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ḥurriyyaẗ حُرِّيَّة
ID 200 • Sw – • BP 529 • APD ... • Aut SG
ḤRː (ḤRR)
n.
freedom, liberty; independence, unrestraint, license (e.g. poetic) – WehrCowan1979.
The word is an abstract formation in ‑iyyaẗ from →ḥurr . In ClassAr it denotes the status of a free-born, as opposed to a slave. During C19 it came to express the modern concept of ‘freedom’, as a translation of one of the slogans of the French Revolution, liberté . By the early 1880s (at the latest), ḥurriyyaẗ had become a key concept of political discourse, as documented by the fact that al-Marṣafī mentions it as one of the words that were »on everybody’s tongue« during those days.
1875 »1. État d’homme libre, non esclave. – 2. Pureté (de ce qui est sans mélange). – 3. Bonne maison, origine noble et pure. – 4. Affranchissement des passions et des affections de l’âme. – 5. Libre examen de la verité. – 6. [!] mod. Liberté politique. [!] - 7. pl. de حُرٌّ Hommes libres, nobles (ce mot s’applique aux Arabes purs, sans mélange d’autre race).« (Kazimirski1875)
▪ »La devise de la Révolution française, ḥurriyyaẗ , →musāwāt , →ʔiḫāʔ , est adopté par Miṣr al-Qāhiraẗ , le journal d’ʔAdīb ʔIsḥāq exilé à Paris. Le Docteur Šiblī Šumayyil publie un article enthousiaste sur cette révolution, Al-Ṯawraẗ al-firansiyyaẗ wa’l-ǧumhūriyyaẗ al-ʔūlā , dans Miṣr , 9 mai 1879 . Son frère, ʔAmīn Šumayyil, commence dans al-Tiǧāraẗ , quotidien d’ʔAdīb ʔIsḥāq, à partir du 2 mai 1879, une série d’études sur al-Niẓām al-šūrawī ‘Le régime parlementaire’ [→šūrà ], se référant surtout aux règles du parlement britannique. En 1882 , Miṣr , alors dirigé par ʕAwn ʔIsḥāq, frère d’ʔAdīb, donnera, sous le titre al-→qānūn al-ʔasāsī , la traduction de la Déclaration des Droits de l’Homme et du Citoyen de 1789 (23 mars 1882). Cependant le vocabulaire politique est encore incertain à cette époque, puisqu’on désignait tantôt par qānūn ʔasāsī , tantôt par lāʔiḥaẗ ʔasāsiyyaẗ le projet de constitution élaboré par Šarīf Pacha en 1882 (cf. Rāfiʕī, Ṯawraẗ , 185).« (Delanoue 1963: 9-10, fn. 2).
1881 ḥurriyyaẗ is one of Ḥ. al-Marṣafī’s al-Kalim al-ṯamān , i.e., the eight key concepts that were »on everybody’s tongue« these days.
Cf. →ḥurr .
▪ ...
▪ See also →ḥurr .
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