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Etymological Dictionary of Arabic

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Click to Expand/Collapse OptionEtymArab
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ḤRŠ حرش
ID ... • Sw – • BP – • APD ... • Aut SG
ḤRŠ
"root"
▪ ḤRŠ_1 ‘(to be/come) rough, coarse, scabrous’ →ḥariš
▪ ḤRŠ_2 ‘to scratch; (D-stem) to instigate, provoke, sew discord’ →ḥaraša
▪ ḤRŠ_3 ‘forest, woods’ →ḥurš

Other values, now obsolete, include:
  • ḤRŠ_4 ‘rhinoceros’ : ḥarīš
See section DISC below.
...
▪ DRS 9 (2010)#ḤRŚ–1 Ar ḥariša ‘être rugueux, rude au toucher’, ʔaḥraš ‘rugueux’. –2 Hbr ḥōrā̈š ‘lieu boisé’, (BDB1906: Aram ḥûršāh ), Ar ḥarš ‘bois, forêt’, Jib ḥɔ́rɔ́ś , aḥréś ‘apporter des branchages pour construire un râtelier, un lit, etc.’. –3 Ar ḥarīš , Gz ḥariš , ḥaris , ḥoras , Te Tña ḥariš , Amh ḥaris ‘rhinocéros’. [–4 not represented in Ar].
▪ DRS 9 (2010)#Ḥ/ḪRŚ–1 Hbr ḥäräš ‘démangeaison, gale’, Syr ḥarsā ‘irritation des paupières’, Ar ḥarš ‘marque, trace, aspérité’, ḥaraša , ḫaraša ‘griffer avec les ongles’, ḫaraša ‘gratter’, naḥwariš , naḫwariš ‘qui gratte beaucoup avec les griffes (chien)’, ḥarraša ‘exciter les uns contre les autres’, taḫāraša ‘s’exciter les uns contre les autres’, Mhr ḥōrəś , Jib oḥōrś ‘créer de l’agitation (contre qn)’, Ḥrs ḥārəś ‘raconter des choses contre qn’, 2 Ar ḥaraša , ḫaraša ‘travailler pour subvenir aux besoins des siens’, ḥarīšaẗ ‘avoir, ce qu’on possède’.
▪ DRS 9 (2010)#ḤRŚ–1 cf. also ḤRS/Ś and Ḥ/ḪRŚ.
▪ In ḤRŠ_1 and ḤRŠ_2, the root shows some overlapping with →ḪRŠ, but also with →ḤRS.
▪ In spite of the cautiousness speaking from the separation, made in DRS, between ḤRŠ_1 ‘(to be/come) rough, coarse, scabrous’ (reflecting Sem *ḤRŚ) and ḤRŠ_2 ‘to scratch; to instigate, provoke, sew discord’ (< Sem *Ḥ/ḪRŚ), the two values may be related (‘roughness’ being a result of ‘scratching’, or ‘scratching’ so called after its association with the ‘roughness’ of a surface).
▪ ḤRŠ_2 : according to Ehret1989, ḥaraša is an extension in venitive *‑ɬ from a pre-pSem 2-consonantal basis →*ḤR- ‘to scrape’. Other extensions from the same basis include →ḥarbaẗ ‘lance, spear’ and →ḥarb ‘war; fight, combat’, →ḥaraṯa ‘to till and sow the ground’, and →ḥaraqa u ‘to rub two things against each other’.
▪ ḤRŠ_3 : Sem words for ‘forest, woods’ go perhaps back, via Akk, to a Sum word for ‘hill-country; mountainous region’. For details, see →ḥurš .
ḤRŠ_4 ‘rhinoceros’: called ḥarīš because of the ‘roughness’ (ḤRŠ_1) of its skin or after its habit to ‘scratch’ (ḤRŠ_2) the soil?
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