẗ , burrūqaẗ (pl. barārīqᵘ )
  • BRQ_14 ‘blotty, spotted, stained (goat, eye), piebald (white and black)’: ʔabraqᵘ (f. barqāʔᵘ , pl. ʔabāriqᵘ )
Not from √BRQ but often listed under this root because the items/roots look as if they could have s.th. to do with √BRQ:
  • BRQ_15 ‘pitcher; jug’ →ʔibrīq (*√ʔBRQ)
  • BRQ_16 ‘brocade, silk garment embroidered with gold’ →ʔistabraq (*√ʔSTBRQ)
  • BRQ_17 ‘borax’ →bawraq (*√BWRQ)
  • BRQ_18 ‘banner, flag’ →bayraq (*√BYRQ)
  • BRQ_19 ‘apricot, (Eg) plum’ →barqūq (*√BRQQ)
  • BRQ_20 ‘wine-leaves stuffed’: yabraq (*√YBRQ)
BadawiAbdelHaleem2008 gives the following main values for ClassAr: ‘1 thunderbolt, lightning; to shine [cf. BRQ_1]; 2 to be dazzled [cf. BRQ_6]; 3 to become belligerent [cf. BRQ_1]’
▪ Most of the values that belong to the root BRQ proper (without additional ʔ , W , Y , or reduplication of Q ), i.e., BRQ_1-14, seem to derive, ultimately, from BRQ_1 ‘lightening; to shine, glitter, flash’ (which can be traced back to Sem *BRḲ ‘to flash [esp. of lightning]’ and/or the n. Sem *bar(a)ḳ‑ ‘lightning, thunderbolt’. In this group, only the obsol. baraq ‘ram, sheep, lamb’ (BRQ_9) and the MġrAr barrūqaẗ , burrūqaẗ ‘wart, verruca’ (BRQ_13) stand out as a loanwords, the former probably from Pers, the latter from Span. – barūq (BRQ_12) does not belong to BRQ proper since it is only a var. of barwaq , barwiq , or barwāq (name of a plant, perh. with Sem etymology). – There is also some uncertainty around al-Burāq (BRQ_3), the name of the mysterious animal with which the Prophet made his famous night-journey, but most lexicographers think al-Burāq is called so due to its swiftness, *‘fast as a lightning’. – For the other values BRQ_1-14, see below, section DISC.
▪ For items BRQ_15-20, cf. s.v.
...
▪ DRS 2 (1994)#BRQ-1 [corresp. BRQ_1] Akk berq- , birq- , Ug brq , Hbr bārāq , Aram barqā , EpigrAram brq(ʔ) , Aysor birqa , Ar barq , SAr brq , Śḫr brq , Mhr barq , Te bärq , Tña bärqi ‘éclair, foudre’; Gz mabraq ‘éclair’; Akk barāqu , Hbr *bāraq , JP ʔabrēq , Ar baraqa , Soq brq , Gz baraqa , Tña bärräqʷä ‘lancer des éclairs’; Amh bärräqä ‘tonner’; Akk barāqu , nHbr bāraq , Aram bᵉraq , bᵉrēq , nSyr bāriq , Ar baraqa , Amh bärräqä ‘briller, scintiller’. – [corresp. BRQ_5] Ar baraqa , barraqa ‘s’orner, se parer’; ETH. bēräqa ‘décorer’; ? nSyr birqu ‘vaine (femme)’. – Amh bäräqqʷa ‘commencer à blanchir, à mûrir (céréales)’. – Ar tabarraqa ‘regarder fixement (avec colère)’; Soq beroq (be ) ‘envier’; Har bēräqa ‘décorer’; Amh bärräqä ‘fondre sur’. -?2 nHbr barqīt , Aram barqīt , bᵉraqtītā , bᵉruqtītā , Mand buruqta ‘cataracte (de l’œil)’. -3 Akk barraqtu (CAD: a gem, nBab), Hbr bāréqet , JP *bariqtā , Syr barqā ‘émeraude’. -4 [corresp. BRQ_12] Hbr barqōn , JP barqānayyā : plante épineuse; Akk barraqītu (CAD: var. paraqītu ): plante; Ar barūq ‘asphodèles’.
▪ BRQ_1: It is the value ‘lightning’ (Ar barq , from Sem *bar(a)ḳ- ‘lightning’ – Kogan2011) on which most of the values BRQ_2 through BRQ_14 seem to be based (but not sup>†BRQ_9 ‘ram, sheep, lamb’, nor perhaps BRQ_12 , the name of a certain plant). In the present dictionary, we also assume the vb. baraqa ‘to shine, glitter, flash; to threaten (with evil), frighten’ to be denominative from ‘lightning, thunderbold’.
▪ BRQ_2: barqiyyaẗ ‘telegram, wire, cable’ is a neologism (C19) coined from barq ‘lightning’.
▪ BRQ_3: burāq , the name of the fantastic creature on which the prophet Mohammed made his ascension to the seven heavens, is usually explained as being given to the animal on account of its exceptional fleetness (‘like a lightning’). There are, however, also other theories; in any case, the idea of the burāq is probably of pre-Isl origin. – Is burāq the basis of barraqa ‘to undertake a long journey’ (BRQ_7) ?
▪ BRQ_4 al-Barqaẗ ‘Cyrenaica (region of E Libya)’: of obscure etymology. It may be from a Phoen or Lib name, or been so called after its burqaẗ ‘hard ground, hard soil’ (BRQ_11) ?, or its ‘spotted’ appearance, cf. ʔabraqᵘ , f. barqāʔᵘ ‘blotty, spotted, stained (goat, eye), piebald (black and white)’ (BRQ_14).
▪ BRQ_5: The value ‘to attire o.s.’ that the vb. I baraqa can take in ClassAr when women are the subject, seems to be fig. use of the basic value ‘to shine, glitter, flash’, attiring o.s. meaning ‘to exhibit o.’s beauty intentionally, beautify o.s.’ (Lane) and thus look brilliant ‘as a lightning’.
▪ BRQ_6: The meaning of the intr. vb. I bariqa ‘to be astounded, dazzled’ is explained in ClassAr dictionaries as ‘to fear, be astonished, amazed, stupefied at seing the gleam of lightning , etc.’ (Lane), thus denom. from barq ‘lightning’ (BRQ_1), cf. Q 75:7 fa-ʔiḏā bariqa ’l-baṣaru ‘when sight is dazzled’. Hence also barūq ‘cowardly man’. – Another meaning, now obsolete, of the same vb. is ‘to melt, become decomposed’ (fat, butter). This, too, can be explained as meaning, literally, ‘to (begin to) shine, flash’ (in the pan etc. when melting).
▪ BRQ_7 barraqa ‘to undertake a long journey’: denom. from burāq (BRQ_3)?
▪ BRQ_8 burq ‘African lizard’: Accord. to Lane, this is apparently a pl. of barūq , properly a ‘she-camel raising her tail, and feigning herself pregnant, not being so’, applied to the lizards in analogy, from the raising of the tail that is a habit of those animals (and letting the vulva flash as ‘bright as a lightening’). Another etymology explains it as the pl. of ʔabraqᵘ ‘having two colours; twisted with a black strand and a white strand, having blackness and whiteness together’ (on account of the colour of the lizards’ skin), see BRQ_14 below.
▪ BRQ_9: baraq ‘ram, sheep, (Lane) lamb’ was recognized as a foreign word already by al-Ǧawālīqī. The etymon seems to be Pers barah , barreh ‘lamb’.
▪ BRQ_10: barqaẗ ‘lumbago’ is attested already in Wahrmund1887 and marked as a LevAr expression both in Hava1899 and Landberg1920 (»Syrie ‘douleur au dos’«). It is probably fig. use of BRQ_1 ‘lightning’, qualifying lumbago as a pain that comes as suddenly and strongly as a lightning.
▪ BRQ_11: The value ‘hard ground, hard soil’ is attested for the n.f. burqaẗ (pl. buraq ) as well as for the elative-like n. ʔabraqᵘ (pl. ʔabāriqᵘ ) and its pl.f., barqāwāt (Wahrmund1887: ‘steiniger, sandiger Boden mit Lehm’). Landberg1920 and others interpret ʔabraqᵘ ‘hard ground, soil’ as the same ʔabraqᵘ that also means ‘spotted, piebald’ and seems to be a phonetic var. of →ʔablaq (see BRQ_14, below). If this is true, the ‘hard ground, hard soil’ would have its name on account of its surface that lets it look spotted or piebald. – The name al- Barqaẗ for the ‘Cyrenaica (region of E Libya)’ (BRQ_4) may belong here. – Lokotsch1927 holds that Ar burqaẗ (via Portug and other langs) is the etymon of Engl baroque , see section WESTLANG below.
▪ BRQ_12: The n. barūq (thus in Hava1899 and DRS), or barwaq , barwiq (Kazimirski, Lane), meaning ‘asphodill’ according to the first three sources, but ‘a certain kind of plant which camels do not feed upon except in cases of necessity; small, feeble tree, which, when the sky becomes clouded, grows green’ according to Lane (for whom only barwāq is ‘asphodel’, i.e. ‘a certain plant also called ḫunṯà ’ the eating of whose »fresh, juicy stalk, boiled with olive-oil and vinegar, counteracts jaundice; and the smearing with its root, or lower part, removes the two kinds of →bahaq ’«) seems to have relatives in Akk, Hbr and JP and thus perhaps be of Sem origin. – Related in any way to BRQ_1?
▪ BRQ_13: barrūqaẗ , burrūqaẗ ‘wart, verruca’ is mentioned by Dozy and said to stem from Span berruga ‘id.’. The latter is akin to Engl wart , oEngl weart , from protGerm *warton- (cognates: oNo varta , oFris warte , Du wrat , oHGe warza , Ge warze ‘wart’), from the IndEur root *wer- (1) ‘high, raised spot on the body, or other bodily infirmity’ (cf. Lat verruca ‘swelling, wart’, and also Engl vary , varied , varying , etc.) – EtymOnline.
▪ BRQ_14: The elat. adj. ʔabraqᵘ (f. barqāʔᵘ , pl. ʔabāriqᵘ ) ‘blotty, spotted, stained (goat, eye)’ is said by Wahrmund and others to be a var. of →ʔablaqᵘ (f. balqāʔᵘ , pl. bulq ) ‘brindle, dappled, piebald (white and black)’. Given that there is nothing that would prove this assumption, one should not exclude beforehand the possibility of a relation to BRQ_1 ‘lightning’ (contrast between brightness and darkness); note that the pl.s of ʔabraq and ʔablaq show differing patterns (ʔabāriq , not *burq , as would be the logical correspondence of pl. bulq ). – For the pl.f. barqāwāt ‘stony, sandy soil with clay’, cf. above, BRQ_11.
▪ BRQ_1: A Sem word for ‘lightning; to shine glitter, flash’ may be the etymon of Grk smáragdos ‘emerald’ and, hence, of many Eur words for ‘emerald’ (Span esmeralda , It smeraldo , Fr émeraude , Ge Smaragd , etc.) as well as (via Pers) Ar →zumurrud ‘emerald’ and →zabarǧad ‘green jewels, cut from chrysolite or peridot’.
▪ BRQ_11: Lokotsch1927 thinks that Ar burqaẗ ‘schlechter Boden aus Sand, Lehm und Steinen; unbebautes Gelände’ (poor soil of sand, clay and stones; uncultivated land) gave Portug barroca ‘rough terrain, sandy soil with clay and stones’, and barroco , a technical term applied first by Portug pearl fishers and tradesmen to ‘eine doppelkugelige, höckerige, verwachsene Perle’ (bumpy, deformed, two-ball pearl),1 then generalized into ‘crooked, lopsided, irregular’, whence Span barroco (term.techn. in architecture) ‘irregular, deviating from traditional ways of building’, Fr baroque , It barocco , Ge Barock , barock . Lokotsch dismisses derivations from Lat (bis-)verruca ‘double wart’, bisrocca ‘double stone’ etc. as »untenable«. Cf., however, the etymology of Engl baroque as given in EtymOnline: »1765, from Fr baroque (C15) ‘irregular’, from Portug barroco ‘imperfect pearl’, which is of uncertain [!] origin, perhaps [!] related to Span berruca ‘a wart’«. – Cf. also BRQ_13, Ar barrūqaẗ , burrūqaẗ ‘wart, verruca’.
1. Constancio Dicc 163 b.
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