You are here: BP HOME > TLB > Pratyutpannabuddhasamādhisūtra
ā ī ū
ś ź
š č ǰ γ    
Note on the transliteration:
The transliteration system of the BP/TLB is based on the Unicode/UTF-8 system. However, there may be difficulties with some of the letters – particularly on PC/Windows-based systems, but not so much on the Mac. We have chosen the most accepted older and traditional systems of transliteration against, e.g, Wylie for Tibetan, since with Unicode it is possible, in Sanskrit and Tibetan, etc., to represent one sound with one letter in almost all the cases (excepting Sanskrit and Tibetan aspirated letters, and Tibetan tsa, tsha, dza). We thus do not use the Wylie system which widely employs two letters for one sound (ng, ny, sh, zh etc.).
We ask you in particular to note the use of the ’ apostrophe and not the ' representing the avagrāha in Sanskrit, and most important the ’a-chuṅ in Tibetan. On the Mac the ’ is Alt-M.
If you cannot find the letters on your key-board, you may click on the link "Diacritica" to access it for your search.
Choose specific texts..
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionTitle
Click to Expand/Collapse OptionIntroduction
Click to Expand/Collapse Option§Ch 1
Click to Expand/Collapse Option§Ch 2
Click to Expand/Collapse Option§Ch 3
Go to the first sentence...
Go to the full text...


1. Introduction
2. Sources
3. Abbreviations
4. Bibliography
5. Secondary source(s)
6. Credits


The Pratyutpanna-buddha-saṃmukhāvasthita- samādhi-sutra was one of the first Mahayana scriptures translated into Chinese. According to the colophons, the Indo-Scythian Lokaksema with his group translated it in the Later Han capital of Luoyang in 179 CE. The Sanskrit original of the text exists only in several fragments. The Tibetan version (D 133) was probably translated around 800 CE and later revised by the Indian upādhyāna (mkhan po) Śākyaprabha and Ratnarakṣita in the ninth century  (Harrison, 1978, xii).


D = Derge, mdo, na, 1-70b2.

N = Narthang, mdo tha 1-115a6.

P = Peking, mdo du 1-73a5.

L = Lhasa, mdo tha 1-106b4.

R = sTog, mdo sde, ma 296a1-403b6.


Abbreviations for the whole library.


Harrison, Paul. (1978). The Tibetan Text of the Pratyutpanna-Buddha-Saṃmukhāvasthita-Samādhi-Sūtra. Tokyo: The Reiyukai Library.

Harrison, Paul. (1990). The Samādhi of Direct Encounter with the Buddhas of the Present: An Annotated English Translation of the Tibetan Version of the Pratyutpanna-Buddha-saṃmukhāvasthita-samādhi-sūtra with Several Appendices Relating to the History of the Text. Tokyo: International Institute for Buddhist Studies.

Secondary source(s):

Harrison, Paul. (1992). “Commemoration and Identification in Buddhānusmṛti.” In Janet Gyatso, ed., Mirror of Memory: Reflections on Mindfulness and Remembrance in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism. New York: SUNY Press, pp. 215–238.


Input by Allan Yi Ding, Aug 2018, with the help of Grace Ramswick and Paul Harrison.

Go to Wiki Documentation
Enhet: Det humanistiske fakultet   Utviklet av: IT-seksjonen ved HF