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Translator Chinese (A.D. 1018-1058)

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1. Introduction
2. Sources
3. Bibliography
4. Credits


The Pratyutpanna-buddha-saṃmukhāvasthita- samādhi-sutra was one of the first Mahayana scriptures translated into Chinese. According to the colophons, the Indo-Scythian Lokaksema with his group translated it in the Later Han capital of Luoyang in 179 CE. The Sanskrit original of the text exists only in several fragments. The Tibetan version (D 133) was probably translated around 800 CE and later revised by the Indian upādhyāna (mkhan po) Śākyaprabha and Ratnarakṣita in the ninth century  (Harrison, 1978, xii).



Harrison, Paul (1978) "Buddhānusmṛti in the Pratyutpanna-buddha-saṃmukhāvasthita- samādhi-sūtra', Journal of Indian Philosophy 6: 35-57.

Harrison, Paul (1990) The Samādhi of Direct Encounter with the Buddhas of the Present: An Annotated English Translation of the Tibetan Version of the Pratyutpanna-Buddha-saṃmukhāvasthita-samādhi-sūtra with Several Appendices Relating to the History of the Text. Tokyo: International Institute for Buddhist Studies.

Harrison, Paul (1992) “Commemoration and Identification in Buddhānusmṛti,” in Janet Gyatso, ed., In the Mirror of Memory: Reflections on Mindfulness and Remembrance in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism (New York: SUNY Press), pp. 215–238.


D = Derge, mdo, na, 1-70b2.

N = Narthang, mdo tha 1-115a6.

P = Peking, mdo du 1-73a5.

L = Lhasa, mdo tha 1-106b4.

R = sTog, mdo sde, ma 296a1-403b6.

Abbreviations for the whole library.


Harrison, Paul (1978) The Tibetan Text of the Pratyutpanna-Buddha-Saṃmukhāvasthita-Samādhi-Sūtra. Tokyo: The Reiyukai Library. 


Input by Allan Yi Ding, Aug 2018, with the help of Grace Ramswick and Paul Harrison.

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