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Click to Expand/Collapse OptionEtymArab
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ḥurr حُرّ , pl.m. ʔaḥrār , pl.f. ḥarāʔirᵘ
ID 199 • Sw – • BP 793 • APD ... • Aut SG
adj., noble, free-born; genuine (jewels, etc.), pure, unadulterated; free; living in freedom; freeman; independent; free, unrestrained; liberal (pol.; al-ʔaḥrār the Liberals); frank, candid, open; free, available, uninvested (money) – WehrCowan1979.
▪ From Sem *ḥurr‑ ‘free-born’.
▪ Relations between ḥurr and other values of √ḤRR have been suggested (esp. ‘stony area’ and ‘silk’), while ‘heat, to burn’ definitely does not seem to be akin, cf. →ḤRR.
▪ The abstract notion of ‘freedom, nobility’ may be based on a primary meaning *‘free from defects or default, pure, unadulterated’.
▪ The notions of ‘the best of anything’, ‘to write elegantly’ and ‘to dedicate to the service of God’ etc. are explainable as metaphorical extensions: ‘the best of anything’ = lit. *‘free from defects’; ‘to write elegantly’ = lit. *‘to make a writing free from defects, by forming its characters rightly and rectifying its faults’ (Lane); and ‘to dedicate to the service of God’ = *‘to make o.s. (or s.o.) free for the service of God’.
▪ From ḥurr is derived the abstr. n. ḥurriyyaẗ which in ClassAr means ‘the state, or condition, of freedom’ as opposed to slavery, but from eC19 became the equivalent of one of the ideals of the French Revolution, Fr ‘liberté’, see →s.v. .
eC7 (a free man as opposed to a slave) Q 2:178 kutiba ʕalay-kumu ’l-qiṣāṣu fī ’l-qatlā ’l-ḥurru bi’l-ḥurri wa’l-ʕabdu bi’l-ʕabdi wa’l-ʔunṯā bi’l-ʔunṯā ‘Retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the murdered; the freeman for the freeman, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female’, (liberating, setting free) 4:92 wa-man qatala muʔminan ḫaṭaʔan fa-taḥrīru raqabatin muʔminatin wa-diyatun musallamatun ‘He who hath killed a believer by mistake must set free a believing slave [lit. liberate a neck], and pay the blood-money to his [the latter’s] family’ ▪ (person dedicated, or consecrated, to the service of God) Q 3:35 rabb-i ʔin-nī naḏartu la-ka mā fī baṭn-ī muḥarraran fa-taqabbal minn-ī ‘My Lord! I have vowed unto Thee that which is in my belly as a consecrated (offering). Accept it from me.’
1875 1. Libre, de condition libre, non esclave. – 2. Bien né, de parents libres et qui n’ont pas été esclaves. – 3. Pur, bon, de bon aloi, franc (se dit de diverses choses sans mélange d’un corps étranger). – 4. Pur, verteux (syn. birr ). – 5. Généreux, de race (cheval). – 6. Belle action, belle conduite. | mā hāḏā min-ka bi-ḥurrin Ce n’est pas bien de ta part. – 7. Milieu, intérieur. (Kazimirski1875)
▪ DRS 9 (2010)#ḤRR–3 Hbr *ḥor (pl. ḥorīm ) ‘libre, noble’; EmpAram ḥr , JP ḥarā , Syr ḥērā ‘libre’, bar ḥorīn , Nab Palm br ḥry ‘affranchi’, Syr ḥr ‘libre’, Ar ḥurr ‘libre, pur, franc’, SAr ḥr ‘noble, libre’, Mhr ḥarr , Soq ḥor ‘libre’, Gz ḥarrāwī ‘né libre, noble’, Amh hurr , ʔara , ʔarənnät ‘condition de l’homme libre’; ? Gz ḥarā ‘armée, officiers’, ḥarrāwī ‘soldat’, Tña Te ḥara ‘armée, troupe’.1
▪ Zammit2002: Ar ḥurr ‘a free-man’: Hbr (late) ḥōr ‘noble’, Aram ḥᵃrar ‘to set free’, ḥōrā ‘free man’, Syr ḥarar ‘to set free’, SAr ḥr ‘free man, free-born man’, Gz ḥarā ‘liber homo, ingenuus’
1. Note DRS: Selon Leslau CDG 240, le lien de ‘né libre’ avec ‘armée’ est possible mais non certain. – Amh ḥara ‘armée, troupe’ est un emprunt au Gz. Faut-il rapprocher le Te kärayi ‘armée’ ?
▪ DRS 9 (2010) reconstruct Sem *ḥurr‑ ‘né libre’.
▪ Some ClassAr dictionaries assume that the primary meaning of the adj. refers to earth or sand, as, e.g., in ramlaẗ ḥurraẗ ‘sand in which is no mixture of any other thing’, or ʔarḍ ḥurraẗ ‘land in which is no salt earth’ (i.e., good earth, earth that has good herbage, etc.), and that the abstract meaning ‘free’ is a metaphorical use. This would explain vb. II in the sense of ‘to write accurately’ better (as a direct caus.) than by ‘deviation’. But the meaning ‘free-born’ throughout Sem as the primary value does not corroborate this explanation.
▪ Ǧabal 2010-I: 395 assumes the basic value of ḤRR to be ḫulūṣ al-šayʔ min al-ġalīẓ allaḏī yaʕrūhu ʔaw yuḫāliṭu ʔaṯnāʔahū (bi-ʔan yaḫruǧa minhā) fa-yaṣfū wa-yanqà . Should this be true then also ḥarīr ‘silk’ could be seen as derived from here (the tissue/fabric ‘free from unevenness, or faults’).
ḥarrara, vb. II, to liberate; to free, set free, release; to emancipate: caus.; to consecrate (s.o.) to the service of God: lit., *‘to make o.s. free for...’; to draw up, make out accurately (an account, a calculation); to adjust, render accurate (a weight, a mesure); to point or direct (a gun at s.o.); to revise (a book); to edit, redact (a book, a periodical); to write, pen, indite, compose ( explained by ClassAr lexicographers as *‘to make a writing free from defects, by forming its characters rightly and rectifying its faults’ (Lane). – For other meanings see →ḥarīr .
taḥarrara, vb. V, to become free; to be freed, be liberated; to be emancipated; to be written, be composed: pseudo-pass. of II.
BP#529ḥurriyyaẗ, pl. ‑āt , freedom, liberty; independence, unrestraint, license (e.g., poetic): abstr. formation | ḥurriyyaẗ al-ʕibādaẗ , n., freedom of worship; ḥurriyyaẗ al-fikr , n., freedom of thought; ḥurriyyaẗ al-kalām , n., freedom of speech; ḥurriyyaẗ al-našr / al-ṣaḥāfaẗ , n., liberty of the press; ḥurriyyaẗ al-taṣarruf , n., free disposal, right of disposition; authority, free hand: neologisms.
BP#906taḥrīr, n., liberation; release; emancipation; record(ing), writing; editing, redaction; editorship (of a newspaper, a periodical): vn. II; (pl. ‑āt , taḥārīrᵘ ) piece of writing, record, brief, document: resultative, lexicalized. | raʔīs al-taḥrīr , n., editor-in-chief; ʔidāraẗ al-taḥrīr , n., board of editors, editorial staff: neolog.; taḥrīran fī... , adv., issued, made out on (with the date; on documents and certifications).
taḥrīrī, adj., liberational; emancipational; liberal; recorded in writing, written, in writing: nsb-adj from taḥrīr .
BP#3623taḥarrur, n., liberation, emancipation (intr.): vn. V, refl. of II.
muḥarrir, pl. ‑ūn , n., liberator, emancipator; writer, clerk; issuer (of a document); editor (of a newspaper, of a periodical): lexicalized PA II.
muḥarrar, adj., consecrated to God; set down in writing, recorded in writing, written; booked; pl. ‑āt , bookings, entries: PP II.
mutaḥarrir, adj., emancipated; n., an advocate of emancipation: lexicalized PA V.
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