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Etymological Dictionary of Arabic

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Click to Expand/Collapse OptionEtymArab
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ǦML جمل
ID 159 • Sw – • BP – • APD ... • Aut SG
ǦML
"root"
▪ ǦML_1 ‘camel’ →ǧamal
▪ ǦML_2 (a) ‘(be) polite, do a favour; (be) beautiful, handsome, pretty’ →ǧamul- u (ǧamāl ). – (b) ‘sum, totality, whole; group, troop, crowd; sentence, clause’ →ǧamal- u (ǧaml ), ǧumlaẗ .
▪ ǦML_3 ‘gable (arch.)’ →ǧamalūn
▪ ǦML_4 ? ‘letter of alphabet’ (?): only in ḥisāb al‑ ǧummal (or ǧumal ) ‘use of the letters of the alphabet according to their numerical value’
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▪ DRS 3 (1993)#GML distinguishes eight main semantic values in Sem, out of which however only two or three (nos. #1, #2 and #5 in DRS) seem to be realised in Ar: -1 ‘camel’ (→ǧamal ). -2 a theme with many facets: [a] ‘be beautiful, developed, mature’ (→ǧamul ); ‘to behave politely, make complete, put together’ (→ǧāmal ); ‘full, fat (body)’; [b] ‘big, long’ (NHbr gamlōn , Aram gamlānā , not realised in Ar); [c] ‘to assemble, put together’ (→ǧamal ), ‘totality’ (→ǧumlaẗ ), ‘cable, rope’ (ǧamal , ǧuml ); [d] ‘grease, fat, fondue’ (ǧamīl ), ‘to melt, liquify (the grease, etc.)’ (ǧamal ). – DRS is not sure whether or not also [e] ‘nightingale’ (ǧumlānaẗ , ǧumaylānaẗ ) and [f] ‘(sort of) palm tree’ (ǧamal ) should be grouped with #2a-d. The authors also remain silent about the details of the semantic relations within theme no. #2. – Classical dictionaries tend to see ‘fat’ (#2d) and ‘fatness’ as the original meaning, “hence” ‘beauty’ (#2b), “because, when a man becomes fat and in good condition, his ǧamāl becomes apparent”; from physical beauty then also ‘beauty of character’ – Lane, sv. ǧamīl . -3 ‘anger’ (Te only). -4 ‘to cook a little flour in order to add it to the bread’ (Amh only). -5 ‘sort of boomerang (Akk), sickle (Ug), yoke (JP), hooked (Syr)’, etc. (→ǧummal ). -6 ‘to burn, roast slowly; white freckles on the skin, esp. the legs’ (Amh only). -7 ‘cow without, or with small, horns’ (Amh only). -8 ‘clitoris’ (Gur only).
▪ For Sem *gamal _1 as an extension in * l (for tamed/domesticated, hence ‘weak’ animals) →gamal.
▪ For Sem √GML_2 as an extension of an AfrAs biconsonantal root *GM →gamal-.
▪ Any relation between ǦML_1 ‘camel’ and the ‘fat, beauty, completeness, politeness’ complex of ǦML_2 ?
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