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Etymological Dictionary of Arabic

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Click to Expand/Collapse OptionEtymArab
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ǦZR جزر
ID ... • Sw – • BP – • APD ... • Aut SG
ǦZR
"root"
▪ ǦZR_1 ‘to slaughter; to kill, butcher; massacre’ →ǧazara
▪ ǦZR_2 ‘to sink, fall, drop, ebb (water)’ →ǧazara
▪ ǦZR_3 ‘island; Algeria(n)’ →ǧazīraẗ , ǧazara
▪ ǦZR_4 ‘carrot(s)’ →ǧazar
▪ The variety of meanings within this root can be reduced to two basic values: [DRS#GZR-1] *‘to cut’ and [DRS#GZR-2] *‘beet, carrot’. While the latter is probably of Pers origin, the former has developed along the lines ‘*to cut > [ǦZR_1] to slaughter > to butcher; to kill > massacre’ and ‘*to cut > to cut off (land from sea, etc.) > [ǦZR_3] island; [ǦZR_2] to drop, ebb (water)’. ‘Algeria’ is lit. *‘The Isles’.
▪ The complex that has the value *‘to cut’ at its basis seems to be an extension in *‑r of a bi-consonantal nucleus →*ǦZ- (also →*ǦḎ-, →*ǦD-) from which also other roots derive. Cf., in this context, especially the MSA items →ǧazza ‘to cut off, clip; to shear, shear off’ (also →ǧaḏḏa ‘to cut off, clip’), →ǧuzʔ ‘part’, →taǧazzaʕa ‘to break apart, break, snap’ (also →ǧadaʕa ‘to cut off, amputate’), →ǧizlaẗ ‘piece, slice’, →ǧazama ‘to off, cut short, clip; to judge, decide’ (also →ǧaḏama ‘to cut off, chop off, excise’).
...
DRS 2 (1994)#GZR–1 Hbr gāzar ‘couper en deux; décider’, oAram gzr , EmpAram gzyr , gzr (?) ‘couper; conclure un pacte; ordonner(?)’, JP gᵉzar ‘tailler, couper, trancher, décider’, Mand gzar ‘couper, égorger, décider, condamner; circoncire’, Ar ǧazara ‘égorger, découper une pièce de boucherie’, SAr gzr ‘circoncire’, Soq gtzr ‘être moitié plein’, Gz gazara , Amh gäzzärä ‘circoncire’, Tña Te Amh gəzrät ‘circoncision’. – Syr gᵉzīrtā , Ar ǧazīraẗ , Gz gazirat ‘île’; Ar ǧazar ‘partie de la côté découverte à marée basse’, ǧazara ‘être à sec (marée, etc.)’. – Hbr *gāzar ‘manger (animal)’, Syr gezrā ‘proie’, Mand gizra ‘troupeau’, Ar ǧazar ‘animaux de boucherie’, Ar ǧazzār ‘boucher’, Śḥr eñgezrót ‘animal de boucherie, animal abattu’. –2 Syr gezārā ‘rave’, Mand gizar , Ar ǧazar , ǧizar ‘carotte’. [–3 and –4: not attested in Ar.]
▪ ǦZR_1-3: Huehnergard2011 reconstructs WSem *GZR ‘to cut off, destroy’.
▪ ǦZR_1-3: For the wider context of roots derived from related biconsonantal bases, cf. →ǦZ-, →ǦḎ-, →ǦD- .

▪ ǦZR_4: From Pers gazar ‘carrot(s)’ – DRS, Rolland2014. Cf. however Rolland2015, where the author believes the word to be a re-import, since Pers gazar ‘carrot(s) may be from Ar →ǧiḏr ‘root’.
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