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Etymological Dictionary of Arabic

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Click to Expand/Collapse OptionEtymArab
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ḤRː (ḤRR) حرّ / حرر
ID ... • Sw – • BP – • APD ... • Aut SG
ḤRː (ḤRR)
"root"
▪ ḤRː (ḤRR)_1 ‘heat, to burn’ →ḥarr
▪ ḤRː (ḤRR)_2 ‘stony area, rocky terrain’ →ḥarraẗ
▪ ḤRː (ḤRR)_3 ‘(to be born) free, freedom; nobility; (fig.:) the best of anything; to write elegantly; to dedicate to the service of God’ →ḥurr
▪ ḤRː (ḤRR)_4 ‘silk’ →ḥarīr
▪ From the seven values attached to the root *ḤRR in Sem (according to DRS), five are represented in ClassAr. Out of these five, four have survived into MSA. The values are all very different so that a relation even between individual values seems unlikely at first sight. However, it has been suggested that ḤRR_2 ‘stony area’ depends on ḤRR_1 ‘heat’ (*‘the burnt area’), and ḤRR_4 ‘silk’ could be derived from ḤRR_3 ‘to be free’ (*‘fabric/tissue free from unevenness’).
▪ With the notion of ‘heat, to burn’ (ḤRR_1), the 3-radical root seems to be based on the 2-rad. sequence *-ḤR- with a similar meaning, which appears also in other 3-rad. roots like →ḤRQ or →ḤMR.
...
▪ DRS 9 (2010)#ḤRR–1 Akk erēru(m) ‘être chaud, brûlant, sec’ [CAD: ‘to become moldy’ (bread, grain)], Ug ḥrr ‘brûler, rôtir’, Hbr ḥārar , JP ḥᵃrar ‘brûler, flamber’, Mand hrr ‘être chaud’, Syr ḥar ‘être sec’, Ar ḥarra ‘être chaud, brûlant’, ḥarr , Liḥ ḥarr , Sab mḥr ‘fièvre’, Jib ḥar ‘chaleur’, Mhr ḥəráwrət , Ḥrs ḥərōrət ‘chaleur, boutons de chaleur; température’, – Mhr ḥəráwrət , Jib ḥɔ́r , ḥárɔ́rt ‘couche de brûlé au fond d’un récipient’, Jib ḥerr ‘gratter le brûlé du fond d’un récipient’, Soq ḥrr ‘être noir’, Gz ḥarara , ḥarra ‘être sec, brûlé par le feu’, Tña ḥarärä ‘brûler (feu), se brûler, être brûlé’, Te har ‘brûler’, härär wäda ‘briller, étinceler’, Har ḥarärä ‘être chaud’, Amh Gur ʔarrärä 1 ‘être carbonisé’, Te ḥarri ‘maladie du grain’. –2 Ar ḥarraẗ , Qat mḥrr ‘terrain rocheux, terre pierreuse’. –3 *ḥurr‑ ‘né libre’: Hbr *ḥor (pl. ḥorīm ) ‘libre, noble’; EmpAram ḥr , JP ḥarā , Syr ḥērā ‘libre’, bar ḥorīn , Nab Palm br ḥry ‘affranchi’, Syr ḥr ‘libre’, Ar ḥurr ‘libre, pur, franc’, SAr ḥr ‘noble, libre’, Mhr ḥarr , Soq ḥor ‘libre’, Gz ḥarrāwī ‘né libre, noble’, Amh hurr , ʔara , ʔarənnät ‘condition de l’homme libre’; ? Gz ḥarā ‘armée, officiers’, ḥarrāwī ‘soldat’, Tña Te ḥara ‘armée, troupe’.24 Ar ḥir(r) ‘vulve (de la femme)’.35 Ar ḥarīr , Jib ḥárír , Soq ḥárhir , Gz ḥarīr , Te Tña ḥarir , Te har , Amh harir , har ‘soie’.46 Sab Qat Min ḥrt ‘canal d’irrigation, digue’, mḥrt ‘système d’irrigation’, Qat ḥrt ‘aqueduc’. –7 Mhr ḥər , Jib ḥɔhr : abri pour les chevreaux, Mhr ḥər, Jib ḥerr ‘mettre à l’abri (des chevreaux)’.
1. Alongside with Gur arrärä , Leslau EDG gives also Gur ar-ǝn . 2. Note DRS: Selon Leslau CDG 240, le lien de ‘né libre’ avec ‘armée’ est possible mais non certain. – Amh ḥara ‘armée, troupe’ est un emprunt au Gz. Faut-il rapprocher le Te kärayi ‘armée’ ? 3. Aussi ḥir‑ et ḥirat‑ , voir sous ḤR. 4. Les formes éthiopiennes sont des emprunts à l’arabe.
▪ The variety of meanings within the root in ClassAr as given by Badawi2008 matches EtymArab ’s assessment very well (numbering as in disambiguation above): [ḤRR_1] ‘heat, thirst, to become hot, to intensify’; [ḤRR_2] ‘volcanic rocky land’; [ḤRR_3] ‘free person, to liberate, to set free; the best of anything; to set right; to dedicate to the service of God’; [ḤRR_4] ‘silk’. The additional meanings under ḤRR_3 (‘the best of anything; to set right; to dedicate to the service of God’) are metaphorical extensions and will be treated under →ḥurr .
▪ DRS 9 (2010): »Pour la notion de chaleur, on rapprochera les rac. ḤRR, ḤRQ, et, pour ‘brûler’, les rac. ḤRQ, ḤLQ. Voir les renvois sous -ḤR- .« There we find: »La séquence -ḤR- est, avec des élargissement divers, à la base de plusieurs racines trilitères dont le sens fondamental paraît être celui de ‘être chaud, brûlant, brûler’, une valeur dérivée étant ‘être animé de colère, de haine’ et autres sens équivalents ou apparentés. Les élargissements apparaissent, comme W- initial: WḤR, comme -W final: ḤRW, dans la gémination de la seconde consonne radicale: ḤRR, dans le redoublement de la séquence: ḤRḤR. [...] Des valeurs similaires se trouvent dans d’autres racines comportant cette séquence: par exemple →ḤRB, →ḤRW/Y, →ḤRK, [...] →ḤRḌ, →ḤRQ, →ḤMR. Voir aussi la remarque sous →ḤWR.«
▪ Ǧabal2010-I: 395-6 assumes the basic value of ḤRR to be ḫulūṣ al-šayʔ min al-ġalīẓ allaḏī yaʕrūhu ʔaw yuḫāliṭu ʔaṯnāʔahū (bi-ʔan yaḫruǧa minhā) fa-yaṣfū wa-yanqà . Consequently, in his view, ḥarīr ‘silk’ depends on ḥurr ‘free’ (the fabric/tissue free from unevenness).
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