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Etymological Dictionary of Arabic

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Click to Expand/Collapse OptionEtymArab
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ĭṯnāni اِثْنانِ , f. اثنتانِ ĭṯnatāni
ID 126 • Sw 12/176 • BP 653 • APD ... • Aut SG
two – WehrCowan1979.
▪ Bergsträsser1928: Akk šinā , Hbr šnáyim , Aram trēn (dissimilation!) ‘two’; cf. also Gz sānī́.t ‘following day’.
▪ Blažek 20111 : Akk m./f. šinān / šittān , Ebl m. šina (Dombrowski 1994), Ug ṯnm / ṯtm [ṯināmi / ṯittēmi ], Ph šnm [šənēm ], late Pu (l)isnim , Hbr šĕnáyim / šĕttáyim , Sab ṯny / ṯnty , Qat m. ṯnw , all ‘two’. Cf. also Gz sānəy ‘the next day’, Te säno , Tña sänuy ‘Monday’), as well as Aram *təron / tarton , Mhr troh / trīt , Hob ṯro , ṯroh / ṯərīt , Har ṯərō / ṯərə́t , Jib ṯroh / ṯrət , Soq trøh / trih ). – Outside Sem: Eg m./f. snwj / sntj , Copt Sahidic m./f. snau / sənte with the root vowel *i confirmed by the cuneiform record ši-na from the Amarna tablets; Berb: Siwa Ghadames sən/-ət , Kabyle sin / snat , Wargla sin / sent , Ahaggar əssin / sänât , Zenaga šinan / šenanet ; Guanche of Tenerife sijn ‘two’, Gran Canaria smetti [= sinetti ] ‘two’. – Outside AfrAs: Kartvelian *č(w)en‑ > Swan išgen ‘(an)other’.
1. “Etymology”, in EALL ii: 65b ff.
▪ Blažek 20111 : The root ṯ-n-y does not stand isolated within Sem (see “Cognates" above).2 The present data may be projected to the Proto-Sem level, where *‑ā and *‑ay‑ are the dual markers for nom. and obl. respectively, *‑at‑ is the f. marker and *‑ni is the determiner, not appearing before nouns (Table 1: m.nom. *ṯín-ā-ni , acc./gen. *ṯín-ay-ni , f.nom. *ṯín-at-ā-ni , gen./acc. *ṯín-at-ay-ni ). – The Proto-Sem reconstruction is not the final limit. The Eg (see above) and Berb cognates (Berb m/f *sīn ~ *Hissīn / *sīnat ) shift the age of this root to the AfrAs (= HamSem) level, [where] the starting point should be reconstructed as *čin(ay)‑ . But even the AfrAs proto-language is not the ultimate limit. If there are promising parallels in language families that are possibly related to AfrAs (e.g. Indo-European, Kartvelian, Dravidian, Uralic, Altaic, all members of the so-called Nostratic macro-family), it is legitimate to admit a still deeper history of the studied root. In the case of AfrAs *čin‑ ‘two’, one could mention Kartvelian *č(w)en‑ > Swan išgen ‘(an)other’.
▪ See also →ṮNY .
1. “Etymology”, in EALL ii: 65b ff. 2. The seemingly different second radical in the numeral ‘two’ in Aramaic (*təron / tarton ) and modSAr (cf. the forms in Mhr, Hob, Har, Jib, and Soq, given above) probably has its origin in a rule changing the initial cluster *Cn‑ in *Cr‑ in Aram and modSAr and in iCn‑ in Ar (Testen 1985).
ṯanà, i (ṯany ), vb. I, 1a) to double, b) double up, c) fold, fold up, fold under. – For other values cf. →ṯanà ‘to fold, bend’.
ṯannà, vb. II, 1a) to double, make double; b) to do twice, repeat; 2 to pleat, plait; 3 to form the dual (of a word); 4 to provide with two diacritical dots (a letter): caus.
taṯannà, vb. V, 1 a) to double, become double; to be doubled; b) to be repeated: pseudopass. from II. – For other values cf. →ṯanà ‘to fold, bend’.

ṯanawī, adj., dualist: nsb-adj.
ṯanawiyyaẗ, n.f., dualism: abstr. in ‑iyyaẗ .
ṯunāʔᵘ, and maṯnà, adj., two at a time; ṯunāʔᵃ , adv., as a pair or duo, two and two: .
BP#2152ṯunāʔī, adj., 1 a) twofold, double, dual, binary, bi-; b) bilateral; c) biradical (gram. ); – (‑āt ), n., 2 a) pair, a group of two; b) duet, duo (mus. ) | ṯ. al-buʕd , adj., two-dimensional; ʕalāqāt t.iyyaẗ bilateral relations: nsb-adj from ṯunāʔ (?).
ṯunāʔiyyaẗ, n.f., 1 dualism: abstr. in ‑iyyaẗ ; 2 duet, duo (mus. ): short for qiṭʕaẗ ṯ. ‘(musical) piece for two’, nsb-adj in the f., lexicalized as n.
ĭṯnā ʕašarᵃ, f. ĭṯnatā ʕašraẗᵃ , num., twelve: .
BP#1347(yawm) al ĭṯnayn, n., Monday: .
BP#80al-ṯānī, num.ord., 1 the second; 2 the next; 3 (coll. ) the other (one) | ṯānī ĭṯnayn , n., the second of a pair, pendant, companion piece, match: .
BP#2403ṯāniyaẗ, pl. ṯawānin , det. al-ṯawānī , n.f., second (time unit): calque from Fr seconde (?).
BP#1455ṯānawī, adj., 1 secondary; 2 minor | ʔumūr ṯ.iyyaẗ matters of secondary importance, minor matters; madrasaẗ ṯ.iyyaẗ secondary school: nsb-adj from ṯānin .
BP#4147ṯānawiyyaẗ, pl. ‑āt , n.f., 1 secondary school: short for madrasaẗ ṯ. , nsb-adj in the f., lexicalized as n.; 2 secondary importance: abstr. in ‑iyyaẗ .
taṯniyaẗ, n.f., 1 a) repetition; b) doubling, gemination; c) (gram. ) dual; d) second sequel (e.g., of a collection of short stories) | t. al-ĭštirāʕ Deutoronomy: vn. II. – For other values cf. →ṯanà ‘to fold, bend’ and →ṯanāʔ ‘praise’.
maṯniyy, adj., doubled: PP I. – For other values cf. →ṯanà ‘to fold, bend’.
muṯannan, def. al-muṯannà , adj., 1 double, twofold; 2 in the dual (gram. ): PP II.

– For other values cf. →ṯanà ‘to fold, bend’ and →ṯanāʔ ‘praise’.
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