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Click to Expand/Collapse OptionEtymArab
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muṯaqqaf مُثَقَّف , pl. ‑ūn , pl.f. ‑āt
ID 123 • Sw – • BP 1973 • APD ... • Aut SG
ṮQF
¹adj.; ²n.
▪ gebildet; ausgebildet, erzogen; kultiviert – Wehr19??
▪ educated; trained; cultured; al-m.ūn educated people, intellectuals, the intelligentsia; al-m.āt educated ladies, women intellectuals – WehrCowan1979.
▪ PP II, denominative from →ṯaqāfaẗ .
▪ The modern value ‘intellectual’ must be later than the 1890s. In English, intellectual is first attested in 1819 and seems to have carried »implications of abstractness, coldness (‘cold intellectualism,’ 1859) and ineffectiveness« throughout C19.
▪ Cf. also →ṮQF .
1860 Kazimirski-I: 1. Redressé. – 2. Lance. – Cf. also vb. ṯaqafa : 1. Redresser, rendre droit (ce qui était courbé ou tortu, p. ex. une lance). – 2. Surpasser en esprit, en sagacité. – ṯaqifa , vb. I, [...] 2. Être intélligent. – ṯaqqafa , vb. II, 1. Redresser, rendre droit; 2. Rendre intelligent; 3. Former, rendre instruit par l’enseignement des lettres.
1863 Like Kazimirski, also Lane I does not yet mention a meaning other than ‘(a spear) straightened, or made even’ for m. ; so also al-Bustānī1867. But ṯaqqafa-hū , vb. II, is both ‘he straightened it, or made it even’ and , ‘hence (!): he disciplined him, or educated him well, and amended him, or improved him’, and taṯaqqafa , vb. V, is ‘he was, or became, disciplined, or educated well, and mended, or improved’ (so also al-Bustānī1867).
1887 Wahrmund-2 has ‘wohlgebildet; gut erzogen’, but not yet ‘intellectual’.
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Since the word, a PP from ṯaqqafa , vb. II, does not show lexicalisation as ‘intellectual’ until late in C19, this latter value must have been added later than 1860. While a metaphorical use of vb. II was common in ClassAr already, a lexicalisation of the PP seems to have happened not earlier than the 1890s.
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