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Etymological Dictionary of Arabic

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Click to Expand/Collapse OptionEtymArab
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ǧād‑ , ǧud‑ جاد , ū (ǧūdaẗ )
ID ... • Sw – • BP – • APD ... • Aut SG
vb., I
to be or become good, become better, improve; to be swift (horse) – (jūd) to grant generously (bi‑, be so generous as to do; to be liberal, openhanded, bestow liberally, grant, give lavishly, shower (ʕalà s.o. bi‑ with); to donate | [...] – WehrCowan1979.
Difficult to decide what should be considered as the etymon proper: ‘good, excellent’ or ‘bounteous, copious’. In any case, the basic notion is an abundance, generosity, or excellence in quantity or quality.
DRS 2 (1994)#GWD-1: Ar ǧāda ‘être excellent, généreux’; ǧawād‑; SAr gwd ‘cheval de course’; Mhr gid ‘bon, habile’.1
1. Syr gᵉwād ‘cheval noble’ is believed to be from Ar ǧawād . »Faut-il rapprocher Tña gado and Te Amh gud ‘merveilleux’? En Amh le sens est souvent péjoratif: ‘monstreux’.«
Both vn.s ǧūd ‘generosity’ and ǧawd ‘copious rain’ have an abundance, an affluence, a copiousness in common (be it in quantity or in quality) that is identified as ‘good, excellent’. Hence it is difficult to decide whether the one was prior to the other (in terms of semantic history), and if so, then which one, or both are secondary specialisations of an earlier ‘goodness, excellency’ in general. Both corresponding adjectives, ǧawād ‘generous’ and ǧayyid ‘good, excellent’, seem to be secondary intensive formations (patterns FaʕāL and FayʕaL ), so none qualifies as the etymon proper. In any case, ‘generosity’ as an ethical concept builds on ‘giving in abundance, openhandedly’. The meaning ‘race horse’ is probably a specialisation, denoting a horse that unites in itself all the ‘excellent’ qualities needed to compete in a horse race. Similarly, ‘the art of beautifull Qur’an recitation’ is a specialized term applied to ‘excellent performance’ of the holy text.
ǧawwada, vb. II, to do well; to make better, improve: denom., from ǧayyid (?); to recite (the Koran): specialisation of meaning, originally *‘to do it [sc. the recitation of the Qur’an] well, correctly, beautifully’.
BP#4443ʔaǧāda, vb. IV, to do well, do excellently; to master, be skilled, proficient; to ameliorate; to accomplish or say good, excellent things; to achieve excellent results; to be excellent, outstanding, distinguish o.s. (e.g., as a poet): denom./caus. from ǧayyid (?).
ĭstaǧāda, vb. X, to think good or excellent, approve of; to consider suitable for or appropriate: denom. from ǧayyid (?), t-stem of IV.

ǧūd, n., openhandedness, liberality, generosity: an important cultural concept, see s.v. (→ǧūd ). – Perhaps the etymon proper?
ǧawd, n., heavy rains: another candidate for the position of the etymon proper.
BP#2378ǧūdaẗ, n.f., (also ǧawdaẗ ) goodness, excellence; good quality (of commodities, products): .
BP#488ǧayyid, pl. ǧiyād , adj., good, perfect, faultless; outstanding, excellent, firstrate; good (as an examination degree): explained by some as a fayʕil form, i.e., from *ǧaywid .
ʔaǧwadᵘ, adj., better: elat.
BP#5414ǧawād, pl. ʔaǧwād , ʔaǧāwidᵘ , ʔaǧāwīdᵘ , ǧūd , adj., openhanded, liberal, generous, magnanimous: ints. | ĭbn al-ʔaǧwād noble man.
ǧawād, pl. ǧiyād , ʔaǧyād , ʔaǧāwīdᵘ , n., horse; race horse, racer; charger, steed: nominalization of the preceding, or an item in its own right?
taǧwīd, n., art of reciting the Koran, Koran reading (in accordance with the established rules of pronunciation and intonation): vn. II. See also s.v. (→taǧwīd ).
ʔiǧādaẗ, n.f., good, excellent performance or accomplishment, etc.; improvement, amelioration: vn. IV.
muǧawwid, n., Koran reciter: PA II.
muǧīd, n., adept, efficient, proficient: PA IV.

For other (obsolete) items see →ǦWD.
For ‘neck’ see →ǧīd (ǦYD).
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