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Click to Expand/Collapse OptionEtymArab
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ḥizb حِزْب , pl. ʔaḥzāb
ID 209 • Sw – • BP 289 • APD ... • Aut SG
group, troop, band, gang; party (pol. ); the 60th part of the Koran – WehrCowan1979.
The word is believed to be a loan from Gz that is to be found already in the Q .
eC7 (group, party) Q 23:53 fa-taqaṭṭaʕū ʔamra-hum bayna-hum zuburan kullu ḥizbin bi-mā laday-him fariḥūna ‘but they split their affair into sects, each faction rejoicing in what they have’, (supporters, faction, partisans) Q 58:22 ʔulāʔika ḥizbu ’llāhi ʔa-lā ʔinna ḥizba ’llāhi hum-u ’l-mufliḥūna ‘these are on God’s side, and God’s side are the successful’ ▪ Cf. also 5:56, 30:32, 35:6; in the dual, al-ḥizbayn : 18:12; in the pl., al-ʔaḥzāb : 11:17, 13:36, 19:37, 33:20,22, 38:11,13, 40:5,30, 43:65
▪ DRS 9 (2010)#ḤZB-2: Ar ḥizb ‘portion, part, lot, troupe, parti’, ḥazaba ‘être partisan’, ḥazzaba ‘assembler, réunir; partager’; SAr ʔḥzb (pl.) ‘bandes armées’; Gz ḥəzb ‘nation, tribu, secte, foule’, Te ‘peuple, nation’, Tña ḥəzbi, Amh Gur həzb, Gur äzb, kəzb, kəbz ‘peuple, foule’.
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▪ Jeffery1938: 108-9: »The philologers derive it from a verbal root ḤZB , but this primitively had quite a different meaning, and the sense of ‘divide into parties’, or ḥazzaba ‘to form a party’, are clearly denominative. / The word is doubtless to be explained with Nöldeke, Neue Beiträge , 59, n., from the Gz ḥəzb , pl. ʔäḥzab1 meaning ‘people, class, tribe’ which in the Ethiopic Bible translates [Gr] laós ; phylaí ; dēmos and háiresis , as in [Gz] ḥəzəb säduqawəyn or ḥəzəb färisawəyn for the parties of the Sadducees and the Pharisees, which closely parallels the Qur'ānic usage. Nöldeke thinks it probable that the word was first made prominent by the Qur'ān, though from the way Muḥammad makes use of it one would judge that its meaning was not altogether unfamiliar to his hearers. As a matter of fact we find the word in the SAr inscriptions, as e.g. in Glaser 424, ḏ-rydn w-ʔḥzb ḥbšt ‘of Raidan and the folks of Ḥabashat’,2 so that it is more likely that it came into use among the Northern Arabs from this area than that Muḥammad got it from Abyssinians.3 «
▪ Schall 1982: Ar ḥizb ‘party, sect’ is a loan, to be found already in the Q , from Gz ḥəzb ‘group of people, tribe’.
▪ Glaß 2011, 839-40: The word was also used, in C19, within the phrase ḥizb al-muḍāddaẗ , to render Fr ‘parti de l’opposition’. As such, it can serve as an example of one of the »methods [that] have been used to create new vocabulary«, namely »Translation of foreign words and phrases«.
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1. That we have the same form in Amh, Te, and Tña seems clear evidence that the word is native Abyssinian and not a borrowing. 2. Glaser, Die Abessinier in Arabien und Afrika , München, 1895, p. 122. Nöldeke, op. cit., 60, n., would derive both the Ar ḥzb and Gz ḥəzb from an old SSem form. Cf. Rossini, Glossarium , 146, 147. 3. Horovitz, KU , 19, thinks it is a genuine Ar word, though in its technical sense in the Qur'ān perhaps influenced by the Ethiopic.
ḥazzaba, vb. II, to rally; to form or found a party: D-stem, denom.
ḥāzaba, vb. III, to side, take sides, be an adherent: L-stem, associative.
taḥazzaba, vb. V, to take sides; to form a party, make common cause, join forces: tD-stem, reflexive/autobenef.

BP#3038ḥizbī, adj., party (adj.), factional: nisba formation; (pl. ‑ūn ) party man, party-liner: nominalization.
ḥizbiyyaẗ, n.f., party activities; partisanship, partiality; factionalism: n.abstr. in ‑iyyaẗ .
taḥazzub, n., factiousness; factionalism: vn. V
ḥāzib: ḥazaba-hū ḥāzib, expr., he met with a mishap: PA I.
mutaḥazzib, adj., partial, biased; n., partisan: PA V.

For other items of the root see →ḥazaba ‘to befall, happen, occur’ , →ḥayzabūn ‘old hag’, and (for the general picture) →ḤZB.
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